(1915) WWI’s Second Battle of Ypres shocks with chemical weapon useA battle to secure the Belgian town of Ypres introduces the world to the large-scale use of chemical weapons when the Germans release 168 long tons of chlorine gas on the Allied lines. Wind-borne poison gas kills 6,000 French troops in minutes.During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from 22 April – 25 May 1915 for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn. It was the first mass use by Germany of poison gas on the Western Front. For the first time, a former colonial force defeated a European power on European soil.
Start date: Apr 22, 1915 End date: May 25, 1915
wiki/Second_Battle_of_Ypres(1969) Londoner sails solo nonstop around the worldNine sailors take on the challenge of becoming the first to sail nonstop around the globe single-handedly, but only Robin Knox-Johnston completes the journey. The former sailor in the Royal Naval Reserve steers his 32-foot boat ‘Suhaili’ through the world’s oceans for 10 months.Sir William Robert Patrick “Robin” Knox-Johnston, CBE, RD and bar is an English sailor. In 1969 he became the first man to perform a single-handed non-stop circumnavigation of the globe and was the second winner of the Jules Verne Trophy, together with Sir Peter Blake.
Born: Mar 17, 1939 (age 78) · London, England Movies: Deep Water Education: Berkhamsted School
1965: In 1965 he sailed his William Atkins design ketch Suhaili from Bombay to England.
1967: His wife left him when he proposed taking her and the child back to England in his new boat Suhaili, and they were divorced in 1967.
1994: Knox-Johnston and Peter Blake (who both acted as co-skippers) won the Jules Verne Trophy for the fastest circumnavigation in 1994.
1996: In 1996 Knox-Johnston established the first Clipper Round the World Yacht Race and has since worked with the Clipper Ventures company as chairman to progress the race to higher levels every year.
2006: In 2006 he became at 67 the oldest yachtsman to complete a round the world solo voyage in the Velux 5 Oceans Race.
2007: He completed his second solo circumnavigation of the world in the yacht Saga Insurance on 4 May 2007, finishing in fourth place in the Velux 5 Oceans Race.
wiki/Robin_Knox-Johnston(1970) First Earth DayPeace activist John McConnell, US Senator Gaylord Nelson, and coordinator Denis Hayes create a day to honor and promote protection of the Earth and its ecosystems. Earth Day will gain in popularity, and grow to include observances in more than 192 countries.Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22. Worldwide, various events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day events in more than 193 countries are now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network.
wiki/Earth_Day(2004) Pat Tillman shot in AfghanistanThe former Arizona Cardinal who enlisted in the US Army following the September 11 attacks is killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan. Military officials will initially inform Tillman’s family he died in a firefight with enemy forces.Patrick Daniel Tillman was a professional American football player in the National Football League who left his sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in June 2002 in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. His service in Iraq and Afghanistan, and subsequent death, were the subject of much media attention.
Lived: Nov 06, 1976 – Apr 22, 2004 (age 27) Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Marie Tillman (m. 2002 – 2004) Education: Arizona State University · Leland High School Siblings: Richard Tillman (Brother) · Kevin Tillman (Brother) Movies: The Tillman Story
1994: He started his college career as a linebacker for Arizona State University in 1994, when he secured the last remaining scholarship for the team.
1998: In the 1998 National Football League Draft, Tillman was selected as the 226th pick by the Arizona Cardinals.
2002: Pat Tillman married Marie Tillman on May 04, 2002.
2003: In addition to his military awards, Pat Tillman received the Arthur Ashe Courage Award from ESPN in 2003, as part of that year’s ESPY Awards ceremony.
2003: Another article quotes Tillman as having told then-general manager of the Seattle Seahawks Bob Ferguson in December 2003, “You know I’m not religious.”
2004: On April 22, 2004, he was initially reported to have been killed by enemy combatants.
(753 BCE) Rome is foundedAccording to tradition, orphaned twins Romulus and Remus establish what will become one of the world’s great cities. Legend holds that the twins had been saved from starvation by a she-wolf who’d found them abandoned in a cave on Palatine Hill. This area will eventually become Rome’s center.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths, is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf. This story had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set earlier in time, the one that had the Trojan refugee Aeneas escape to Italy and found the line of Romans through his son Iulus, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
wiki/Founding_of_Rome(1836) Texas wins independence at Battle of San JacintoThe Texas Revolution ends as General Sam Houston and his Texian Army soundly defeat the forces of Mexican General Santa Anna in a surprise attack. The Battle of San Jacinto lasts just 18 minutes, and will lead to the independence of the Republic of Texas.The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna’s Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes.
Date: Apr 21, 1836
wiki/Battle_of_San_Jacinto(1918) Fabled and feared WWI flying ace ‘The Red Baron’ shot downAlthough hit in the chest with a fatal bullet during an aerial dogfight, 25-year-old German fighter pilot Baron Manfred von Richthofen, famed for his unmatched run of 80 combat victories, lands his plane near the French village of Vaux-sur-Somme, and utters “kaputt” before dying in the cockpit.Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen, also widely known as the Red Baron, was a German fighter pilot with the Imperial German Army Air Service during the First World War. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
Born: May 02, 1892 · Wrocław, Poland Died: Apr 21, 1918 · Vaux-sur-Somme, France Siblings: Lothar von Richthofen (Brother) · Ilse von Richthofen (Sister) · Bolko von Richthofen (Brother) Parents: Albrecht Philipp Karl Julius Freiherr von Richthofen (Father) · Kunigunde Hildegard Marie Luise Elisabeth von Schickfus (Mother) Founded: Jagdgeschwader 1
1915: After a chance meeting with the German ace fighter pilot Oswald Boelcke, Richthofen entered training as a pilot in October 1915.
1916: In February 1916 Manfred “rescued” his brother Lothar from the boredom of training new troops in Luben and encouraged him to also transfer to the Fliegertruppe.
1917: He switched to the Albatros D.III in January 1917, scoring two victories before suffering an in-flight crack in the spar of the aircraft’s lower wing on 24 January.
1917: In January 1917, after his 16th confirmed kill, Richthofen received the Pour le Mérite (informally known as “The Blue Max”), the highest military honour in Germany at the time.
1917: He returned to his Albatros D.III on 2 April 1917 and scored 22 victories in it before switching to the Albatros D.V in late June.
1918: Richthofen was shot down and killed near Amiens on 21 April 1918.
wiki/Manfred_von_Richthofen(1977) ‘Annie’ opens on BroadwayThe musical version of the newspaper comic strip finds a home in New York’s Alvin Theatre and goes on to win seven Tony Awards. Andrea McArdle stars in the title role, and will later be replaced by Sarah Jessica Parker, Allison Smith and others during the show’s six-year run.Annie is a Broadway musical based upon the popular Harold Gray comic strip Little Orphan Annie, with music by Charles Strouse, lyrics by Martin Charnin, and book by Thomas Meehan. The original Broadway production opened in 1977 and ran for nearly six years, setting a record for the Alvin Theatre. It spawned numerous productions in many countries, as well as national tours, and won the Tony Award for Best Musical. The musical’s songs “Tomorrow” and “It’s the Hard Knock Life” are among its most popular musical numbers.
Authors: Charles Strouse · Thomas Meehan First performed: Aug 10, 1976 First published: Nov 14, 2013 Adaptations: Annie (1982) · Annie (2014) · Annie (1999)
(1902) Madame and Monsieur Curie isolate radioactive radiumThe married scientific research team of Marie and Pierre Curie chemically isolate one-tenth gram of pure radium chloride, an element not naturally occurring in isolation. Their work with radium and radioactivity will lead to the first Nobel Prize awarded to a woman.Marie Skłodowska Curie, born Maria Salomea Skłodowska, was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
Lived: Nov 07, 1867 – Jul 04, 1934 (age 66) Spouse: Pierre Curie (m. 1895 – 1906) Awards: Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911) · Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) · Elliott Cresson Medal (1909) · Davy Medal (1903) · Matteucci Medal (1904) · Benjamin Franklin Medal (1921) · John Scott Medal Discovered: Radium · Polonium Children: Irène Joliot-Curie (Daughter) · Ève Curie (Daughter)
1867: Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, in the Russian partition of Poland, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest child of well-known teachers Bronisława, née Boguska, and Władysław Skłodowski.
1891: In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work.
1895: Maria Sklodowska-Curie married Pierre Curie on July 26, 1895; their marriage lasted 11 years till April 19, 1906.
1898: She named the first chemical element that she discovered—polonium, which she isolated in 1898—after her native country.
1925: In 1925, she visited Poland, to participate in the ceremony that laid foundations for the Radium Institute in Warsaw.
1934: A few months later, on 4 July 1934, she died at the Sancellemoz sanatorium in Passy, Haute-Savoie, from aplastic anemia believed to have been contracted from her long-term exposure to radiation.
wiki/Marie_CuriePierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”.
Lived: May 15, 1859 – Apr 19, 1906 (age 46) Spouse: Maria Sklodowska-Curie (m. 1895 – 1906) Discovered: Radium · Polonium Awards: Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) · Davy Medal (1903) · Matteucci Medal (1904) Children: Ève Curie (Daughter) · Irène Joliot-Curie (Daughter)
1880: In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques (1856–1941) demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity.
1895: Pierre Curie married Maria Sklodowska-Curie on July 26, 1895.
1903: In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”.
1903: Pierre Curie was awarded Davy Medal in 1903.
1904: Radium written by Pierre Curie was first published in 1904.
1906: Pierre Curie died in a street accident in Paris on 19 April 1906.
wiki/Pierre_Curie(1939) Billie Holiday records landmark civil rights songOne of the first songs to explicitly call out the murderous brutality suffered by African Americans in the Jim Crow South, the painful and poetic ‘Strange Fruit’ is recorded by Billie Holiday. A relatively small jazz label, Commodore, records it after Holiday’s label, Columbia Records, refuses to.“Strange Fruit” is a song performed most famously by Billie Holiday, who first sang and recorded it in 1939. Written by teacher Abel Meeropol as a poem and published in 1937, it protested American racism, particularly the lynching of African Americans. Such lynchings had reached a peak in the South at the turn of the century, but continued there and in other regions of the United States. According to the Tuskegee Institute, 1,953 Americans were murdered by lynching, about three fourths of them black. The lyrics are an extended metaphor linking a tree’s fruit with lynching victims. Meeropol set it to music and, with his wife and the singer Laura Duncan, performed it as a protest song in New York City venues in the late 1930s, including Madison Square Garden.
Album: The Great American Songbook Artist: Billie Holiday Release year: 1939 Duration: 3:17 Genre: Pop music, Easy Listening
wiki/Strange_Fruit(1986) Michael Jordan scores 63 points in playoff gameThough the Boston Celtics win the game, 135-131 in double overtime, Jordan scores nearly half the points for the Chicago Bulls. It’s a performance for the ages from the second-year Bulls star and a sign of things to come for Air Jordan and the Bulls.Michael Jeffrey Jordan, also known by his initials, MJ, is an American retired professional basketball player, businessman, and principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets. Jordan played 15 seasons in the National Basketball Association for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards. His biography on the NBA website states: “By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time.” Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s.
Born: Feb 17, 1963 (age 54) · Brooklyn, NY Height: 6′ 6″ (1.98 m) Net worth: $1.20 billion USD (2017) Spouse: Yvette Prieto (m. 2013) · Juanita Jordan (m. 1989 – 2006) Children: Jeffrey Jordan (Son) · Marcus Jordan (Son) · Jasmine Mickael Jordan (Daughter) · Victoria Jordan (Daughter) · Ysabel Jordan (Daughter) Education: Emsley A Laney High · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1981 – 1984)
1982: He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, which was led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing.
1988: In the 1988–89 season, Jordan again led the league in scoring, averaging 32.5 ppg on 53.8% shooting from the field, along with 8 rpg and 8 assists per game (apg).
1989: Jordan married Juanita Vanoy in September 1989, and they had two sons, Jeffrey Michael and Marcus James, and a daughter, Jasmine.
1992: In the 1992 Summer Olympics, he was a member of the star-studded squad that included Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, and David Robinson and was dubbed the “Dream Team”.
1999: With Phil Jackson’s contract expiring, the pending departures of Scottie Pippen and Dennis Rodman looming, and being in the latter stages of an owner-induced lockout of NBA players, Jordan retired for the second time on January 13, 1999.
2003: Playing in his 14th and final NBA All-Star Game in 2003, Jordan passed Kareem Abdul-Jabbar as the all-time leading scorer in All-Star Game history (a record since broken by Kobe Bryant).
wiki/Michael_Jordan(1999) Columbine High School shooting shocks a nationTwo students enter a Colorado high school armed with semi-automatic handguns, carbine rifles, and explosives, and begin a massacre that leaves 13 people dead and 21 wounded. The incident will be one of the deadliest modern-day mass shootings.The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County in the American state of Colorado. In addition to the shootings, the complex and highly planned attack involved a fire bomb to divert firefighters, propane tanks converted to bombs placed in the cafeteria, 99 explosive devices, and carbombs. The perpetrators, senior students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. They injured 21 additional people, and three more were injured while attempting to escape the school. The pair subsequently committed suicide.
(1775) American Revolutionary War beginsThirteen colonies enter the bloody struggle to break free from the crown, as British troops arrive in Lexington, Massachusetts, intent on seizing the patriots’ weapons and imprisoning its leaders. Shots are exchanged, eight Americans die, and the war for independence is on.The American Revolutionary War, also referred to as the American War of Independence and as the Revolutionary War in the United States, was an armed conflict between Great Britain and those thirteen of its North American colonies which after the onset of the war declared independence as the United States of America.
Start date: Apr 19, 1775 End date: Sep 03, 1783
wiki/American_Revolutionary_War(1897) First running of the Boston MarathonInspired by the revival of the Olympic Games the year before and the invention there of the marathon running race, the Boston Athletic Association puts on its own footrace. Fifteen runners take off from the starting line, and 10 finish the 24.5-mile hilly route in Boston’s first marathon.The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States. It is always held on Patriots’ Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, inspired by the success of the first marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics, the Boston Marathon is the world’s oldest annual marathon and ranks as one of the world’s best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors, and is one of five major events held in the United States through the years of both World Wars.
First occurred: Apr 19, 1897
wiki/Boston_Marathon(1943) Jewish resistance fighters battle in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Hundreds of thousands of Jews have been packed by Nazis inside the Warsaw Ghetto, a 1.3-square-mile sector in Poland’s capital. Thousands have already died of disease and starvation, but today many fight back when Germans attempt to ship off the ghetto’s survivors to concentration camps.The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany’s final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka. The uprising started on 19 April when the Ghetto refused to surrender to the police commander SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop, who then ordered the burning of the Ghetto, block by block, ending on 16 May. A total of 13,000 Jews died, about half of them burnt alive or suffocated. German casualties are not known, but were not more than 300. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II.
Start date: Apr 19, 1943 End date: May 16, 1943
wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising(1995) Oklahoma City bombing destroys federal building, kills 168An enormous blast tears through the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, causing massive damage and casualties. One hundred sixty-eight will die, and upwards of 700 are injured after Timothy McVeigh detonates a homemade truck bomb.
The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Downtown, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995. Carried out by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing destroyed one-third of the building, killed 168 people, and injured more than 680 others. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars, causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations. This was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil until the September 11 attacks six years later, and it still remains as the deadliest domestic terrorism incident in United States history.
Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession. Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested, and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, who was a U.S. militia movement sympathizer and a veteran in the Gulf War, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted in the bomb preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and angry about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco Siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.
The official investigation, known as “OKBOMB”, saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3.2 tonnes) of evidence, and collect nearly one billion pieces of information. The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.
As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States, as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Annual remembrance services are held at the same time of day as the explosion occurred.
(1775) Paul Revere starts his ‘midnight ride’ of warningMassachusetts silversmith Paul Revere saddles up and heads off into the night to alert his fellow colonial militia members of the British force’s imminent arrival and their intent to commandeer the American’s arms as well as to arrest patriots Samuel Adams and John Hancock.Paul Revere was an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and a Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for alerting the colonial militia to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem, “Paul Revere’s Ride”.
Born: Jan 01, 1735 · North End, MA Died: May 10, 1818 · Boston, MA Spouse: Rachel Walker (m. 1773 – 1813) · Sarah Orne (m. 1757 – 1773) Children: Joseph Warren Revere (Son) · Harriet Revere (Daughter) · Joshua Revere (Son) · Mary Revere (Daughter) · Isanna Revere (Daughter) · Paul Revere Jr. (Son) · John Revere (Son) · Lucy Revere (Daughter) Parents: Apollos Rivoire (Father) · Deborah Hitchborn (Mother)
1757: On August 4, 1757, he married Sarah Orne (1736–1773); their first child was born eight months later.
1775: When British Army activity on April 7, 1775 suggested the possibility of troop movements, Joseph Warren sent Revere to warn the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, then sitting in Concord, the site of one of the larger caches of Patriot military supplies.
1792: Beginning in 1792 he became one of America’s best-known bell casters, working with sons Paul Jr. and Joseph Warren Revere in the firm Paul Revere & Sons.
1800: Finally in 1800 he became the first American to successfully roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels.
1801: The copper works founded in 1801 continues today as the Revere Copper Company, with manufacturing divisions in Rome, New York and New Bedford, Massachusetts.
1818: Revere died on May 10, 1818, at the age of 83, at his home on Charter Street in Boston.
wiki/Paul_Revere(1906) San Francisco leveled by colossal earthquake and firesAt 5:12 AM an extremely powerful earthquake, later estimated at 7.8 magnitude, convulses the bustling metropolis of San Francisco, California. The quake and resulting fires will destroy 80 percent of the city, kill 3,000, and leave upwards of 300,000 homeless.The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed. The events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California’s history and high in the lists of American urban disasters.
Fatalities: 3,000 Date: Apr 18, 1906
wiki/1906_San_Francisco_earthquake(1949) Republic of Ireland officially sheds ties to the UKFive-sixths of Ireland is no longer part of the United Kingdom’s Commonwealth, as the Republic of Ireland Act takes effect. While peace comes to the Republic, ‘The Troubles’ in Northern Ireland will continue into the second half of the 20th century.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas (parliament) which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland. The Act was signed into law on 21 December 1948 and came into force on 18 April 1949, Easter Monday, the 33rd anniversary of the beginning of the Easter Rising.
The Act ended the remaining statutory role of the British monarchy in relation to the state, by repealing the 1936 External Relations Act, which had vested in George VI and his successors those functions which the Act now transferred to the President.
wiki/Republic_of_Ireland_Act_1948(1956) Grace Kelly becomes a princessThe movie star marries Prince Rainier III of Monaco in a civil ceremony, effectively ending her acting career. The formal church ceremony will happen the next day, watched by millions on live TV. Prince Rainier III and the Princess consort will remain married until her death in 1982.
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III, in April 1956. After embarking on an acting career in 1950, at age 20, Kelly appeared in New York City theatrical productions and more than 40 episodes of live drama productions broadcast during the early 1950s Golden Age of Television. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in the film Mogambo, which won her a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination in 1954. Subsequently, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Other films include High Noon with Gary Cooper, Dial M for Murder with Ray Milland, Rear Window with James Stewart, To Catch a Thief with Cary Grant, and High Society with Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby.
Lived: Nov 12, 1929 – Sep 14, 1982 (age 52) Height: 5′ 7″ (1.69 m) Spouse: Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (m. 1956 – 1982) Children: Princess Stéphanie of Monaco (Daughter) · Caroline, Princess of Hanover (Daughter) · Albert II, Prince of Monaco (Son) Awards: Academy Award for Best Actress (1955) · Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture (1954) · Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama (1955) · National Board of Review Award for Best Actress
Rainier III ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs in European history. Though internationally known for his marriage to the American actress Grace Kelly, he was also responsible for reforms to Monaco’s constitution and for expanding the principality’s economy beyond its traditional casino gambling base. Gambling accounts for only approximately three percent of the nation’s annual revenue today; when Rainier ascended the throne in 1949, it accounted for more than 95 percent.
Lived: May 31, 1923 – Apr 06, 2005 (age 81) Spouse: Grace Kelly (m. 1956 – 1982) Children: Princess Stéphanie of Monaco (Daughter) · Albert II, Prince of Monaco (Son) · Caroline, Princess of Hanover (Daughter) Siblings: Princess Antoinette, Baroness of Massy (Sister) Parents: Prince Pierre, Duke of Valentinois (Father) · Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois (Mother)
1944: In 1944, upon his 21st birthday, Rainier’s mother renounced her right to the Monegasque throne and Rainier became Prince Louis’s direct heir.
1944: In World War II Rainier joined the Free French Army in September 1944, and serving under General de Monsabert as a second lieutenant, and seeing action during the German counter-offensive in Alsace.
1949: Rainier became the Sovereign Prince of Monaco on the death of Louis II on 9 May 1949.
1950: Rainier established a postal museum in 1950: the Museum of Stamps and Coins, in Monaco’s Fontvieille district by using the collections of the Monegasque princes Albert I and Louis II.
1956: Rainier III, Prince of Monaco married Grace Kelly on April 18, 1956; their marriage lasted 26 years till September 14, 1982.
1962: As Prince of Monaco, Rainier was also responsible for the principality’s new constitution in 1962 which significantly reduced the power of the sovereign.