(421) Venice, Italy founded at the stroke of noonLegend has it that the northern Italian city of Venice is created precisely at 12 noon with the dedication of its first church, San Giocomo, on the islet of Rialto. Venice will eventually spread across 117 small islands.Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 117 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges. These are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.
Website: www.comune.venezia.it Population: 264,579 (2014) Area: 160.07 sq miles (414.57 km²) Travel tip: Stunning architecture. Mysterious passageways. And of course, the canals. Venice is one of the most alluring cities in the world—the type of place where, as a visitor, you’ll @tripadvisor Mayor: Luigi Brugnaro
wiki/Venice(1807) British Empire ends its slave tradeChampioned by religious groups and slavery abolitionist William Wilberforce, the Slave Trade Act becomes law in Great Britain and its colonies, ending the trading of slaves throughout the empire. It will be another 26 years before slavery itself will be abolished in the United Kingdom.The Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade”. The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself. Many of the Bill’s supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery, but it was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett’s Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. wiki/Slave_Trade_Act_1807(1911) Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire kills 146A Manhattan garment sweatshop is the scene of a horrific, and avoidable, tragedy as crowded conditions and an almost total lack of safety measures lead to the deaths of 146 workers after a fire breaks out. Legislation requiring factory safety standards will follow, as will sweatshop workers unions.The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in US history. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers – 123 women and 23 men – who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths. Most of the victims were recent Jewish and Italian immigrant women aged 16 to 23; of the victims whose ages are known, the oldest victim was Providenza Panno at 43, and the youngest were 14-year-olds Kate Leone and “Sara” Rosaria Maltese.
Date: Mar 25, 1911 Fatalities: 146
wiki/Triangle_Shirtwaist_Factory_fire(1957) US Customs Office seizes ‘Howl’As 520 copies of Allen Ginsberg’s poem ‘Howl’ arrive in the US from a London publisher, customs officials seize the books on charges of obscenity. Ginsberg and his publisher, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, will fight those charges and win, the trial a publicity bonanza for ‘Howl’ and the cause of free speech.“Howl” is a poem written by Allen Ginsberg in 1955, published as part of his 1956 collection of poetry titled Howl and Other Poems, and dedicated to Carl Solomon. Ginsberg began work on “Howl” as early as 1954. In the Paul Blackburn Tape Archive at the University of California, San Diego, Ginsberg can be heard reading early drafts of his poem to his fellow writing associates. “Howl” is considered to be one of the great works of American literature. It came to be associated with the group of writers known as the Beat Generation.
Author: Allen Ginsberg Written: 1955 Movements: Beat Generation Original language: English
(1603) Fall of the Tudor dynastyElizabeth I, queen of England for 45 years, dies without leaving an heir. She’d been the fifth monarch of the House of Tudor, which for over a century had extended its power beyond England to Wales and Ireland. Elizabeth had never named a successor, but James VI will assume the crown later this very day.The House of Tudor was a royal house of Welsh and English origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland from 1485 until 1603, with five monarchs in that period. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantaganet as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and were succeeded by the House of Stuart. The first monarch, Henry VII, descended through his mother from a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extinct. wiki/House_of_Tudor(1882) A breakthrough in fighting tuberculosisOnce thought to be an inherited disease, the scourge of tuberculosis is revealed by German microbiologist Robert Koch to be borne by infectious bacterium. Although TB has been responsible for as many as one in seven deaths in the 19th century, immunizations won’t be tried on humans until the 1920s.Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease. In addition to his innovative studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health. His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the “gold standard” in medical microbiology. As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905. wiki/Robert_Koch(1944) ‘The Great Escape’ begins at Stalag Luft IIIThe moonless night providing a modicum of cover, Allied POWs crawl through a tunnel dug under their hut in Stalag Luft III camp. Seventy-six will make it beyond the perimeter fence and into the German woodlands. The escape will be depicted in the films The Great Escape (1963) and The Wooden Horse (1950).Stalag Luft III was a Luftwaffe-run prisoner-of-war camp during World War II that housed captured air force servicemen. It was in the German province of Lower Silesia near the town of Sagan, 160 kilometres southeast of Berlin. The site was selected because it would be difficult to escape by tunnelling through sandy soil. wiki/Stalag_Luft_III(1989) Oil tanker spill in AlaskaJust past midnight, the Exxon Valdez tanker strikes a reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The resulting spill of up to 38 million gallons of crude oil is the largest in US history and will devastate 11,000 square miles of pristine wilderness.The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil over the next few days. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters. The Valdez spill is the second largest in US waters, after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released. Prince William Sound’s remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane, or boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay oil field, eventually covered 1,300 miles of coastline, and 11,000 square miles of ocean.
(1775) Patrick Henry makes a fiery bid for freedomAmerican lawyer Patrick Henry serves up rousing rhetoric at the House of Burgesses in Richmond, Virginia, as he makes his case for supporting military action against the British. Henry’s words “give me liberty or give me death” will resonate through the centuries.“Give me liberty, or give me death!” is a quotation attributed to Patrick Henry from a speech he made to the Second Virginia Convention on March 23, 1775, at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia. He is credited with having swung the balance in convincing the convention to pass a resolution delivering Virginian troops for the Revolutionary War. Among the delegates to the convention were future U.S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington. wiki/Give_me_liberty,_or_give_me_death!(1806) American explorers Lewis & Clark head for homeHaving reached the Pacific Ocean the previous November, the expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark departs Fort Clatsop, in the Oregon Country near the mouth of the Columbia River, to begin the formidable journey back to St. Louis, where they began two years earlier.The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States. It began near St. Louis, made its way westward, and passed through the continental divide to reach the Pacific coast. It comprised a selected group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend, Second Lieutenant William Clark.
Start date: May 14, 1804 End date: Sep 23, 1806
wiki/Lewis_and_Clark_Expedition(1919) Mussolini establishes the Italian fascist movement Breaking with socialism, WWI vet Benito Mussolini merges two organizations to found his own nationalist ideological movement, the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, which will become the National Fascist Party. Now known as “Il Duce” (the leader), he will go on to align with Hitler as an Axis power in World War II.
Italian Fascism (Italian: Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Italian: Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with the Fascist Revolutionary Party (PFR), founded in 1915, and the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) in 1921, which under Benito Mussolini ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943, the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945, the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.
Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy, and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale (“living space”) for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.
Italian Fascism promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation’s economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.
Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, especially “classical liberalism” that Mussolini and Fascist leaders denounced as “the debacle of individualism”, but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world, which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction. It was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernised Italy.
wiki/Italian_Fascism(1983) Reagan proposes ‘Star Wars’ missile defense US President Ronald Reagan lays out plans for defensive orbiting lasers capable of intercepting and destroying incoming nuclear weapons. Derided by opponents as ‘Star Wars,’ the Strategic Defense Initiative will cost the US $30 billion, but it will never be fully developed or deployed.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles). The system, which was to combine ground-based units and orbital deployment platforms, was first publicly announced by President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Reagan was a vocal critic of MAD doctrine. SDI was an important part of his defense policy intended to end MAD as a nuclear deterrence strategy, as well as a strategic initiative to neutralize the military component of the Soviet Union’s nuclear defenses.
The ambitious initiative was criticized for allegedly threatening to destabilize the MAD-approach and to possibly re-ignite “an offensive arms race”. SDI was nicknamed largely in the mainstream media as “Star Wars”, after the popular 1977 film by George Lucas. In 1987, the American Physical Society concluded that a global shield such as “Star Wars” was extremely ambitious and with existing technology not directly feasible for operational status, and that about ten more years of research was needed to learn about such a comprehensive and complex system to set up and make it fully operational.
Under the SDIO’s Innovative Sciences and Technology Office, headed by physicist and engineer Dr. James Ionson, the investment was predominantly made in basic research at national laboratories, universities, and in industry; these programs have continued to be key sources of funding for top research scientists in the fields of high-energy physics, supercomputing/computation, advanced materials, and many other critical science and engineering disciplines—funding which indirectly supports other research work by top scientists, and which was most politically viable to fund within the budget environment.
Laser research funded by the SDI office was disclosed at laser conferences that also included panel discussions on the subject with the participation of James Ionson, Edward Teller, and other prominent advocates of SDI.
During the administration of President Bill Clinton in 1993, the SDIO’s name was changed to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and its focus shifted from national missile defense to theater missile defense; and its scope from global to more regional coverage. It was never truly developed or deployed, though certain aspects of SDI research and technologies paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today. BMDO was renamed to the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. This article covers defense efforts under the SDIO.
Today, the United States holds a significant advantage in the field of comprehensive advanced missile defense systems through years of extensive research and testing. The US and the UK also have both laser weapons and 360 degree laser shields in development, which are expected to be ready for military use as early as 2020. Many of the obtained technological insights were transferred to subsequent programs and would find use in follow-up programs.
(1739) India’s ‘Peacock Throne’ stolen from DelhiSaid to cost more than the Taj Mahal, the Mughal emperor’s Peacock Throne is stolen by invading Persian forces. Incalculably valuable and made of solid gold, precious gemstones, and rare pearls, it will be lost ever since.The Peacock Throne was a famous jeweled throne that was the seat of the Mughal emperors of India. It was commissioned in the early 17th century by emperor Shah Jahan and was located in the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audiences) in the Red Fort of Delhi. The original throne was subsequently captured and taken as a war trophy in 1739 by the Persian king Nadir Shah, and has been lost ever since. A replacement throne based on the original was commissioned afterwards and existed until the Indian war of Independence in 1857. wiki/Peacock_Throne(1895) First screening of a projected movieCinema is born in Paris, as 200 invited guests watch ‘Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory,’ a one-minute film made by Auguste and Louis Lumière with their new creation, the cinematograph film camera. The film, probably the first real motion picture ever made, is shown together with several short clips, one of which startles the audience with the image of an oncoming train.A man opens the big gates to the Lumière factory. Through the gateway and a smaller doorway beside it, workers are streaming out, turning either left or right. Most of them are women in long dresses and big hats, but some are men. Suddenly a man with a long apron rushes out through the crowd, followed by a big dog. At last some men on bikes leave the gateway. When all workers have left the factory, the doorkeeper starts closing the gates again.
Release date: Mar 22, 1895 (France) Director: Louis Lumière
wiki/Workers_Leaving_the_Lumière_Factory(1960) The laser is patentedPhysicists Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes of Bell Labs are awarded a patent for the laser, or “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” Some experts will contend that physicist grad student Gordon Gould should’ve received the patent.A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances, enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum, i.e., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond.
Inventors: Charles H. Townes · Theodore Maiman · Gordon Gould · Alexander Prokhorov · Nikolay Basov May treat: Acne · Sebaceous cyst
wiki/Laser(1972) US Congress passes the Equal Rights Amendment Introduced to Congress in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), a proposed constitutional guarantee of women’s rights, passes and is sent to the states for ratification. Final ratification will fall short of the threshold needed by three states and the amendment will eventually die.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. In 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. The ERA has always been highly controversial regarding the meaning of equality for women. It was “feminist against feminist”, said historian Judith Sealander; the result was the eventual defeat of the ERA. Middle-class women generally were supportive. Those speaking for the working class were strongly opposed, arguing that employed women needed special protections regarding working conditions and hours. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. It seemed headed for quick approval until Phyllis Schlafly mobilized conservative women in opposition, arguing that the ERA would disadvantage housewives.
Congress had set a ratification deadline of March 22, 1979. Through 1977, the amendment received 35 of the necessary 38 state ratifications. Five states rescinded their ratifications before the 1979 deadline. In 1978, a joint resolution of Congress extended the ratification deadline to June 30, 1982, but no further states ratified the amendment and so it did not become part of the Constitution. Several organizations continue to work for the adoption of the ERA.
(630) True Cross relic returns to Jerusalem Having defeated the Sassanid Emperor, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius regains a fragment of the cross Jesus Christ was said to have been crucified on. Heraclius today returns the sacred relic to JerusalemThe True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Catholic Church tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. According to post-Nicene historians such as Socrates Scholasticus, the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, the first Christian Emperor of Rome, travelled to the Holy Land in 326–28, founding churches and establishing relief agencies for the poor. Historians Gelasius of Caesarea and Rufinus claimed that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses that were believed to be used at the crucifixion of Jesus and of two thieves, St. Dismas and Gestas, executed with him, and that a miracle revealed which of the three was the True Cross. wiki/True_Cross(1952) First rock and roll concertDJ Alan Freed’s Moondog Coronation Ball, in Cleveland, Ohio, notably features racially mixed performers and fans. Considered history’s first big rock concert, some 20,000 screaming teens try to crowd into a venue that can hold just half that number. Police will halt the show after just one song is performed.The Moondog Coronation Ball was a concert held at the Cleveland Arena in Cleveland, Ohio on March 21, 1952. It is generally accepted as the first major rock and roll concert. Alan Freed had joined WJW-Radio in 1951 as the host of a classical-music program, but he took up a different kind of music at the suggestion of Cleveland record-store owner Leo Mintz, who had noted with great interest the growing popularity, among young customers of all races, of rhythm-and-blues records by black musicians. Mintz decided to sponsor Freed’s three hours of late-night programming. Once they saw the popularity of the program increase, they decided on holding a live dance event featuring some of the artists whose records were appearing on Freed’s show. wiki/Moondog_Coronation_Ball(1963) Alcatraz Prison opens its cells and shuts its doorsIts final inmates transferred off ‘The Rock,’ America’s most notorious prison closes after nearly three decades. It will morph from one of the country’s most feared locales to one of California’s biggest tourist attractions.The Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary or United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz Island was a maximum high-security federal prison on Alcatraz Island, 1.25 miles off the coast of San Francisco, California, which operated from 1934 to 1963.
Address: Alcatraz Island Golden Gate National Recreation Area B201 Fort Mason, San Francisco, CA 94123 Phone: (415) 561-4900 Opened: Aug 11, 1934 Closed: Mar 21, 1963
wiki/Alcatraz_Federal_Penitentiary(1980) Carter announces Moscow Olympics boycott Protesting the USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan, US President Jimmy Carter declares that the US won’t be participating in the upcoming Moscow Summer Olympics. In the end, 65 nations won’t participate in the games, but some will do so for economic, rather than political reasons. The USSR will respond in kind, snubbing the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Games.The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union, which hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics, and other countries would later boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. wiki/1980_Summer_Olympics_boycott3.3.f17