The British lost their Thirteen Colonies and the defeat marked the end of the First British Empire. The United States gained more than it expected, thanks to the award of western territory. The other Allies had mixed-to-poor results. France got its revenge over Britain after its defeat in the Seven Years’ War, but its material gains were minor (Tobago, Senegal and small territories in India) and its financial losses huge. It was already in financial trouble and its borrowing to pay for the war used up all its credit and created the financial disasters that marked the 1780s. Historians link those disasters to the coming of the French Revolution. The Dutch did not gain anything of significant value at the end of the war. The Spanish had a mixed result; they regained Menorca and Florida, but Gibraltar remained in British hands; in the long run, the Florida territory was of little or no value.
Map of North America after the peace
Also on this day,
1872 | Scotland vs. England as first official international soccer match played in Scotland
About 4,000 spectators watch as the Scottish and English national teams play in the town of Patrick, near Glasgow, Scotland. The match, played on St. Andrew’s Day, ends in a 0-0 draw, though Scotland nearly scores when it hits the ‘crossbar’—a piece of tape attached to the goalposts.1982 | Michael Jackson’s album ‘Thriller’ is released worldwide
The former Jackson 5 singer releases what will be the best-selling album of all time, ‘Thriller.’ Of the album’s nine tracks, seven will reach the top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 list. ‘Thriller’ will be among the first albums to use music videos as a marketing tool.1993 | US President Bill Clinton signs Brady Bill into law
The Brady Bill imposes a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases and federal background checks on buyers. The act is named for James Brady, who was shot and critically injured in a 1981 assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan by an assailant who was later ruled insane.
The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Pub.L. 103–159, 107 Stat. 1536, enacted November 30, 1993), often referred to as the Brady Act or the Brady Bill, is an Act of the United States Congress that mandated federal background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States, and imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998.
The original legislation was introduced into the House of Representatives by Representative Charles E. Schumer in March 1991, but was never brought to a vote. The bill was reintroduced by Rep. Schumer on February 22, 1993 and the final version was passed on November 11, 1993. It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993 and the law went into effect on February 28, 1994. The Act was named after James Brady, who was shot by John Hinckley Jr. during an attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981.