Start date: 431 BC
End date: 404 BC
Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, is the day Soviet and American troops met at the Elbe River, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe. This contact between the Soviets, advancing from the East, and the Americans, advancing from the West, meant that the two powers had effectively cut Germany in two.
Elbe Day has never been an official holiday in any country, but in the years after 1945 the memory of this friendly encounter gained new significance in the context of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
The first contact between American and Soviet patrols occurred near Strehla, after First Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue, an American soldier, crossed the River Elbe in a boat with three men of an intelligence and reconnaissance platoon. On the east bank they met forward elements of a Soviet Guards rifle regiment of the First Ukrainian Front, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Gardiev. The same day, another patrol under Second Lieutenant William Robertson with Frank Huff, James McDonnell and Paul Staub met a Soviet patrol commanded by Lieutenant Alexander Silvashko on the destroyed Elbe bridge of Torgau.
On April 26, the commanders of the 69th Infantry Division of the First Army and the 58th Guards Rifle Division of the 5th Guards Army (Soviet Union) met at Torgau, southwest of Berlin. Arrangements were made for the formal “Handshake of Torgau” between Robertson and Silvashko in front of photographers the following day, April 27.
The Soviet, American, and British governments released simultaneous statements that evening in London, Moscow, and Washington, reaffirming the determination of the three Allied powers to complete the destruction of the Third Reich.
Born: Sep 29, 1926 · Pittsburgh, PA
Died: Feb 05, 1984 · Pittsburgh, PA
Height: 6′ 5″ (1.96 m)
Education: Duquesne University · West Virginia State University · Westinghouse High School
- 1944: He attended Pittsburgh’s Westinghouse High School and graduated in 1944.
- 1950: He and two others, Nat “Sweetwater” Clifton and Earl Lloyd, became the first African-American players in the NBA in 1950.
- 1950: Coming out of college in 1950, he signed onto the Harlem Globetrotters.
- 1950: On April 25, 1950, he became the first African American drafted into the NBA when the Boston Celtics chose him with the 14th overall pick.
- 1950: He made his NBA debut on November 1, 1950, against the Fort Wayne Pistons.
- 1984: He also helped the Pittsburgh’s National Bank’s affirmative action program as an urban affairs officer until he died at the age of 57 on February 5, 1984, of liver cancer at Forbes Hospice.
Lived: Dec 12, 1927 – Jun 03, 1990 (age 62)
Spouse: Ann Schmeltz Bowers (m. 1974 – 1990) · Elizabeth Noyce (m. 1953 – 1974)
Founded: Intel · Semiconductor Industry Association
Inventions: Integrated circuit
Education: Grinnell College · Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Awards: National Medal of Technology and Innovation (1987) · Charles Stark Draper Prize (1989) · IEEE Medal of Honor (1978) · John Fritz Medal (1989) · Faraday Medal (1979) · National Medal of Science for Engineering (1979)Highlights
- 1945: He graduated from Grinnell High School in 1945 and entered Grinnell College in the fall of that year.
- 1959: In July 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent 2,981,877 “Semiconductor Device and Lead Structure”, a type of integrated circuit.
- 1968: Noyce and Gordon Moore founded Intel in 1968 when they left Fairchild Semiconductor.
- 1974: On November 27, 1974, Noyce married Ann Schmeltz Bowers.
- 1978: He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1978 “for his contributions to the silicon integrated circuit, a cornerstone of modern electronics.”
- 1990: Noyce suffered a heart attack at age 62 at home on June 3, 1990, and later died at the Seton Medical Center in Austin, Texas.