(1603) Fall of the Tudor dynastyElizabeth I, queen of England for 45 years, dies without leaving an heir. She’d been the fifth monarch of the House of Tudor, which for over a century had extended its power beyond England to Wales and Ireland. Elizabeth had never named a successor, but James VI will assume the crown later this very day.The House of Tudor was a royal house of Welsh and English origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd. Tudor monarchs ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including their ancestral Wales and the Lordship of Ireland from 1485 until 1603, with five monarchs in that period. The Tudors succeeded the House of Plantaganet as rulers of the Kingdom of England, and were succeeded by the House of Stuart. The first monarch, Henry VII, descended through his mother from a legitimised branch of the English royal House of Lancaster. The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses, which left the House of Lancaster, to which the Tudors were aligned, extinct. wiki/House_of_Tudor(1882) A breakthrough in fighting tuberculosisOnce thought to be an inherited disease, the scourge of tuberculosis is revealed by German microbiologist Robert Koch to be borne by infectious bacterium. Although TB has been responsible for as many as one in seven deaths in the 19th century, immunizations won’t be tried on humans until the 1920s.Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch; 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a celebrated German physician and pioneering microbiologist. As the founder of modern bacteriology, he is known for his role in identifying the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and for giving experimental support for the concept of infectious disease. In addition to his innovative studies on these diseases, Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health. His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the “gold standard” in medical microbiology. As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905. wiki/Robert_Koch(1944) ‘The Great Escape’ begins at Stalag Luft IIIThe moonless night providing a modicum of cover, Allied POWs crawl through a tunnel dug under their hut in Stalag Luft III camp. Seventy-six will make it beyond the perimeter fence and into the German woodlands. The escape will be depicted in the films The Great Escape (1963) and The Wooden Horse (1950).Stalag Luft III was a Luftwaffe-run prisoner-of-war camp during World War II that housed captured air force servicemen. It was in the German province of Lower Silesia near the town of Sagan, 160 kilometres southeast of Berlin. The site was selected because it would be difficult to escape by tunnelling through sandy soil. wiki/Stalag_Luft_III(1989) Oil tanker spill in AlaskaJust past midnight, the Exxon Valdez tanker strikes a reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The resulting spill of up to 38 million gallons of crude oil is the largest in US history and will devastate 11,000 square miles of pristine wilderness.The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil over the next few days. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters. The Valdez spill is the second largest in US waters, after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released. Prince William Sound’s remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane, or boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay oil field, eventually covered 1,300 miles of coastline, and 11,000 square miles of ocean.