(1865) American Civil War’s last campaign beginsGeneral Ulysses S. Grant sends 12,000 Union troops to outflank Robert E. Lee’s Confederate forces and block their possible withdrawal from Petersburg, Virginia. A series of Union victories will follow and Lee will surrender his army 10 days later at Appomattox.The Appomattox Campaign was a series of American Civil War battles fought March 29 – April 9, 1865 in Virginia that concluded with the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia to the Union Army under the overall command of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant. In the following eleven weeks after Lee’s surrender, the American Civil War ended as other Confederate armies surrendered and Confederate government leaders were captured or fled the country.
Start date: Mar 29, 1865 End date: Apr 09, 1865
wiki/Appomattox_Campaign(1951) New York City’s ‘Mad Bomber’ strikes againGrand Central Station commuters witness the explosion of a homemade bomb. Authorities will later tie this terrorism to the so-called Mad Bomber after five more explosives are detonated throughout the city in the coming months.George Peter Metesky, better known as the Mad Bomber, terrorized New York City for 16 years in the 1940s and 1950s with explosives that he planted in theaters, terminals, libraries, and offices. Bombs were left in phone booths, storage lockers, and restrooms in public buildings, including Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Radio City Music Hall, the New York Public Library, the Port Authority Bus Terminal and the RCA Building, and in the New York City Subway. Metesky also bombed movie theaters, where he cut into seat upholstery and slipped his explosive devices inside.
Born: Nov 02, 1903 · Connecticut, United States Died: May 23, 1994 · Waterbury, CT
1040: He planted his first bomb on November 16, 1940, leaving it on a window sill at the Consolidated Edison power plant at 170 West 64th Street in Manhattan.
1951: His first two bombs drew little attention, but the string of random bombings that began in 1951 frayed the city’s nerves and taxed the resources of the New York City Police Department (NYPD).
1957: Accompanied by Waterbury police, four NYPD detectives arrived at Metesky’s home with a search warrant shortly before midnight on Monday, January 21, 1957.
1957: On April 18, 1957, Judge Liebowitz committed Metesky to the Matteawan Hospital for the Criminally Insane at Beacon, New York.
1973: In 1973, the United States Supreme Court ruled that a mentally ill defendant cannot be committed to a hospital operated by the New York State Department of Correctional Services unless a jury finds him dangerous.
1994: George Metesky died on May 23, 1994 in Waterbury, United States.
wiki/George_Metesky(1973) US forces withdraw from VietnamAfter almost a decade of combat, with more than 50,000 Americans dead and over 300,000 wounded, the last US fighting forces leave South Vietnam in agreement with the Paris Peace Accords. The war itself will continue for another two years, until the Fall of Saigon.The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is therefore considered a Cold War-era proxy war.
Start date: Nov 01, 1955 End date: Apr 30, 1975
wiki/Vietnam_War(1974) Farmers uncover ancient ‘Terracotta Army’While digging a well in China’s Shaanxi province, farmers discover the burial site of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China, from 210–209 BCE. Excavators will discover an estimated 8,000 life-size clay soldiers, and hundreds of horses and chariots, meant for protection in the afterlife.The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife. wiki/Terracotta_Army3.3.f17
(193) Pertinax is assassinated in Imperial Rome power-grabEmperor Commodus’ murder on New Year’s Eve 192 had set off ‘the year of five emperors,’ an epic struggle for Roman rule that escalates when Commodus’ successor, Emperor Pertinax, is killed by his own Pretorian Guard after just three months as caesar.The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. The five were Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war where multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. wiki/Year_of_the_Five_Emperors(845) Vikings sack ParisThe Frankish Empire is no match for a plundering hoard of Viking warriors, headed, tradition holds, by the legendary Danish chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok. The invaders will be paid a literal king’s ransom to leave Paris.The Siege of Paris and the Sack of Paris of 845 was the culmination of a Viking invasion of the kingdom of the West Franks. The Viking forces were led by a Norse chieftain named “Reginherus”, or Ragnar, who traditionally has been identified with the legendary saga character Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar’s fleet of 120 Viking ships, carrying thousands of men, entered the Seine in March and proceeded to sail up the river. The West Frankish king Charles the Bald assembled a smaller army in response, but as the Vikings defeated one division, comprising half of the army, the remaining forces retreated. The Vikings reached Paris at the end of the month, during Easter. After plundering and occupying the city, the Vikings finally withdrew after receiving a ransom payment of 7,000 French livres of silver and gold from Charles the Bald. wiki/Siege_of_Paris_(845)(1776) First Europeans settle in San Francisco With 247 colonists in tow, Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza founds a fort, or ‘presidio,’ on a wide bay in northern California. The modest outpost will grow into one of the biggest cities in North America.San Francisco officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations. Located at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula, San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area, making it the smallest county—and the only consolidated city-county—within the state of California. With a density of about 18,451 people per square mile, San Francisco is the most densely settled large city in California and the second-most densely populated major city in the United States after New York City. San Francisco is the fourth-most populous city in California, after Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Jose, and the 13th-most populous city in the United States—with a census-estimated 2015 population of 864,816. The city and its surrounding areas are known as the San Francisco Bay Area, and are a part of the larger OMB-designated San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland combined statistical area, the fifth most populous in the nation with an estimated population of 8.7 million.
Website: www.sfgov.org Population: 864,816 (2015) Area: 231.89 sq miles (600.59 km²) Travel tip: Who cares about a little fog (okay, a lot of fog) when there’s so much to do in San Francisco? By day, explore Fisherman’s Wharf and the Aquarium of the Bay, ride a cable car, @tripadvisor Nearby airports: San Francisco International Airport · Oakland International Airport Mayor: Ed Lee
wiki/San_Francisco(1979) Three Mile Island plant suffers a partial meltdown Fears of radioactive contamination run rampant after a coolant leak causes a reactor at Pennsylvania’s Three Mile Island to overheat. The power plant, just 10 miles from the state capital, is stabilized before complete meltdown. The accident will swell anti-nuclear sentiment in the public.The Three Mile Island accident was a partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. It was the most significant accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. The incident was rated a five on the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale: Accident With Wider Consequences.
(1871) Rugby’s first international match is playedEngland and Scotland scrum at Edinburgh’s Raeburn Place in the debut rugby football game between two countries. The rough and tumble match is won by Scotland, but England will beat the Scots the next year.The 1871 rugby union match between Scotland and England was a single international rugby union match played between the Scotland and England national rugby union teams on 27 March 1871. This was the world’s very first international rugby union match, and was played at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh in front of 4,000 spectators. The match was won by Scotland which scored two tries and a goal to England’s single try.
Date: Mar 27, 1871
wiki/1871_Scotland_versus_England_rugby_union_match(1915) ‘Typhoid Mary’ is quarantined for lifeIrish immigrant Mary Mallon is isolated on North Brother Island in New York’s East River. As an asymptomatic typhus carrier she is believed to have unwittingly infected 51 people and killed three in her role as a family cook. She will spend nearly three decades in isolation before dying of pneumonia.Mary Mallon, better known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the pathogen associated with typhoid fever. She was presumed to have infected 22 people, three of whom died, over the course of her career as a cook. She was twice forcibly isolated by public health authorities and died after a total of nearly three decades in isolation.
Born: Sep 23, 1869 · Cookstown, United Kingdom Died: Nov 11, 1938 · North and South Brother Islands, New York City, NY Buried: Saint Raymond’s Cemetery
1900: In 1900, she worked in Mamaroneck, New York, where, within two weeks of her employment, residents developed typhoid fever.
1901: In 1901, she moved to Manhattan, where members of the family for whom she worked developed fevers and diarrhea, and the laundress died.
1906: In 1906, she took a position in Oyster Bay, Long Island, and within two weeks 10 of the 11 family members were hospitalized with typhoid.
1915: In 1915, Mallon started another major outbreak, this time at Sloane Hospital for Women in New York City.
1915: After arresting her, public health authorities returned her to quarantine on North Brother Island on March 27, 1915.
1938: On November 11, 1938, she died of pneumonia at age 69.
wiki/Mary_Mallon(1964) Strongest quake in US history slams AlaskaThe afternoon calm of Good Friday is shattered as a massively powerful 9.2 magnitude megathrust earthquake hits 78 miles east of Anchorage, Alaska. Fifteen people are killed by the earthquake itself, but tsunamis triggered by the quake will claim 124 additional victims, some as far away as California.The 1964 Alaskan earthquake, also known as the Great Alaskan earthquake and Good Friday earthquake, occurred at 5:36 P.M. AST on Good Friday, March 27. Across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing structures, and tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 139 deaths.
Date: Mar 27, 1964
wiki/1964_Alaska_earthquake(1977) 583 die on Tenerife airport runwayTwo airliners slam into each other during takeoff in foggy weather on Tenerife, an island off the coast of Spain. Only 61 of the 644 passengers and crew survive the fireball, making this history’s worst aviation disaster.
On March 27, 1977, two Boeing 747 passenger jets collided on the runway at Los Rodeos Airport (now Tenerife North Airport), on the Spanish island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The crash killed 583 people, making it the deadliest accident in aviation history. As a result of the complex interaction of organizational influences, environmental conditions, and unsafe acts leading up to this aircraft mishap, the disaster at Tenerife has served as a textbook example for reviewing the processes and frameworks used in aviation mishap investigations and accident prevention.
A bomb explosion at Gran Canaria Airport, and the threat of a second bomb, caused many aircraft to be diverted to Los Rodeos Airport. Among them were KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736 – the two aircraft involved in the accident. At Los Rodeos Airport, air traffic controllers were forced to park many of the airplanes on the taxiway, thereby blocking it. While authorities waited to reopen Gran Canaria, a dense fog had developed at Tenerife, which greatly reduced visibility and further complicated the situation.
When Gran Canaria reopened, the parked aircraft blocking the taxiway at Tenerife required both of the 747s to taxi on the only runway in order to get in position for takeoff. The fog was so thick that neither aircraft could be seen from the other, and the controller in the tower could not see the runway or the two 747s on it. As the airport did not have ground radar, the controller could only find where each airplane was by voice reports over the radio.
The disaster occurred in Spanish territory, making Spain responsible for investigating the accident. The crash involved aircraft from the United States and the Netherlands, and both of those countries appointed representatives to the investigation. The investigations revealed that the primary cause of the accident was the captain of the KLM flight taking off without clearance from air traffic control (ATC). The investigation specified that the captain did not intentionally take off without clearance; rather he fully believed he had clearance to take off due to misunderstandings between his flight crew and ATC. Dutch investigators placed a greater emphasis on this than their American and Spanish counterparts, but ultimately KLM admitted their crew was responsible for the accident, and the airline financially compensated the victims’ relatives.
The accident had a lasting influence on the industry, particularly in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in ATC communication by controllers and pilots alike, thereby reducing the chance for misunderstandings. As part of these changes, the word “takeoff” was removed from general usage, and is only spoken by ATC when clearing an aircraft to take off or when cancelling that same clearance. Less experienced flight crew members were encouraged to challenge their captains when they believed something was not correct, and captains were instructed to listen to their crew and evaluate all decisions in light of crew concerns. This concept was later expanded into what is known today as crew resource management (CRM), in which training is now mandatory for all airline pilots.
(1351) The Combat of the Thirty tests chivalry’s limits Thirty of the best knights from France, and 30 from England, fight with spears, axes, and daggers over who will rule Brittany. Contemporaries hail it as a shining example of chivalry, while historians will see a dark underside.The Combat of the Thirty was an episode in the Breton War of Succession, a war fought to determine who would rule the Duchy of Brittany. It was an arranged fight between picked combatants from both sides of the conflict.
Date: Mar 26, 1351
wiki/Combat_of_the_Thirty(1920) F. Scott Fitzgerald’s first novel is publishedPrinceton dropout, Army vet, and car-roof repairman F. Scott Fitzgerald sees his first novel, ‘This Side of Paradise,’ published. Its popular and critical success will announce the 23-year-old author as the poet of the Jazz Age. He’ll finish just three other novels in his lifetime, including ‘The Great Gatsby.’This Side of Paradise is the debut novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Published in 1920 and taking its title from a line of Rupert Brooke’s poem Tiare Tahiti, the book examines the lives and morality of post–World War I youth. Its protagonist, Amory Blaine, is an attractive Princeton University student who dabbles in literature. The novel explores the theme of love warped by greed and status seeking.
Author: F. Scott Fitzgerald First published: Mar 26, 1920 Number of pages: 305 Characters: Beatrice Blaine · Amory Blaine · Monsignor Darcy · Rosalind Connage · Isabelle Borgé Genre: Novel
wiki/This_Side_of_Paradise(1971) East Pakistan officially becomes BangladeshA Declaration of Independence is issued as East Pakistan formally breaks away from West Pakistan, renaming itself the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. A nine-month war and genocide, especially targeting Bengalis, will follow.Bangladesh, officially the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar. Nepal, Bhutan and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The country’s maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world’s eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the country’s largest port.
Founded: Mar 26, 1971 GDP: $195.08 billion USD (2015) Population: 161 million (2015) Area: 55,598 sq miles (143,998 km²) Calling code: 880 Capital: Dhaka
wiki/Bangladesh(1979) Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty ends 30-year warSeven months after meeting with US President Jimmy Carter for peace talks at Camp David, Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel sign a treaty ending decades of conflict between their two countries.The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-‘Isrā’īlīyah; Hebrew: הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords. The Egypt–Israel treaty was signed by Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, and witnessed by United States president Jimmy Carter. wiki/Egypt–Israel_Peace_Treaty3.3.f17
(421) Venice, Italy founded at the stroke of noonLegend has it that the northern Italian city of Venice is created precisely at 12 noon with the dedication of its first church, San Giocomo, on the islet of Rialto. Venice will eventually spread across 117 small islands.Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 117 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges. These are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site.
Website: www.comune.venezia.it Population: 264,579 (2014) Area: 160.07 sq miles (414.57 km²) Travel tip: Stunning architecture. Mysterious passageways. And of course, the canals. Venice is one of the most alluring cities in the world—the type of place where, as a visitor, you’ll @tripadvisor Mayor: Luigi Brugnaro
wiki/Venice(1807) British Empire ends its slave tradeChampioned by religious groups and slavery abolitionist William Wilberforce, the Slave Trade Act becomes law in Great Britain and its colonies, ending the trading of slaves throughout the empire. It will be another 26 years before slavery itself will be abolished in the United Kingdom.The Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade”. The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself. Many of the Bill’s supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery, but it was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett’s Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. wiki/Slave_Trade_Act_1807(1911) Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire kills 146A Manhattan garment sweatshop is the scene of a horrific, and avoidable, tragedy as crowded conditions and an almost total lack of safety measures lead to the deaths of 146 workers after a fire breaks out. Legislation requiring factory safety standards will follow, as will sweatshop workers unions.The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in US history. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers – 123 women and 23 men – who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths. Most of the victims were recent Jewish and Italian immigrant women aged 16 to 23; of the victims whose ages are known, the oldest victim was Providenza Panno at 43, and the youngest were 14-year-olds Kate Leone and “Sara” Rosaria Maltese.
Date: Mar 25, 1911 Fatalities: 146
wiki/Triangle_Shirtwaist_Factory_fire(1957) US Customs Office seizes ‘Howl’As 520 copies of Allen Ginsberg’s poem ‘Howl’ arrive in the US from a London publisher, customs officials seize the books on charges of obscenity. Ginsberg and his publisher, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, will fight those charges and win, the trial a publicity bonanza for ‘Howl’ and the cause of free speech.“Howl” is a poem written by Allen Ginsberg in 1955, published as part of his 1956 collection of poetry titled Howl and Other Poems, and dedicated to Carl Solomon. Ginsberg began work on “Howl” as early as 1954. In the Paul Blackburn Tape Archive at the University of California, San Diego, Ginsberg can be heard reading early drafts of his poem to his fellow writing associates. “Howl” is considered to be one of the great works of American literature. It came to be associated with the group of writers known as the Beat Generation.
Author: Allen Ginsberg Written: 1955 Movements: Beat Generation Original language: English