When you hear wine experts talk of ‘Burgundies,’ they are referring to wines made in this French region, called Bourgogne locally, and Burgundy in English. The most common varieties are Pinot noir and Chardonnay, but farmers here grow many different types of grapes. September and early October is grape harvest time in France, so the usually quiet rows of grape vines we see in this photo are probably very busy with workers gathering the fruit to be crushed and fermented. We’re thinking about putting together a bread and cheese plate right now…
Address: Zimmer Street 88 · 10117 Berlin
Phone: 030 3087770
Construction started: Aug 13, 1961
Destroyed: Nov 09, 1989
Map of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints.
Also on this day,
1521 | Conquistadors capture capital city of the Aztecs
Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his troops have laid siege to Tenochtitlan for more than two months and now the Aztec empire’s sprawling capital surrenders. European military might, combined with a smallpox epidemic brought by the invading Spaniards, dooms what will become Mexico City.1624 | France’s ‘Red Eminence’ gets a prime royal appointment
French clergyman Armand Jean du Plessis rose through Church ranks with impressive speed, becoming Cardinal Richelieu two years ago, and he’s now appointed King Louis XIII’s chief minister. Richelieu will hold considerable power and dodge some very wily conspiracies launched against him.1918 | US Marines enlist their first female recruit
Her country embroiled in World War I, 39-year-old Opha Johnson is first in line to enlist at the US Marine Corps Reserves, becoming the first female Marine in history. More than 300 other women will follow Johnson’s lead and serve as Marines during the war, paving the way for future women in the US military.
Born: 1879 · Indiana, Midwestern United States
Died: Aug 11, 1955 · Washington, D.C., United States
Buried: Rock Creek CemeteryHighlights
- 1898: Historical records identify she married Victor H. Johnson on 20 December 1898 at the Sixth Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC.
- 1918: According to 1918 newspaper articles, as well as the published history of Women Marines in World War I, Johnson's first duties were as a clerk at Marine Corps headquarters, managing the records of other female reservists who joined after she did.
- 1955: Opha May Johnson died on Thursday, 11 August 1955, at Mount Alto Veterans Hospital in Washington, D.C.
Customer service: +1 2026331000
Address: 1000 Jefferson Dr SW, Washington, DC 20560
Founders: James Smithson · Joseph Henry · Joel Roberts Poinsett
Architects: Norman Foster · James Renwick, Jr. · Gordon Bunshaft · James Polshek · Charles A. Platt · George Keister · Almus Pratt Evans · Lewis Shulman · Paul L. Wood
Established: Aug 10, 1846
The “Castle” (1847), the Institution’s first building and still its headquarters
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1519 | Magellan’s fleet sets sail to circle the globe
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan leads a fleet of five Spanish ships bound westward for an Atlantic crossing, then to sail into what Magellan will name the ‘Mar Pacifico,’ meaning ‘peaceful sea.’ He will die before his one surviving vessel completes the first circumnavigation of the Earth.1793 | Revolutionaries open French royal art collection to the public
France’s revolutionary government opens to the public what used to be a grand royal residence, displaying a previously private collection of 537 paintings and 184 objects. Paris’ Louvre Museum will grow to hold almost 35,000 works and become the world’s most visited art museum.1948 | Smile! ‘Candid Camera’ makes its TV debut
The hidden-camera show hits the TV screen a year after its debut on radio as ‘Candid Microphone.’ Creator Allen Funt hosts, playing practical jokes on celebrities as well as ordinary people. The show and specials will air on-and-off for decades.
Born: 1480 · Sabrosa, Portugal
Died: Apr 27, 1521 · Mactan, Philippines
Spouse: María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa
Children: Rodrigo de Magalhães (Son) · Carlos de Magalhães (Son)
Parents: Rodrigo de Magalhães (Father) · Alda de Mesquita (Mother)
Siblings: Genebra de Magalhães (Sister) · Aires de Magalhães (Sister) · Diogo de Sousa (Brother) · Isabel de Magalhães · Duarte de SousaHighlights
- 1511: In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca.
- 1512: After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512.
- 1517: In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda, Factor of the Casa de Contratación.
- 1518: On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July.
- 1519: On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river.
- 1521: Ferdinand Magellan died on April 27, 1521 in Mactan, Philippines.
The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after Magellan's death.
Founded: Jul 24, 1534
Capitals: Quebec City · Montreal
Official language: French
Currency: New France livre
Location of New France
Also on this day,
1895 | An Austrian neurologist, Freud’s dream leads to revelation
An Austrian neurologist puzzles over his previous night’s dream. After an exhaustive analysis, Sigmund Freud concludes it was his mind’s way of purging unexpressed guilt over a medical mistake, and this revelation will lead to his groundbreaking work, ‘The Interpretation of Dreams.’1911 | Peruvian mountaintop’s ancient city, Machu Picchu, is rediscovered
Explorer Hiram Bingham III has organized the Yale Peruvian Expedition to search for lost Incan cities, and with the help of Melchor Arteaga, Bingham finds a biggie: a citadel abandoned for more than three centuries perched 7,970 feet above the South American jungle floor, Machu Picchu.1983 | ‘Black July’ riots cause bloodshed and spur civil war
A conflict that will last more than 25 years and claim upwards of 100,000 lives escalates, as riots break out in Sri Lanka between Tamil Tiger separatists and the Sri Lankan military. The island nation, formerly known as Ceylon, will be rocked with strife for decades to come.
Sigmund Freud; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.
In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.
Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."