It’s Leif Erikson Day, a day to learn about, and marvel at, the story of this Viking explorer, born in Iceland and thought to have set foot on the North American continent a good 500 years before Christopher Columbus. Want proof? Head to Newfoundland, Canada, where today’s photo was taken. Archaeologists discovered the remnants of a Viking outpost on the island’s north coast in 1960. L’Anse aux Meadows, as it’s now known, is a historic site open to the public, and the only solid evidence that Vikings were the first Europeans to land in North America, which they called Vinland.
Apples can be traced back to the mountains of Central Asia. In late 4th century BCE, Alexander the Great was busy conquering that region, and while in what is modern-day Kazakhstan he came across wild apples. Alexander’s military machine brought some of the plants back to Europe, and over the centuries, cuttings and seed splices began to produce the fruit as we know it now. The apples ready for harvest in this photo are on Salt Spring Island in British Columbia, Canada—a long way from Central Asia.
Fall sets in motion a journey of some 3,000 miles for these monarch butterflies, which migrate from southern Canada to their wintering habitat in central Mexico. There, they cluster together in fir trees, creating the illusion of orange, fluttering foliage. They’ll remain in their winter roosts until March, when the journey back north begins. But no one individual monarch will complete the full round trip, which exceeds the normal monarch life span; instead it will take four generations of monarchs to complete the full migration, each individual seemingly driven by an internal compass that guides its flight path.
Founded: Jul 24, 1534
Capitals: Quebec City · Montreal
Official language: French
Currency: New France livre
Location of New France
Also on this day,
1895 | An Austrian neurologist, Freud’s dream leads to revelation
An Austrian neurologist puzzles over his previous night’s dream. After an exhaustive analysis, Sigmund Freud concludes it was his mind’s way of purging unexpressed guilt over a medical mistake, and this revelation will lead to his groundbreaking work, ‘The Interpretation of Dreams.’1911 | Peruvian mountaintop’s ancient city, Machu Picchu, is rediscovered
Explorer Hiram Bingham III has organized the Yale Peruvian Expedition to search for lost Incan cities, and with the help of Melchor Arteaga, Bingham finds a biggie: a citadel abandoned for more than three centuries perched 7,970 feet above the South American jungle floor, Machu Picchu.1983 | ‘Black July’ riots cause bloodshed and spur civil war
A conflict that will last more than 25 years and claim upwards of 100,000 lives escalates, as riots break out in Sri Lanka between Tamil Tiger separatists and the Sri Lankan military. The island nation, formerly known as Ceylon, will be rocked with strife for decades to come.
Sigmund Freud; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.
In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.
Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."