(2003) The Iraq War beginsCoalition forces from the US, UK, Australia, and Poland begin moving from the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border into Basra Province, and the invasion of Iraq is underway. The ensuing conflict will come to be known as the Iraq War. The US will officially withdraw from Iraq in 2011, only to be drawn back in three years later to lead a coalition charged with battling a persistent insurgency and tempering ongoing civil conflict.The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush following the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Start date: Mar 20, 2003 End date: Dec 18, 2011
Clockwise from top: Delta Force of Task Force 20 alongside troops of 3rd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, at Uday Hussain and Qusay Hussein’s hideout.; Iraqi insurgents in northern Iraq; an Iraqi insurgent firing a MANPADS; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square. wiki/Iraq_War4.8.d17
(2003) Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein is captured After nine months on the run, Saddam Hussein is found hiding in a “spider hole” 6-8 feet underground near his hometown of Tikrit. He offers no resistance to US troops and looks like a different man than during his 24-year reign: Saddam is filthy, with a bushy, unkempt beard.Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. The operation was named after the 1984 film Red Dawn. The mission was assigned to the 1st Brigade Combat Team of the 4th Infantry Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Raymond Odierno and led by Col. James Hickey of the 4th Infantry Division, with joint operations Task Force 121—an elite and covert joint special operations team.
Date: Dec 13, 2003
Iraqi-American, Samir, 34, pinning deposed Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein to the ground during his capture in Tikrit, on Saturday, December 13, 2003. Samir was the translator for the U.S. Special Forces that helped find Hussein and pull him from his hiding place on December 13, 2003. Samir later met with U.S. President Bush and thanked him for liberating Iraq. wiki/Operation_Red_Dawn4.8.d17
(1413) Henry V assumes the throne of EnglandWith the death of his father, the 26-year-old Henry V assumes England’s throne. Later crowned on April 9, 1413, he will go on to lead a stirring victory at Agincourt, almost conquer France, and be immortalized more than a century later by Shakespeare.Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. After military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, and against the powerful aristocratic Percys of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry came into political conflict with his father, whose health was increasingly precarious from 1405 onward. After his father’s death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years’ War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles’s daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V’s sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI.
Lived: Aug 09, 1386 – Aug 31, 1422 (age 36) Spouse: Catherine of Valois (m. 1420) Children: Henry VI of England (Son) Parents: Mary de Bohun (Mother) · Henry IV of England (Father) Buried: Westminster Abbey Siblings: John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (Brother) · Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (Brother) · Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence (Brother)
1399: He was created Prince of Wales at his father’s coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year.
1410: From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had practical control of the government.
1415: The exception was the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV of England), in July 1415.
1416: While Henry was occupied with peace negotiations in 1416, a French and Genoese fleet surrounded the harbour at the English-garrisoned Harfleur.
1417: With those two potential enemies gone, and after two years of patient preparation following the Battle of Agincourt, Henry renewed the war on a larger scale in 1417.
1420: In 1420 Henry V married Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and younger sister of the widow of Richard II, Isabella of Valois (who died several years after her husband).
wiki/Henry_V_of_England(1616) Sir Walter Raleigh released from Tower of LondonExplorer of exotic lands, Queen Elizabeth’s confidant, and the Tower of London’s prisoner for the last 13 years, Sir Walter Raleigh is today freed. Ill fortune finds him again two years later and he will be executed.Sir Walter Raleigh was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England.
Lived: Jan 22, 1552 – Oct 29, 1618 (age 66) Spouse: Elizabeth Raleigh (m. 1591 – 1618) Related movies: Elizabeth: The Golden Age Siblings: Humphrey Gilbert (Brother) · Carew Raleigh (Brother) · Adrian Gilbert (Brother) · John Gilbert (Brother) Education: Oriel College, Oxford · University of Oxford Buried: St Margaret’s, Westminster
1587: In 1587, Raleigh attempted a second expedition, again establishing a settlement on Roanoke Island.
1591: In 1591, Raleigh was secretly married to Elizabeth “Bess” Throckmorton (or Throgmorton).
1592: She gave birth to a son, believed to be named Damerei, who was given to a wet nurse at Durham House, but he died in October 1592 of plague.
1595: Raleigh himself never visited North America, although he led expeditions in 1595 and 1617 to the Orinoco River basin in South America in search of the golden city of El Dorado.
1616: In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado.
1617: In 1617, Raleigh was pardoned by the King and granted permission to conduct a second expedition to Venezuela in search of El Dorado.
wiki/Walter_Raleigh(1942) General MacArthur promises, “I shall return”Having retreated from the war-torn, Japanese-dominated Philippines to the relative safety of Australia, General Douglas MacArthur makes a speech, vowing “I shall return.” He will do just that two years later, to lead the Philippines Campaign of 1944 and ’45.Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.
Lived: Jan 26, 1880 – Apr 05, 1964 (age 84) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Jean MacArthur (m. 1937 – 1964) · Louise Cromwell Brooks (m. 1922 – 1929) Education: United States Military Academy · TMI — The Episcopal School of Texas Movies and TV shows: Truman · A Nation Is Born · 18 Million Orphans Children: Arthur MacArthur IV (Son)
1922: Douglas MacArthur married Louise Cromwell Brooks on February 14, 1922; their marriage lasted 7 years till 1929.
1941: On 26 July 1941, Roosevelt federalized the Philippine Army, recalled MacArthur to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major general, and named him commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE).
1942: In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area.
1942: On 18 April 1942, MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA).
1943: Lieutenant General Walter Krueger’s Sixth Army headquarters arrived in SWPA in early 1943 but MacArthur had only three American divisions, and they were tired and depleted from the fighting at Battle of Buna–Gona and Battle of Guadalcanal.
1964: Douglas MacArthur died at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on 5 April 1964, of biliary cirrhosis.
wiki/Douglas_MacArthur(2003) The Iraq War beginsCoalition forces from the US, UK, Australia, and Poland begin moving from the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border into Basra Province, and the invasion of Iraq is underway. The ensuing conflict will come to be known as the Iraq War. The US will officially withdraw from Iraq in 2011, only to be drawn back in three years later to lead a coalition charged with battling a persistent insurgency and tempering ongoing civil conflict.The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict. It became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue.
(1884) The first volume of the ‘Oxford English Dictionary’ publishedWords from ‘A to Ant’ are covered in the first fascicle, or volume, of what will become the world’s definitive collection of English words, their etymology, and their definitions. Public reception of the first volume will be disappointing, with sales totaling just 4,000.The Oxford English Dictionary is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989.
Authors: Oxford University Press · John Simpson · E. S. C. Weiner First published: Feb 01, 1884 Genres: Non-fiction · Reference Original language: English
wiki/Oxford_English_Dictionary(1896) Puccini’s opera ‘La bohème’ premieres in ItalyThe lives and lusts of Parisian bohemians play out in famed Italian composer Giacomo Puccini’s latest opera, ‘La bohème.’ It premieres in Turin, Italy, and will gain worldwide fame.La bohème is an opera in four acts, composed by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Scènes de la vie de bohème by Henri Murger. The world premiere performance of La bohème was in Turin on 1 February 1896 at the Teatro Regio, conducted by the young Arturo Toscanini; its U.S. premiere took place the following year, 1897, in Los Angeles. Since then, La bohème has become part of the standard Italian opera repertory and is one of the most frequently performed operas worldwide.
Written: 1895 First performed: Feb 01, 1896 Composer: Giacomo Puccini Adaptations: Rent · La Bohème (1926) · Colline Compositional form: Opera Librettists: Luigi Illica · Giuseppe Giacosa
wiki/La_bohème(1960) The Greensboro Four stage sit-in protestFour black college students sit down at the Woolworth’s “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, inspiring a powerful civil rights sit-in movement throughout America.The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960, which led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. While not the first sit-in of the Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, and also the most well-known sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement. These sit-ins led to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in US history. The primary event took place at the Greensboro, North Carolina, Woolworth store, now the International Civil Rights Center and Museum. wiki/Greensboro_sit-ins(2003) Columbia space shuttle disintegrates on reentry The 113th space shuttle flight, returning from a successful 16-day orbit, breaks apart on reentry, killing all seven astronauts on board. The disaster will put an end to shuttle missions for two years.The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when Columbia disintegrated over Texas and Louisiana as it re-entered Earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. During the launch of STS-107, Columbia’s 28th mission, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left wing of the orbiter. A few previous shuttle launches had seen minor damage from foam shedding, but some engineers suspected that the damage to Columbia was more serious. NASA managers limited the investigation, reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed.
(1785) Georgia founds first state university in USThe University of Georgia is incorporated, and America’s first publicly funded institution of higher learning will be built on the banks of the Oconee River, in what is now the city of Athens.The University of Georgia, founded in 1785, also referred to as UGA or simply Georgia, is an American public Land-grant, Regional Sun Grant, National Sea Grant, and National Space Grant research university. Its primary location is a 762-acre campus adjacent to the college town of Athens, Georgia, approximately an hour’s drive from the global city of Atlanta. It is a flagship university that is ranked tied for 18th overall among all public national universities in the 2017 U.S. News & World Report rankings. The university is classified in the highest ranking, “R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity”, with the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifying the student body as “More Selective,” its most selective admissions category. The university has been labeled one of the “Public Ivies,” a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Website:www.uga.edu Founder: Abraham Baldwin Mascots: Uga · Hairy Dawg Enrollment: 36,130 (2017) Address: The Administration Building, Athens, GA 30602 Ranking: #56 National University (2017) Undergraduates: 27,547 (2017)
wiki/University_of_Georgia(1888) National Geographic Society foundedHaving gathered together for the first time two weeks previously, 33 founders, mostly scientists, explorers, and wealthy travelers, incorporate the National Geographic Society to promote “geographical knowledge.” Their magazine will begin publishing nine months later.The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world. Its interests include geography, archaeology and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. The National Geographic Society’s logo is a yellow portrait frame – rectangular in shape – which appears on the margins surrounding the front covers of its magazines and as its television channel logo. It also operates a website that features extra content and worldwide events.
wiki/National_Geographic_Society(1944) Seige of Leningrad liftedA Soviet offensive pushes German troops from the southern border of Leningrad, breaking the devastating military blockade on the city 872 days after it had begun. Surviving residents of Leningrad have endured a stranglehold on their city that cost the lives of roughly 1 million of their neighbors and defenders.The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade was a prolonged military blockade undertaken mainly by the German Army Group North against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road to the city was severed. Although the Soviets managed to open a narrow land corridor to the city on 18 January 1943, the siege was only lifted on 27 January 1944, 872 days after it began. It was one of the longest and most destructive sieges in history and possibly the costliest in terms of casualties.
Start date: Sep 08, 1941 End date: Jan 27, 1944
wiki/Siege_of_Leningrad(2003) Grandmaster Flash’s ‘The Message’ preserved for historyThe newly created National Recording Preservation Board announces that 50 audio recordings are to be preserved in the Library of Congress for the National Recording Registry. ‘The Message’ – a 1982 rap single by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five – is inducted alongside recordings of Stravinsky, Bessie Smith, FDR, and others.The National Recording Registry is a list of sound recordings that “are culturally, historically, or aesthetically important, and/or inform or reflect life in the United States.” The registry was established by the National Recording Preservation Act of 2000, which created the National Recording Preservation Board, whose members are appointed by the Librarian of Congress. The recordings preserved in the United States National Recording Registry form a registry of recordings selected yearly by the National Recording Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. wiki/National_Recording_Registry3.2.j17