(1141) England’s first female ruler takes the throneEmpress Matilda begins a seven-month reign during a chaotic period in England and Normandy known as The Anarchy. Although angry crowds stop her from being crowned queen, she will hold the title Lady of the English, and her son will become King Henry II.Empress Matilda, also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter’s Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies.
Lived: Feb 07, 1102 – Sep 10, 1167 (age 65) Spouse: Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (m. 1128 – 1151) · Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (m. 1114 – 1125) Children: Henry II of England (Son) · Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (Son) · William FitzEmpress (Son) Parents: Henry I of England (Father) · Matilda of Scotland (Mother) Buried: Rouen Cathedral Siblings: William Adelin (Brother) · Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (Brother)
1118: William and Matilda’s mother – Matilda of Scotland – had died in 1118, and so Henry took a new wife, Adeliza of Louvain.
1128: Henry knighted his future son-in-law, and Matilda and Geoffrey were married a week later on 17 June 1128 in Le Mans by the bishops of Le Mans and Séez.
1135: Henry died in 1135 but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from the Norman barons and were unable to pursue their claims.
1137: Stephen returned to the Duchy in 1137, where he met with Louis VI and Theobald to agree to an informal alliance against Geoffrey and Matilda, to counter the growing Angevin power in the region.
1139: In 1139 Matilda crossed to England to take the kingdom by force, supported by her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, and her uncle, King David I of Scotland, while Geoffrey focused on conquering Normandy.
1167: She was buried under the high altar at Bec Abbey after her death in 1167.
wiki/Empress_Matilda(1862) Grant claims major Civil War victory at ShilohCasualties numbering 23,000 result from two days of fighting in southwestern Tennessee between Union and Confederate forces, in the bloodiest American conflict to date. Although Gen. Ulysses S. Grant can claim an important Union win, the carnage shocks both sides.The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee on the west bank of that river, where the Confederate Army of Mississippi, under General Albert Sidney Johnston and second-in-command Pierre G. T. Beauregard, launched a surprise attack on Grant’s army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi. Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting; Beauregard, who thus succeeded to command of the army, decided against pressing the attack late in the evening. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch an unexpected counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day.
Start date: Apr 06, 1862 End date: Apr 07, 1862
wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh(1940) US issues first stamp to honor an African AmericanEducator, public speaker, presidential advisor, and one of the most influential black civil rights leaders in the post-Reconstruction South, Booker T. Washington appears on a commemorative postage stamp issued 25 years after his death.Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community.
Lived: Apr 05, 1856 – Nov 14, 1915 (age 59) Spouse: Olivia A. Davidson (m. 1886 – 1889) Founded: Tuskegee University · National Negro Business League · Calhoun Colored School Education: Hampton University · Wayland Seminary (1878 – 1879) Parents: Jane Ferguson (Mother) Children: Ernest Davidson Washington (Son) · Portia M. Washington · Booker T. Washington Jr.
1878: He also attended Wayland Seminary in Washington, D.C. in 1878 and left after 6 months.
1881: In 1881, the Hampton Institute president Samuel C. Armstrong recommended Washington to become the first leader of Tuskegee Institute, the new normal school (teachers’ college) in Alabama.
1886: Booker T. Washington married Olivia A. Davidson in 1886; their marriage lasted 3 years till 1889.
1900: ACHIEVEIn an effort to inspire the “commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement” of African Americans, Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900.MENT
1901: When Washington’s second autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published in 1901, it became a bestseller and had a major effect on the African-American community, its friends and allies.
1915: He led the school until his death in 1915.
wiki/Booker_T._Washington(1994) Rwandan Genocide beginsIn the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War, conflicts in the African nation continue, reaching a flash point when ethnic Hutu forces kill Belgian peacekeepers and launch a genocidal campaign against their neighbors, the Tutsi. Roughly 800,000 will die in the largest genocide since World War II.The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. An estimated more than 800,000 Rwandans were killed during the 100-day period from April 7 to mid-July 1994, constituting as many as 70% to 80% of the Tutsi population. Additionally, 30% of the Pygmy Batwa were killed. The genocide and widespread slaughter of Rwandans ended when the Tutsi-backed and heavily armed Rwandan Patriotic Front led by Paul Kagame took control of the country. An estimated 2,000,000 Rwandans, mostly Hutus, were displaced and became refugees.
(1614) Pocahontas and John Rolfe marryPocahontas, daughter of the Powhatan tribal chief, marries John Rolfe, an English tobacco farmer from Jamestown, Virginia. Native Americans and Virginia’s governor both bless the union, and it will lead to a period of peace.Pocahontas was a Native American woman notable for her association with the colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, the paramount chief of a network of tributary tribal nations in the Tsenacommacah, encompassing the Tidewater region of Virginia. In a well-known historical anecdote, she is said to have saved the life of a captive of the Native Americans, the Englishman John Smith, in 1607 by placing her head upon his own when her father raised his war club to execute him. Some historians have suggested that this story, as told by Smith, is untrue.
Born: 1596 · Werowocomoco, VA Died: Mar 1617 · Gravesend, United Kingdom Spouse: John Rolfe (m. 1614 – 1617) Children: Thomas Rolfe (Son) Parents: Powhatan (Father)
1607: Pocahontas is most famously linked to the English colonist Captain John Smith, who arrived in Virginia with a hundred other settlers in April 1607, at the behest of the London Company.
1613: Current Mattaponi tradition holds that Pocahontas’s first husband was Kocoum, brother of the Patawomeck weroance Japazaws, and that Kocoum was killed by the English after his wife’s capture in 1613.
1614: Pocahontas, Alias Matoaka, and Her Descendants Through Her Marriage at Jamestown, Virginia, in April, 1614, with John Rolfe, Gentleman, Wyndham Robertson, Printed by J. W. Randolph & English, Richmond, Va., 1887
1614: She married him on April 5, 1614.
1615: Pocahontas and her husband, John Rolfe, had one child, Thomas Rolfe, who was born in January 1615.
1617: In 1617, the Rolfes set sail for Virginia, but Pocahontas died at Gravesend of unknown causes.
wiki/PocahontasJohn Rolfe was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan.
Born: 1585 · Heacham, United Kingdom Died: 1622 · Varina Plantation, VA Spouse: Jane Pierce (m. 1619 – 1622) · Pocahontas (m. 1614 – 1617) Children: Thomas Rolfe (Son) · Elizabeth Rolfe (Daughter) Parents: Dorothea Mason (Mother) · John Rolfe Sr. (Father)
1609: Smith’s Fort was a secondary Fort to Jamestown, begun in 1609 by John Smith.
1612: In 1612, Rolfe established Varina Farms, a plantation along the James River about 30 miles (50 km) upstream from Jamestown, and across the river from Sir Thomas Dale’s progressive development at Henricus.
1614: Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of the local Native American leader Powhatan, on 5 April 1614.
1615: John and Rebecca Rolfe travelled to England on the Treasurer, commanded by Samuel Argall, in 1615 with their young son.
1619: In 1619, Rolfe married Jane Pierce, daughter of the English colonist Captain William Pierce.
1622: Rolfe died in 1622 and his widow Jane married Englishman Captain Roger Smith three years later.
wiki/John_Rolfe(1772) Dutch explorers land on remote Easter IslandOn this Easter Sunday, 3,000 miles from the nearest continental land, Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen finds a 63-square-mile island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean. Towering stone statues mystify these first European visitors and others for centuries to come.Easter Island is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle. Easter Island is famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapa Nui people. In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site, with much of the island protected within Rapa Nui National Park.
Population: 6,600 (2016) Area: 63.17 sq miles (163.60 km²) Travel tip: Located in the South Pacific more than 2,000 miles off the Chilean coast, Easter Island’s not the easiest place to reach. (If you’re interested, the easiest access is by air from … @tripadvisor Location: Pacific Ocean Capital: Hanga Roa Governor: Melania Hotu
wiki/Easter_Island(1859) Darwin’s groundbreaking work sent to publishersEnglish scientist Charles Darwin delivers the first three chapters of his new work, ‘On the Origin of Species,’ to publishers. Controversy will follow publication of his study of evolutionary biology, but so too do robust book sales, and the Darwin’s work will revolutionize the study of life on Earth.On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin’s book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.
Author: Charles Darwin First published: Nov 24, 1859 Number of pages: 502 Genre: Science Followed by: Fertilisation of Orchids
wiki/On_the_Origin_of_Species(1994) Kurt Cobain dies of apparent suicideAt the height of his popular success, Kurt Cobain, lead singer and driving force behind the rock group Nirvana, dies from a shotgun blast. His body won’t be discovered for another three days, and although forensic analysis will suggest Cobain committed suicide, some will question that determination.Kurt Donald Cobain was an American musician, artist, songwriter, guitarist and poet. Born in Aberdeen, Washington, Cobain formed the band Nirvana with Krist Novoselic in 1987 and established it as part of the Seattle music scene and grunge genre. Nirvana’s debut album Bleach was released on the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989.
Lived: Feb 20, 1967 – Apr 05, 1994 (age 27) Height: 5′ 10″ (1.77 m) Spouse: Courtney Love (m. 1992 – 1994) Children: Frances Bean Cobain (Daughter) Member of: Nirvana · Fecal Matter · Sellouts · Stiff Woodies · Brown Towel · Pen Cap Chew · TedEdFred · Electrifiedshitfuck · Bliss · Skid Row Parents: Wendy Cobain (Mother) · Donald Cobain (Father)
(1930) Gandhi begins 240-mile ‘Salt March’ With 80 of his followers, Mahatma Gandhi, leader of a nonviolent civil disobedience movement in India, begins a march to the coast to gather sea salt in defiance of British colonial rule. The action will prove a turning point in the Indian independence movement and influence civil rights activists around the world.The Salt March, also known as the Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India initiated by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to produce salt from the seawater in the coastal village of Dandi, as was the practice of the local populace until British officials introduced taxation on salt production, deemed their sea-salt reclamation activities illegal, and then repeatedly used force to stop it. The 24-day march began from 12 March 1930 and continued till 5 April 1930 as a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly, and it gained worldwide attention which gave impetus to the Indian independence movement and started the nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement.
Start date: Mar 12, 1930 End date: Apr 06, 1930
wiki/Salt_March(1933) FDR gives his first ‘fireside chat’ to American publicAfter being elected in the midst of the Great Depression, President Franklin Roosevelt makes the first in what will be a series of radio broadcast to inform, warn, and encourage his fellow citizens.
Fireside chats is the term used to describe a series of 30 evening radio conversations (chats) given by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. Roosevelt spoke with familiarity to millions of Americans about the promulgation of the Emergency Banking Act in response to the banking crisis, the recession, New Deal initiatives, and the course of World War II. On radio, he was able to quell rumors and explain his policies. His tone and demeanor communicated self-assurance during times of despair and uncertainty. Roosevelt was a great communicator on radio, and the fireside chats kept him in high public regard throughout his presidency.
The series of fireside chats was among the first 50 recordings made part of the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress, which noted it as “an influential series of radio broadcasts in which Roosevelt utilized the media to present his programs and ideas directly to the public and thereby redefined the relationship between President Roosevelt and the American people in 1933.”
wiki/Fireside_chats(1938) Hitler absorbs his homeland, Austria, into GermanyThe nation of Austria is no more, as the Third Reich annexes it into Germany and Wehrmacht troops dismantle border crossings. The invasion and forced incorporation violates the Treaty of Versailles, but most criticism will be mild.Anschluss is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938. German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was also known as the Anschluss Österreichs.
Date: Mar 12, 1938
wiki/Anschluss(1994) Church of England ordains their first women priestsFor the first time in its 460-year existence, the Church of England allows females to enter into the priesthood, ordaining 32 women in Bristol Cathedral in Bristol, England. Six years later the church will pass another milestone, as more women than men will be ordained as priests.The Church of England is the Anglican Christian state church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. Its formal establishment as a national church is dated to the 6th-century Gregorian mission in Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury, with considerable features introduced and established during and following the English Reformation in the 16th century.
(1912) The Last Emperor of China abdicates his throneEnding a system of imperial rule that began in 221 BCE, Emperor Puyi of the Qing Dynasty, just six years old, steps down following the Xinhai Revolution. He will later be named emperor of the puppet state of Manchukuo by the Empire of Japan, but in 1949, Puyi will be jailed as a war criminal.Puyi, of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, commonly known as Henry Pu Yi, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty. When a child, he ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the successful Xinhai Revolution. From 1 to 12 July 1917, he was briefly restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun. In 1932, after the occupation of Manchuria the state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become ‘Chief Executive’ of the new state using the era-name of Datong. In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the National People’s Congress.
Lived: Feb 07, 1906 – Oct 17, 1967 (age 61) Spouse: Li Shuxian (m. 1962 – 1967) · Li Yuqin (m. 1943 – 1957) · Empress Wanrong (m. 1922 – 1946) · Tan Yuling (m. 1937 – 1942) · Wenxiu (m. 1922 – 1931) Movies: The Last Emperor Children: Ohthere · Ottar Egilsson, King of Sweden · Ingibjørg Angantyrsdatter of Sweden · Fusto Egilsson Parents: Zaifeng, Prince Chun (Father) · Youlan (Mother) Siblings: Pujie (Brother) · Jin Youzhi (Brother) · Jin Yunying (Sister) · Puqi (Brother) · Pu Yunyu (Sister) · Jin Zhijian (Sister) · Jin Yunxian (Sister) · Yunhe (Sister) · Jin Ruijie (Sister) · Yunying (Sister)
1911: Puyi’s father, Prince Chun, served as a regent until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu took over following the Xinhai Revolution.
1922: Wanrong (1906–1946), married Puyi in 1922, was his Empress.
1922: Wenxiu (1909–1953), married Puyi in 1922, was his Consort Shu (淑妃).
1931: Puyi and Wenxiu divorced in 1931.
1934: In 1934, he was crowned the emperor of Manchukuo under the reign title Kangde (Wade-Giles: Kang-te; 康德).
1967: He died in Beijing of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease on 17 October 1967 at the age of 61.
wiki/Puyi(1947) Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’ rocks the fashion worldFrench fashion designer Christian Dior unveils a fresh take on post-war women’s attire, and his waist-nipping, hip-enhancing suits and dresses will bring feminine silhouettes back into vogue.Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a French luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world’s largest luxury group. Dior itself holds 42.36% shares of and 59.01% voting rights within LVMH. Founded in 1946 by the eponymous designer Christian Dior, today the company designs and retails ready-to-wear, leather goods, fashion accessories, footwear, jewelry, timepieces, fragrance, make-up, and skincare products while also maintaining its tradition as a creator of recognized haute-couture (under the Christian Dior Couture division). While the Christian Dior label remains largely for women’s offerings, the company also operates the Dior Homme division for men and the baby Dior label for children’s wear. Products are sold throughout its portfolio of retail stores worldwide, as well as through its online store. wiki/Christian_Dior_S.A.(1994) Munch’s ‘The Scream’ stolen from Norway museumNorway’s most valuable painting is brazenly snatched from the National Gallery after four thieves pull off a 50-second heist. Police will recover the painting three months later.The Scream is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch between 1893 and 1910. The German title Munch gave these works is Der Schrei der Natur. The works show a figure with an agonized expression against a landscape with a tumultuous orange sky. Arthur Lubow has described The Scream as “an icon of modern art, a Mona Lisa for our time.”
Date completed: 1893 Artist: Edvard Munch Period: Expressionism Location: Munch Museum · National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design Genre: Abstract art Media: Tempera · Pastel · Oil paint
wiki/The_Scream(2002) Slobodan Milošević goes on trial for Bosnian genocide Former president of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milošević, appears before a United Nations tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, after being arrested for war crimes committed during the ethnic conflict known as the Yugoslav Wars. He will die in jail before a verdict is reached.Slobodan Milošević was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who was the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. He also led the Socialist Party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990. He rose to power as Serbian President after he and his supporters claimed the need to reform the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia due to both the marginalization of Serbia and its political incapacity to deter Albanian separatist unrest in the province of Kosovo.
Lived: Aug 20, 1941 – Mar 11, 2006 (age 64) Height: 6′ 1″ (1.86 m) Spouse: Mirjana Marković (m. 1965 – 2006) Previous offices: President of Yugoslavia (1997 – 2000) · President of Serbia and Montenegro (1997 – 2000) · President of Serbia (1991 – 1997) · President of Serbia (1989 – 1997) Children: Marko Milošević (Son) · Marija Milošević (Daughter) Speeches: Gazimestan speech
(1877) Crazy Horse’s last standA victor at Little Big Horn just six months earlier, Crazy Horse finds himself under attack by US forces. After exhausting all ammunition, the Oglala Lakota leader and his followers retreat, and by May, he and his surviving band will surrender.The Battle of Wolf Mountain, also known the Battle of the Wolf Mountains, Miles’s Battle on the Tongue River, the Battle of the Butte and called the Battle of Belly Butte by the Northern Cheyenne, occurred January 8, 1877, in southern Montana Territory between soldiers of the United States Army against Lakota Sioux and Northern Cheyenne warriors during the Great Sioux War of 1876. It was fought about four miles southwest of modern-day Birney, along the Tongue River. In 2001, the Wolf Mountains Battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was raised to the status of National Historic Landmark in 2008.
Date: Jan 08, 1877
wiki/Battle_of_Wolf_Mountain(1941) Hearst retaliates against ‘Citizen Kane’Newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst bans ads for Orson Welles’ new movie ‘Citizen Kane,’ convinced it’s a malicious portrait of his life. The film will later be hailed as possibly the greatest ever made.When a reporter is assigned to decipher newspaper magnate Charles Foster Kane’s dying words, his investigation gradually reveals the fascinating portrait of a complex man who rose from obscurity to staggering heights. Though Kane’s friend and colleague Jedediah Leland, and his mistress, Susan Alexander, shed fragments of light on Kane’s life, the reporter fears he may never penetrate the mystery of the elusive man’s final word, “Rosebud.”
IMDB:www.imdb.com/title/tt0033467 Release date: Sep 05, 1941 (United States) Director: Orson Welles Estimated budget: $839,727 USD Screenwriters: Orson Welles · Herman J. Mankiewicz · John Houseman · Mollie Kent · Roger Q. Denny Awards: Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay Music by: Bernard Herrmann
wiki/Citizen_Kane(1946) Elvis gets his first guitarGladys Presley brings her 11-year-old son Elvis to the Tupelo Hardware Store, in their hometown of Tupelo, Mississippi, buying him a $6.95 guitar as a birthday present. Less than a decade later he will set the rock ‘n roll scene on fire.Elvis Aaron Presley was an American musician and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as “the King of Rock and Roll”, or simply, “the King”.
IMDB:www.imdb.com/name/nm0000062 Website: elvis.com Lived: Jan 08, 1935 – Aug 16, 1977 (age 42) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.82 m) Spouse: Priscilla Presley (m. 1967 – 1973) Partner: Linda Thompson (1972 – 1976) Children: Lisa Marie Presley (Daughter) Buried: Graceland
wiki/Elvis_Presley(1994) Russian cosmonaut blasts off for a long, long flightValeri Polyakov takes off aboard the Soyuz TM-18 en route to the Mir space station. He’ll conduct experiments on Mir for 437 days, the longest any human has ever been in space. Researchers will examine Polyakov during and after the mission to ascertain the mental and physical strains of extended space travel.Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov is a Russian former cosmonaut. He is the holder of the record for the longest single spaceflight in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months during one trip. His combined space experience is more than 22 months.
Born: Apr 27, 1942 (age 74) · Tula, Russia Space agency: Russian Federal Space Agency Space missions: Soyuz TM-7 · Soyuz TM-6 · Soyuz TM-18 · Soyuz TM-20 · Mir
1964: Polyakov dedicated himself to the field of space medicine in 1964 after the flight of the first physician in space, Boris Yegorov, aboard Voskhod 1.
1972: Polyakov was selected as a cosmonaut in Medical Group 3 on March 22, 1972.
1988: His first flight into space occurred on Soyuz TM-6 in 1988.
1994: Polyakov completed his second flight into space in 1994–1995, spending 437 days in space between launching on Soyuz TM-18 and landing on TM-20, setting the record for the longest time continuously spent in space by an individual in human history.
1995: On January 9, 1995, after 366 days in space, Polyakov formally broke the spaceflight duration record previously set by Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov six years earlier.
1995: He returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-20 on March 22, 1995.
1999: Polyakov’s record for longest cumulative time in space of 678 days over two missions stood until surpassed in 1999 by cosmonaut Sergei Avdeyev with a total of 747 days in space during three different missions.