(1994) North Korea’s dictator dies and his son takes overAfter ruling as North Korea’s supreme leader for 46 years, Kim Il-sung dies and his son takes the reins of power in the East Asian nation. Kim Jong-il’s rule will be marked by a pervasive cult of personality, a devastating famine, nuclear arms development, and increasing isolation.Kim Jong-il was the supreme leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, commonly referred to as North Korea, from 1994 to 2011. By the early 1980s Kim had become the heir apparent for the leadership of the country and assumed important posts in the party and army organs. He succeeded his father and founder of the DPRK, Kim Il-sung, following the elder Kim’s death in 1994. Kim Jong-il was the General Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, Politburo Standing Committee member of WPK, Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army, the fourth-largest standing army in the world. Kim’s leadership is thought to have been even more authoritarian than his father’s.
Lived: Feb 16, 1941 – Dec 17, 2011 (age 70) Height: 5′ 3″ (1.60 m) Spouse: Kim Young-sook (m. 1974 – 2011) · Ko Yong-hui (m. 1977 – 2004) Partner: Kim Ok (2004 – 2011) · Song Hye-rim (1968 – 2002) Children: Kim Jong-un (Son) · Kim Jong-nam (Son) · Kim Jong-chul (Son) · Kim Yo-jong (Daughter) · Kim Sul-song (Daughter) Previous offices: Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Workers’ Party of Korea (1997 – 2011) · Supreme Leader of North Korea (1994 – 2011) · Head of the Organization and Guidance Department of the Workers’ Party of Korea (1974 – 2011)
1974: Kim Jong-il married Kim Young-sook in 1974.
1974: According to his official biography, the WPK Central Committee had already anointed him successor to Kim Il-sung in February 1974.
1992: The song “No Motherland Without You”, sung by the KPA State Merited Choir, was created especially for Kim in 1992 and is frequently broadcast on the radio and from loudspeakers on the streets of Pyongyang.
1994: Kim kept both the relationship and the child a secret (even from his father) until he ascended to power in 1994.
1994: He succeeded his father and founder of the DPRK, Kim Il-sung, following the elder Kim’s death in 1994.
2011: It was reported that Kim Jong-il had died of a suspected heart attack on 17 December 2011 at 8:30 a.m. while traveling by train to an area outside Pyongyang.
(1898) Philippines struggles to cast off colonial ruleAt the ancestral home of Emilio Aguinaldo, 98 delegates sign a Declaration of Independence asserting the end of Spain’s rule in the Philippines. Aguinaldo and US forces will overthrow the Spanish two months later, but the islands will then be ceded to the US at the end of the Spanish-American War.The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo, Philippines. With the public reading of the Act of the Declaration of independence, Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain. wiki/Philippine_Declaration_of_Independence(1963) Civil rights leader is assassinated at his homeA WWII veteran and civil rights leader working on high-profile cases, including the deaths of Emmet Till and James Meredith, Medgar Evers, 37, is shot in the back and through the heart as he arrives at his home. His murderer will be twice acquitted and not be sent to prison until 1994.Medgar Wiley Evers was an American civil rights activist from Mississippi who worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi and to enact social justice and voting rights. He was murdered by a white supremacist and Klansman.
Lived: Jul 02, 1925 – Jun 12, 1963 (age 37) Spouse: Myrlie Evers-Williams (m. 1951 – 1963) Children: James Van Evers (Son) · Darrell Kenyatta Evers (Son) · Reena Denise Evers (Daughter) Education: Alcorn State University Siblings: Charles Evers (Brother) · Ruth Evers (Sister) · Elizabeth Evers (Sister) · Gene · Eva Lee Parents: James Evers (Father) · Jesse Evers (Mother)
1948: In 1948, Evers enrolled at Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (a historically black college, now Alcorn State University) majoring in business administration.
1951: On December 24, 1951, he married classmate Myrlie Beasley.
1954: Evers was murdered by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens’ Council, a group formed in 1954 to resist integration of schools and civil rights activity.
1954: On November 24, 1954, Evers was named the NAACP’s first field secretary for Mississippi.
1963: In 1963, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.
1963: On June 7, 1963, Evers was nearly run down by a car after he emerged from the NAACP office in Jackson.
wiki/Medgar_Evers(1987) President Reagan demands a demolitionSpeaking at the 750th anniversary of Berlin’s founding, US President Ronald Reagan makes his case for ending the arms race, then directly challenges the Soviet premier with a phrase that will prove prophetic as the Cold War draws to a close: “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”“Tear down this wall!” is a line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.
Date: Jun 12, 1987
wiki/Tear_down_this_wall!(1994) O.J. Simpson’s ex-wife and her friend are murderedNicole Brown Simpson, ex-wife of football superstar O.J. Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman are stabbed to death on the walkway of Nicole’s condo in the upscale Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. The investigation and trial that follows will transfix America for 16 months.The O. J. Simpson murder case was a criminal trial held at the Los Angeles County Superior Court, in which former National Football League player and actor O. J. Simpson was tried on two counts of murder for the deaths of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend and restaurant waiter Ron Goldman on June 12, 1994. The trial spanned eleven months, from the jury’s swearing-in on November 9, 1994. Opening statements were made on January 24, 1995, and the verdict was announced on October 3, 1995, when Simpson was found not guilty of murder on both counts. According to the USA Today, the case has been described as the “most publicized” criminal trial in history.
(1831) Pioneering mountain man meets his end Jedediah Strong Smith, 32, has earned his middle name by surviving three massacres, a bear mauling, and travels through the vast wilds of the American West, including the unforgiving Mojave Desert. Exploring near the Santa Fe Trail in present day Kansas, Smith is killed by Comanche warriors.Jedediah Strong Smith, was a clerk, frontiersman, hunter, trapper, author, cartographer, and explorer of the Rocky Mountains, the North American West, and the Southwest during the early 19th century. After 75 years of obscurity following his death, Smith was rediscovered as the American whose explorations led to the use of the 20-mile-wide South Pass as the dominant point of crossing the Continental Divide for pioneers on the Oregon Trail.
Born: Jan 06, 1799 · Bainbridge, NY Died: May 27, 1831 · Ulysses, KS Romance: NN Smith Parents: Sally Smith (Mother) · Jedediah Strong Smith, I (Father) Children: Gordon Smith (Son) Siblings: Austin Smith · Peter Smith · Ira Smith
1822: Coming from a modest family background, Smith traveled to St. Louis and joined William H. Ashley and Andrew Henry’s fur trading company in 1822.
1826: Smith and his party of 15 other men left the Bear River on August 7, 1826, and after retrieving the cache he had left earlier, headed south through present-day Utah and Nevada to the Colorado River, finding increasingly harsh conditions and difficult travel.
1828: Smith and his party of 15 other men left the Bear River on August 7, 1826, and after retrieving the cache he had left earlier, headed south through present-day Utah and Nevada to the Colorado River, finding increasingly harsh conditions and difficult travel.
1829: Late in 1829, Smith Jackson and Sublette wrote another letter to William Clark.
1830: Smith later wrote a letter to Secretary of War John Eaton in 1830 making the location of the South Pass public information.
1831: The only known portrait of Jedediah Smith, painted after his death in 1831, showed the long hair he wore over the side of his head, to hide his scars.
wiki/Jedediah_Smith(1905) First naval battle of its kind pits Russia vs. JapanThe first and only ‘decisive’ naval battle fought by modern steel battleship fleets, and also the first in which radio communications play a decisive role, the Battle of Tsushima will result in a crushing blow to the mighty Russian Imperial Navy, as Japanese forces destroy almost their entire fleet.The Battle of Tsushima, also known as the Battle of Tsushima Strait and the Naval Battle of the Sea of Japan in Japan, was a major naval battle fought between Russia and Japan during the Russo-Japanese War. It was naval history’s only decisive sea battle fought by modern steel battleship fleets, and the first naval battle in which wireless telegraphy played a critically important role. It has been characterized as the “dying echo of the old era – for the last time in the history of naval warfare ships of the line of a beaten fleet surrendered on the high seas.”
Start date: May 27, 1905 End date: May 28, 1905
wiki/Battle_of_Tsushima(1943) A survivor’s incredible odyssey beginsFormer Olympic track runner and now US Army Air Corps bombardier, Louie Zamperini is shot down 850 miles south of Oahu, Hawaii. He will survive 47 days on the open ocean, only to be captured, imprisoned, and tortured in Japanese POW camps, all of which prove Zamperini is “unbreakable.”Louis Silvie “Louie” Zamperini was a US prisoner of war survivor in World War II, a Christian evangelist and an Olympic distance runner. Zamperini took up running in high school and qualified for the US in the 5000m race for the 1936 Berlin Olympics. He finished 8th in the event. In 1941 he was commissioned into the United States Army Air Forces as a Lieutenant. He served as a bombardier in B-24 Liberators in the Pacific. On a search and rescue mission, mechanical difficulties forced Zamperini’s plane to crash in the ocean. After drifting at sea for 46-47 days he landed on the Japanese occupied Marshall Islands and was captured. He was taken to a prison camp in Japan where he was tortured. Following the war he initially struggled to overcome his ordeal. Later he became a Christian Evangelist with a strong belief in forgiveness. Zamperini is the subject of two biographical films, the 2014 Unbroken and the 2015 Captured by Grace.
Lived: Jan 26, 1917 – Jul 02, 2014 (age 97) Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Cynthia Applewhite (m. 1946 – 2001) Movies: Zamperini: Still Carrying the Torch Education: Torrance High School · University of Southern California Children: Cissy Zamperini (Daughter) · Luke Zamperini (Son)
1943: His death had mistakenly been announced previously, when the US government classified him as KIA during World War II, after his B-24 Liberator aircraft went down in 1943, and no survivors were located by the military.
1946: Louis Zamperini married Cynthia Applewhite on May 25, 1946; their marriage lasted 55 years till 2001.
2010: In 2010, Zamperini detailed his experiences in Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption, written by Laura Hillenbrand.
2011: In May 2011, Zamperini was guest of honor at Magellan Christian Academy’s graduation ceremony with over 700 attendees at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida.
2011: In late July 2011, Zamperini received the Kappa Sigma Golden Heart Award during the Kappa Sigma 68th Biennial Grand Conclave held at the Flamingo Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada.
2014: After Zamperini’s death on July 2, 2014, the Tournament announced that it is “committed to honoring him as the Grand Marshal of the 2015 Rose Parade”.
wiki/Louis_Zamperini(1994) Banished son of Russia returns to his motherlandWinner of 1970’s Nobel Prize in Literature, author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn returns to the homeland that exiled him for the very writing that garnered him acclaim. Communism’s fall now allows the author of ‘The Gulag Archipelago’ to be reunited with a country he hasn’t seen for 20 years.Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer. He was an outspoken critic of the Soviet Union and communism and helped to raise global awareness of its Gulag forced labor camp system. He was allowed to publish only one work in the Soviet Union, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, in the periodical Novy Mir. After this he had to publish in the West, most notably Cancer Ward, August 1914, and The Gulag Archipelago. Solzhenitsyn was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature “for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”. Solzhenitsyn was afraid to go to Stockholm to receive his award for fear that he would not be allowed to reenter. He was eventually expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974, but returned to Russia in 1994 after the state’s dissolution.
Lived: Dec 11, 1918 – Aug 03, 2008 (age 89) Spouse: Natalia Dmitrievna Svetlova (m. 1973 – 2008) · Natalia Alekseevna Reshetovskaya (m. 1957 – 1972) · Natalia Alekseevna Reshetovskaya (m. 1940 – 1952) Awards: Nobel Prize in Literature (1970) · State Prize of the Russian Federation (2006) · Templeton Prize (1983) Education: Southern Federal University · Rostov State University Children: Ignat Solzhenitsyn (Son) · Stepan Solzhenitsyn (Son) · Yermolai Solzhenitsyn (Son) Parents: Taisiya Solzhenitsyna (Mother) · Isaakiy Solzhenitsyn (Father)
(1789) Mutiny breaks out on the HMS BountyHaving completed his mission of sailing from England to Tahiti to gather breadfruit saplings, Captain Bligh finds his command under siege less than a month into the return voyage. Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian leads the mutinous crewmembers, and they will set Bligh and 18 loyalists adrift in an open boat.The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty occurred in the south Pacific on 28 April 1789. Led by Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, disaffected crewmen seized control of the ship from their captain, Lieutenant William Bligh, and set him and 18 loyalists adrift in the ship’s open launch. The mutineers variously settled on Tahiti or on Pitcairn Island. Bligh meanwhile completed a voyage of more than 3,500 nautical miles in the launch to reach safety, and began the process of bringing the mutineers to justice.
Date: Apr 28, 1789
wiki/Mutiny_on_the_Bounty(1967) Muhammad Ali refuses Army inductionMuhammad Ali refuses to be drafted into the Army during the Vietnam War, citing race issues in the US and his religious beliefs. The protest will lead to his arrest and suspension of his boxing license for several years, putting Ali in the spotlight as a controversial figure and civil rights icon instead of in the boxing ring.Muhammad Ali was an American professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali was known as an inspiring, controversial, and polarizing figure both inside and outside the ring.
Lived: Jan 17, 1942 – Jun 03, 2016 (age 74) Height: 6′ 3″ (1.91 m) Spouse: Yolanda Williams (m. 1986 – 2016) · Verónica Porche Ali (m. 1977 – 1986) · Khalilah ‘Belinda’ Ali (m. 1967 – 1977) · Sonji Roi (m. 1964 – 1966) Children: Laila Ali (Daughter) · Muhammad Ali Jr. (Son) · Asaad Amin (Son) · Maryum Ali (Daughter) · Hana Ali (Daughter) · Khaliah Ali (Daughter) · Rasheda Ali (Daughter) · Jamillah Ali (Daughter) · Miya Ali (Daughter) Siblings: Rahman Ali (Brother) Related movies: Ali Website: www.ali.com
1975: Construction of the mall, the first of its kind in the Philippines, began shortly after Ali’s victory in a match with Joe Frazier in nearby Araneta Coliseum in 1975.
1986: On November 19, 1986, Ali married Yolanda (“Lonnie”) Williams.
1988: In 1988, Ali and Frazier joined Foreman, Larry Holmes, and Ken Norton in Las Vegas for the making of the film Champions Forever.
2002: In an interview published in 2002, Joe Frazier recalled that he had first met Ali around 1968.
2011: In 2011, on the eve of the 40th anniversary of his first fight with Ali, and the year of his death, Frazier reiterated that he had forgiven Ali.
2016: Though his condition was initially described as “fair”, it worsened and he died the following day at age 74 from septic shock.
wiki/Muhammad_Ali(1994) Ames receives life sentence after spying for SovietsCIA counterintelligence officer, and spy for the USSR and Russia, Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to espionage and is sentenced to life in prison. His years of treason compromised hundreds of intelligence operations and led to the execution of sources.Aldrich Hazen Ames is a former American Central Intelligence Agency operative and analyst turned KGB mole, who was convicted of espionage in 1994. He is serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole in the Federal Correctional Institution in Terre Haute, Indiana Ames was formerly a 31-year CIA counterintelligence operative and analyst who committed espionage against the United States by spying for the Soviet Union and Russia. At the time of his arrest, Ames had compromised more CIA “assets” than any other mole in history until Robert Hanssen’s arrest seven years later. As far as is currently known, Ames compromised the second-most number of assets, behind only Hanssen.
Born: May 26, 1941 (age 75) · River Falls, WI Spouse: Maria del Rosario Casas Dupuy · Nancy Segebarth Education: George Washington University · University of Chicago · McLean High School Parents: Carleton Cecil Ames (Father) · Rachel Aldrich Ames
1977: In 1977, Ames was assigned to handle him, and Fedorenko betrayed information about the Soviet missile program to Ames.
1983: Nevertheless, in September 1983, the CIA assigned Ames back to the SE division in Washington.
1985: Yurchenko returned to the Soviet Union in 1985 and was reassigned to a desk job within the FCD, a reward for helping to keep Ames’ spying a secret.
1986: In 1986 and 1991, Ames passed two polygraph examinations while spying for the Soviet Union and Russia, respectively.
1990: Nevertheless, in 1990–91, Ames was reassigned to the CIA’s Counterintelligence Center Analysis Group, providing him with access to “extremely sensitive data”, including information on US double agents.
1994: On February 22, 1994, Ames and his wife were formally charged by the United States Department of Justice with spying for the Soviet Union and Russia.
wiki/Aldrich_Ames(2001) US millionaire entrepreneur is first tourist in spaceA former aerospace engineer, investment banker Dennis Tito pays $20 million to hitch a ride on the Russian Soyuz TM-32 mission. The amateur astronaut will spend more than a week orbiting earth as a visitor on the International Space Station.Dennis Anthony Tito is an American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space. In mid-2001, he spent nearly eight days in orbit as a crew member of ISS EP-1, a visiting mission to the International Space Station. This mission was launched by the spacecraft Soyuz TM-32, and was landed by Soyuz TM-31.
Born: Aug 08, 1940 (age 76) · Queens, NY Spouse: Elizabeth Pavlova James Space missions: Expedition 2 · Soyuz TM-32 · Soyuz TM-31 Education: New York University · Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Children: Bradford James Tito (Son) · Michael Anthony Tito (Son) · Paula Joan Tito
1972: In 1972, he founded Wilshire Associates, a leading provider of investment management, consulting and technology services in Santa Monica, California.
2001: In mid-2001, he spent nearly eight days in orbit as a crew member of ISS EP-1, a visiting mission to the International Space Station.
2002: He is a member of Psi Upsilon and received an honorary doctorate of engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute on May 18, 2002 and is a former scientist of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
(1141) England’s first female ruler takes the throneEmpress Matilda begins a seven-month reign during a chaotic period in England and Normandy known as The Anarchy. Although angry crowds stop her from being crowned queen, she will hold the title Lady of the English, and her son will become King Henry II.Empress Matilda, also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy. The daughter of King Henry I of England, she moved to Germany as a child when she married the future Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. She travelled with her husband into Italy in 1116, was controversially crowned in St. Peter’s Basilica, and acted as the imperial regent in Italy. Matilda and Henry had no children, and when Henry died in 1125, the crown was claimed by Lothair II, one of his political enemies.
Lived: Feb 07, 1102 – Sep 10, 1167 (age 65) Spouse: Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (m. 1128 – 1151) · Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (m. 1114 – 1125) Children: Henry II of England (Son) · Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (Son) · William FitzEmpress (Son) Parents: Henry I of England (Father) · Matilda of Scotland (Mother) Buried: Rouen Cathedral Siblings: William Adelin (Brother) · Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (Brother)
1118: William and Matilda’s mother – Matilda of Scotland – had died in 1118, and so Henry took a new wife, Adeliza of Louvain.
1128: Henry knighted his future son-in-law, and Matilda and Geoffrey were married a week later on 17 June 1128 in Le Mans by the bishops of Le Mans and Séez.
1135: Henry died in 1135 but Matilda and Geoffrey faced opposition from the Norman barons and were unable to pursue their claims.
1137: Stephen returned to the Duchy in 1137, where he met with Louis VI and Theobald to agree to an informal alliance against Geoffrey and Matilda, to counter the growing Angevin power in the region.
1139: In 1139 Matilda crossed to England to take the kingdom by force, supported by her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, and her uncle, King David I of Scotland, while Geoffrey focused on conquering Normandy.
1167: She was buried under the high altar at Bec Abbey after her death in 1167.
wiki/Empress_Matilda(1862) Grant claims major Civil War victory at ShilohCasualties numbering 23,000 result from two days of fighting in southwestern Tennessee between Union and Confederate forces, in the bloodiest American conflict to date. Although Gen. Ulysses S. Grant can claim an important Union win, the carnage shocks both sides.The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee on the west bank of that river, where the Confederate Army of Mississippi, under General Albert Sidney Johnston and second-in-command Pierre G. T. Beauregard, launched a surprise attack on Grant’s army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi. Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting; Beauregard, who thus succeeded to command of the army, decided against pressing the attack late in the evening. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch an unexpected counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day.
Start date: Apr 06, 1862 End date: Apr 07, 1862
wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh(1940) US issues first stamp to honor an African AmericanEducator, public speaker, presidential advisor, and one of the most influential black civil rights leaders in the post-Reconstruction South, Booker T. Washington appears on a commemorative postage stamp issued 25 years after his death.Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community.
Lived: Apr 05, 1856 – Nov 14, 1915 (age 59) Spouse: Olivia A. Davidson (m. 1886 – 1889) Founded: Tuskegee University · National Negro Business League · Calhoun Colored School Education: Hampton University · Wayland Seminary (1878 – 1879) Parents: Jane Ferguson (Mother) Children: Ernest Davidson Washington (Son) · Portia M. Washington · Booker T. Washington Jr.
1878: He also attended Wayland Seminary in Washington, D.C. in 1878 and left after 6 months.
1881: In 1881, the Hampton Institute president Samuel C. Armstrong recommended Washington to become the first leader of Tuskegee Institute, the new normal school (teachers’ college) in Alabama.
1886: Booker T. Washington married Olivia A. Davidson in 1886; their marriage lasted 3 years till 1889.
1900: ACHIEVEIn an effort to inspire the “commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement” of African Americans, Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900.MENT
1901: When Washington’s second autobiography, Up From Slavery, was published in 1901, it became a bestseller and had a major effect on the African-American community, its friends and allies.
1915: He led the school until his death in 1915.
wiki/Booker_T._Washington(1994) Rwandan Genocide beginsIn the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War, conflicts in the African nation continue, reaching a flash point when ethnic Hutu forces kill Belgian peacekeepers and launch a genocidal campaign against their neighbors, the Tutsi. Roughly 800,000 will die in the largest genocide since World War II.The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. An estimated more than 800,000 Rwandans were killed during the 100-day period from April 7 to mid-July 1994, constituting as many as 70% to 80% of the Tutsi population. Additionally, 30% of the Pygmy Batwa were killed. The genocide and widespread slaughter of Rwandans ended when the Tutsi-backed and heavily armed Rwandan Patriotic Front led by Paul Kagame took control of the country. An estimated 2,000,000 Rwandans, mostly Hutus, were displaced and became refugees.