(1925) Deadliest tornado in US history strikes three statesFor seven hours, a massive tornado wreaks destruction over some 200 miles, the longest twister track in recorded history, roaring through Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. The twister kills 695 people and causes an estimated $1.4 billion in damage.The Tri-State Tornado of Wednesday, March 18, 1925 was the deadliest tornado in U.S. history. It was also the most exceptional tornado of a major outbreak of at least twelve known significant tornadoes across a large portion of the Midwestern and Southern U.S. It alone inflicted 695 fatalities, more than twice as many as the second deadliest, the Great Natchez Tornado of 1840. The 151 to 235 mi track left by the tornado was the longest ever recorded in the world as it crossed from southeastern Missouri, through southern Illinois, then into southwestern Indiana. Although not officially rated by NOAA, it is recognized by most experts as an F5 tornado, the maximum damage rating issued on the Fujita scale.
Date: Mar 18, 1925 Fatalities: 695
wiki/Tri-State_Tornado(1962) Algerian War ends in a truceSeven years of war and 132 years of French rule come to an end in Algeria as the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) and France sign a peace agreement. Hundreds of thousands, mostly civilians, have died in the conflict.The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a civil war between loyalist Algerians supporting a French Algeria and their Algerian nationalist counterparts.
Start date: Nov 01, 1954 End date: Mar 19, 1962
wiki/Algerian_War(1965) USSR’s Alexey Leonov takes the first spacewalk Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov emerges from his spacecraft and spends 12 minutes suspended in outer space, with only a tether connecting him to his craft. It’s humankind’s first “extravehicular activity,” or EVA.Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, a writer and an artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extravehicular activity, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk.
Born: May 30, 1934 (age 82) · Listvyanka, Irkutsky District, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Svetlana Pavlovna Dozenko Space missions: Voskhod 2 · Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Movies and TV shows: From the Earth to the Moon · Tank on the Moon Children: Oksana A. (Daughter) · Viktoria A. (Daughter)
1965: He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to the craft by a 5.35-meter tether.
1965: On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extravehicular activity (EVA), exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk.
1968: In 1968, Leonov was selected to be commander of a circumlunar Soyuz 7K-L1 flight.
1984: Leonov, along with Rusty Schweickart, Vitaly Sevastyanov, and Georgi Grechko established the Association of Space Explorers in 1984.
2001: Space and Time Perception by the Cosmonaut written by Alexey Leonov was first published on January 01, 2001.
2005: Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race written by Alexey Leonov was first published on April 04, 2005.
wiki/Alexey_Leonov(1990) $500 million worth of art nabbedDisguised as cops, brazen thieves enter Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and make off with 13 invaluable artworks, including paintings by Vermeer and Rembrandt. The crime will remain unsolved.The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum or Fenway Court, as the museum was known during Isabella Stewart Gardner’s lifetime, is a museum in the Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, located within walking distance of the Museum of Fine Arts and near the Back Bay Fens. The museum houses an art collection of world importance, including significant examples of European, Asian, and American art, from paintings and sculpture to tapestries and decorative arts. In 1990, thirteen of the museum’s works were stolen; the high-profile crime remains unsolved and the location of the artworks is still unknown.
Website: www.gardnermuseum.org Address: 25 Evans Way, Boston, MA 02115 Phone: (617) 566-1401 Established: 1903 Architects: Willard T. Sears · William T. Sears Founder: Isabella Stewart Gardner
(1857) US Supreme Court decides on Dred Scott caseSlave Dred Scott’s appeal that he be considered free if his owner takes him to a non-slave-holding state falls in his owner’s favor. The Court holds that slaves are property, not persons, a decision that will be strongly opposed by antislavery Northerners and serve as a catalyst for the Civil War.Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393, also known simply as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law. It held that “a negro, whose ancestors were imported into, and sold as slaves”, whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an enslaved man of “the negro African race” who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the court denied Scott’s request. The decision was only the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.
Start date: 1856 End date: 1857
wiki/Dred_Scott_v._Sandford(1902) Madrid Football Club foundedThe Madrid Football Club is officially founded in the Spanish capital. It will be renamed Real Madrid, and go on to be the top professional football (soccer) club of the 20th century and the most valuable sports team in the world.Real Madrid Club de Fútbol, commonly known as Real Madrid, or simply as Real outside Spain frontiers, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain.
Founded: Mar 06, 1902 Coach: Zinedine Zidane Location: Madrid Venue: Santiago Bernabéu Stadium League: La Liga Founders: Adolfo Meléndez · Juan Padrós · Carlos Padrós
wiki/Real_Madrid_C.F.(1951) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg go on trial for espionageJulius Rosenberg and his wife Ethel stand trial on the charge of spying for the Soviet Union. The couple will eventually be executed, their fate resting mainly on the testimony of Julius’ brother-in-law.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were United States citizens who were executed for conspiracy to commit espionage for the Soviet Union. They were instrumental in the transmission of information about top-secret military technology and prototypes of mechanisms related to the atomic bomb, which were of value to the Soviet nuclear weapons program and also provided top-secret radar, sonar, and jet propulsion engines to the Soviet Union.
Other co-conspirators were imprisoned, including Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass, who supplied documents from Los Alamos to Julius and who served 10 years of his 15-year sentence; Harry Gold, who identified Greenglass and served 15 years in Federal prison as the courier for Greenglass; and a German scientist, Klaus Fuchs, who served nine years and four months.
For decades, many defenders of the Rosenbergs, including their sons Michael and Robert Meeropol, maintained that Julius and Ethel were innocent and victims of Cold war paranoia. After the fall of the USSR, much information concerning them was declassified, including a trove of decoded Soviet cables, code-named VENONA, which detailed Julius’s role as a courier and recruiter for the Soviets and Ethel’s role as an accessory. Their sons’ current position is that Julius was legally guilty of the conspiracy charge, though not of atomic spying, while Ethel was only generally aware of his activities. They believe that he did not deserve the death penalty and that she was wrongly convicted. They continue to campaign for Ethel to be legally exonerated.
In 2014, five historians who had published on the Rosenberg case wrote that Soviet documents show that “Ethel Rosenberg hid money and espionage paraphernalia for Julius, served as an intermediary for communications with his Soviet intelligence contacts, provided her personal evaluation of individuals Julius considered recruiting, and was present at meetings with his sources. They also demonstrate that Julius reported to the KGB that Ethel persuaded Ruth Greenglass to travel to New Mexico to recruit David as a spy.”
There is a consensus among historians that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were guilty, but their trial was marred by clear judicial and legal improprieties and they should not have been executed. Distilling this consensus, Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz wrote that the Rosenbergs were “guilty – and framed”.
wiki/Julius_and_Ethel_Rosenberg(1990) The SR-71 ‘Blackbird’ flies into the history booksPilots Ed Yielding and Joseph Vida make a transcontinental flight from Los Angeles, California, to Washington, DC, in a blistering 64 minutes and with an average speed of 2,144.8 mph, a record. Their plane is the Lockheed SR-71 ‘Blackbird,’ a long-range reconnaissance aircraft.The Lockheed SR-71 “Blackbird” was a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force. It was developed as a black project from the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft in the 1960s by Lockheed and its Skunk Works division. American aerospace engineer Clarence “Kelly” Johnson was responsible for many of the design’s innovative concepts. During aerial reconnaissance missions, the SR-71 operated at high speeds and altitudes to allow it to outrace threats. If a surface-to-air missile launch was detected, the standard evasive action was simply to accelerate and outfly the missile. The SR-71 was designed with a reduced radar cross-section.
Maximum speed: 2,193 mph (3,530 km/h) Length: 107 feet (32.74 m) Wingspan: 55′ 7″ (16.94 m) Passengers: 2 Retired: 1998 Introduced: 1966
(1858) Bernadette has vision of Virgin MaryBernadette Soubirous, age 14, claims the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a grotto near the French town of Lourdes. The peasant girl will face skepticism, but the grotto will become a shrine and Bernadette will be made a saint.Bernadette Soubirous was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes, France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. Soubirous is best known for the Marian apparitions of a “small young lady” who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby garbage dump of the cave-grotto at Massabielle where apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858. She would later receive recognition when the lady who appeared to her identified herself as the Immaculate Conception.
Born: Jan 07, 1844 · Lourdes, France Died: Apr 16, 1879 · Nevers, France Related movies: The Song of Bernadette Siblings: Jean-Marie Soubirous (Brother) · Jean Soubirous (Brother) · Justin Soubirous (Brother) · Toinette Soubirous (Sister) · Louise Soubirous (Sister) · Pierre Soubirous (Brother) Parents: François Soubirous (Father) · Louise Soubirous (Mother)
1844: Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844 and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierre’s, on 9 January, her parents’ wedding anniversary.
1858: On 11 February 1858, Bernadette, then aged 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle (Tuta de Massavielha) when she experienced her first vision.
1866: On 29 July 1866, with 42 other candidates, she took the religious habit of a postulant and joined the Sisters of Charity at their motherhouse at Nevers.
1876: She had followed the development of Lourdes as a pilgrimage shrine while she still lived at Lourdes, but was not present for the consecration of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception there in 1876.
1879: She eventually died of her long-term illness at the age of 35 on 16 April 1879, while praying the holy rosary.
wiki/Bernadette_Soubirous(1937) General Motors recognizes autoworker’s unionFollowing a six-week strike by the United Auto Workers, violent clashes with police, and Michigan’s governor calling in the National Guard, General Motors is the first American auto company to sign a union contract.The 1936–1937 Flint sit-down strike against General Motors changed the United Automobile Workers from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Start date: 1936
wiki/Flint_sit-down_strike(1979) Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power in IranAfter defeating the last of the Iranian shah’s forces, rebel groups seize power and install their formerly exiled leader, Khomeini, as the head of the new Islamic republic.Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country’s Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei.
Lived: Sep 24, 1902 – Jun 03, 1989 (age 86) Height: 5′ 9″ (1.76 m) Spouse: Khadijeh Saqafi (m. 1929 – 1989) Previous office: Supreme Leader of Iran (1979 – 1989) Written works: Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist · Tahrir al-Wasilah · Kitab Albai’i · Alrasail Alashara · Almakasib Almuharrama · Anwar Alhidaya fi Alt’aliqa ‘Ala Alkifaya · Misbah Alhidaya Ila Alkhilafa wal Wilaya Children: Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini (Daughter) · Ahmad Khomeini (Son) · Mostafa Khomeini (Son) · Farideh Mostafavi (Daughter) · Sadiqeh Khomeini (Son)
1929: In 1929, Khomeini married Khadijeh Saqafi, the 16-year-old daughter of a cleric in Tehran.
1963: On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran.
1970: In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih).
1979: Shortly after Khomeini’s return from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahá’ís) be treated well.
1985: Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, a former student of Khomeini and a major figure of the Revolution, was chosen by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader and approved as such by the Assembly of Experts in November 1985.
1989: After spending eleven days in Jamaran hospital, Ruhollah Khomeini died on 3 June 1989 after suffering five heart attacks in just ten days, at the age of 86 just before midnight.
wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini(1990) Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prisonSouth Africa’s most prominent anti-apartheid activist, Nelson Mandela, is released after almost three decades of captivity. He will go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize and become the nation’s president.Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997.
Lived: Jul 18, 1918 – Dec 05, 2013 (age 95) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Graça Machel (m. 1998 – 2013) · Winnie Mandela (m. 1958 – 1996) · Evelyn Mase (m. 1944 – 1958) Parties: African National Congress · South African Communist Party Education: University of Fort Hare (1939 – 1940) · University of the Witwatersrand (1943 – 1949) · University of London · University of South Africa (1942) · University of London International Programmes Previous office: President of South Africa (1994 – 1999)