(1990) Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prisonSouth Africa’s most prominent anti-apartheid activist, Nelson Mandela, is released after almost three decades of captivity. He will go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize and become the nation’s president.Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997.
Lived: Jul 18, 1918 – Dec 05, 2013 (age 95) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Graça Machel (m. 1998 – 2013) · Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (m. 1958 – 1996) · Evelyn Mase (m. 1944 – 1958) Parties: African National Congress · South African Communist Party Education: University of South Africa · University of the Witwatersrand (1943 – 1949) · University of Fort Hare (1939 – 1940) · University of London International Programmes · University of London · Healdtown Comprehensive School (1937 – 1939) Children: Makgatho Mandela (Son) · Makaziwe Mandela (Daughter) · Zindzi Mandela (Daughter) · Zenani Mandela-Dlamini (Daughter) · Madiba Thembekile Mandela (Son) · Madiba (Thembi) Thembekile Mandela (Son)
Flowers left at the Mandela statue in London’s Parliament Square following his death wiki/Nelson_Mandela4.8.d17
(1990) Ban on anti-apartheid groups lifted, Nelson Mandela promised freedomSouth African President F.W. de Klerk outlines sweeping reforms in a parliamentary speech, setting the stage for the dismantling of apartheid. The reforms lift bans on anti-apartheid groups and promise the release of political prisoner Nelson Mandela.Frederik Willem de Klerk DMS is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996. South Africa’s last head of state from the era of white-minority rule, his government focused on dismantling the apartheid system and introducing universal suffrage. Ideologically a conservative and an economic liberal, he led the National Party from 1989 to 1997.
Born: Mar 18, 1936 (age 81) · Johannesburg, South Africa Height: 5′ 10″ (1.78 m) Awards: Nobel Peace Prize (1993) · Time Person of the Year (1993) · Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize (1991) · Philadelphia Liberty Medal (1993) · Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation (1992) Parties: National Party · New National Party Education: Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education Previous offices: Deputy President of South Africa (1994 – 1996) · State President of South Africa (1989 – 1994)
1989: After Botha succumbed to ill health, in 1989 de Klerk replaced him, first as leader of the National Party and then as State President.
1996: In May 1996, after the National Party objected to the new constitution, de Klerk withdrew it from the coalition government.
1998: F.W. de Klerk married Elita Georgiades on November 07, 1998.
2001: On 3 December 2001, Marike de Klerk was found stabbed and strangled to death in her Cape Town flat.
2003: On 15 May 2003, he received two life sentences for murder, as well as three years for breaking into Marike de Klerk’s apartment.
2009: After the inauguration of Jacob Zuma as South Africa’s president in May 2009, de Klerk said he is optimistic that Zuma and his government can “confound the prophets of doom”.
Frederik de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands at the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum held in Davos in January 1992. wiki/F._W._de_Klerk4.8.d17
(1963) President John F. Kennedy shot and killed in DallasA sniper kills John F. Kennedy, the 35th US president, as his motorcade wends through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline, and the Texas governor are traveling with him. Lee Harvey Oswald will soon be arrested for the shooting, but will be shot and killed himself shortly thereafter.John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963 at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas while riding in a presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally’s wife, Nellie, and was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald. A ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission from November 1963 to September 1964 concluded that Oswald acted alone in shooting Kennedy, and that Jack Ruby also acted alone when he killed Oswald before he could stand trial. Kennedy’s death marked the fourth and most recent assassination of an American President. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson automatically became President upon Kennedy’s death.
Date: Nov 22, 1963
Picture of President Kennedy in the limousine in Dallas, Texas, on Main Street, minutes before the assassination. Also in the presidential limousine are Jackie Kennedy, Texas Governor John Connally, and his wife, Nellie. wiki/Assassination_of_John_F._Kennedy(1990) Margaret Thatcher resigns as prime minister of BritainHaving served 11 years as prime minister, Margaret Thatcher quits after losing the support of her cabinet in a run-off election for the leadership of the Conservative Party. The ‘Iron Lady,’ so nicknamed for her tough demeanor, was Britain’s first female prime minister.Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC was a British stateswoman who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to have been appointed. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the “Iron Lady”, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Lived: Oct 13, 1925 – Apr 08, 2013 (age 87) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Spouse: Denis Thatcher (m. 1951 – 2003) Children: Mark Thatcher (Son) · Carol Thatcher (Daughter) Related movies: The Iron Lady Party: Conservative Party
1951: During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.
1979: Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979.
1989: Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP Sir Anthony Meyer in the 1989 leadership election.
1990: On 1 November 1990, Geoffrey Howe, the last remaining member of Thatcher’s original 1979 cabinet, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister over her refusal to agree to a timetable for Britain to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.
2005: Upon leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties.
2013: In 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87.
Thatcher reviews Royal Bermuda Regiment troops, 1990
(1942) Missile crosses a cosmic thresholdA new Nazi ‘Wunderwaffen,’ or ‘weapon of wonder,’ is fired in a test flight, and the missile’s top 52.5-mile altitude is so high it becomes the first manmade object to enter outer space. In less than two years Germany will begin launching thousands of V-2 rockets, mainly against Belgium and the UK.The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the world’s first long-range guided ballistic missile. The missile with a liquid-propellant rocket engine was developed during the Second World War in Germany as a “vengeance weapon”, assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities. The V-2 rocket also became the first artificial object to travel into outer space by crossing the Kármán line with the vertical launch of MW 18014 on 20 June 1944.
Layout of a V-2 rocket
wiki/V-2_rocket(1990) A nation carved up by the Cold War is made wholeIn what will later be celebrated as ‘Unity Day,’ a country torn in two after the Second World War is reunited as the once Soviet-controlled East Germany is dissolved and its territory and citizens merged with the Federal Republic of Germany, formerly known as West Germany.The Day of German Unity is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday. It commemorates the anniversary of German reunification in 1990, when the goal of a united Germany that originated in the middle of the 19th century, was fulfilled again. Therefore, the name addresses neither the re-union nor the union, but the unity of Germany. The Day of German Unity on 3 October has been the German national holiday since 1990, when the reunification was formally completed.
For documentary purposes the German Federal Archive often retained the original image captions, which may be erroneous, biased, obsolete or politically extreme. ADN-ZB-Grimm-3.10.90-Berlin: Vereinigung/Hunderttausende waren dabei, als vor dem Reichstag die schwarz-rot-goldene Bundesfahne gehißt wurde.
(1885) Buffalo Bill’s show hires sharpshooter Annie Oakley At 25, standing just 5 feet tall, and the daughter of Pennsylvania Quakers, Annie Oakley is nicknamed ‘Little Sure Shot’ by Sitting Bull after she’s hired on as a sharpshooter in Buffalo Bill’s popular, and lucrative, Wild West show.Annie Oakley was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Her “amazing talent” first came to light when the then-15-year-old won a shooting match with traveling-show marksman Frank E. Butler. The couple joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show a few years later. Oakley became a renowned international star, performing before royalty and heads of state.
Born: Aug 13, 1860 · Patterson Township, OH Died: Nov 03, 1926 · Greenville, OH Height: 4′ 11″ (1.51 m) Spouse: Frank E. Butler (m. 1876 – 1926) Parents: Susan Wise Moses (Mother) · Jacob Moses (Father)
1870: On March 15, 1870, at age nine, Annie was admitted to the Darke County Infirmary, along with elder sister Sarah Ellen.
1875: The Annie Oakley Center Foundation mentions Oakley visiting her married sister, Lydia Stein, at her home near Cincinnati in 1875.
1876: Assuming their marriage had been in 1876, Oakley and Butler had been married just over 50 years.
1882: A certificate is currently on file with the Archives of Ontario, Registration Number 49594, reporting Butler and Oakley being wed on June 20, 1882, in Windsor, Ontario.
1894: In 1894, Oakley and Butler performed in Edison’s Kinetoscope film, The “Little Sure Shot of the Wild West,” an exhibition of rifle shooting at glass balls, etc.
1902: She left the Buffalo Bill show and in 1902 began a quieter acting career in a stage play written especially for her, The Western Girl.
wiki/Annie_Oakley(1915) Armenian Genocide begins with arrests in ConstantinopleTurkey’s Ottoman government arrests 250 intellectuals and leaders of the minority Armenian population. Within a week most will be executed, and within a few years an estimated 1.5 million Armenians will be killed in the 20th century’s first genocide.The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government’s systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly Ottoman citizens within the Ottoman Empire and its successor state, the Republic of Turkey. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other indigenous and Christian ethnic groups such as the Assyrians and the Ottoman Greeks were similarly targeted for extermination by the Ottoman government in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.
Start date: Apr 24, 1915 End date: 1917
wiki/Armenian_Genocide(1987) Howard Stern rallies against FCCControversial radio host Howard Stern holds a rally in New York’s Dag Hammarskjold Plaza to protest the FCC’s decision that he aired indecent material. Stern’s battles with the agency would continue through 2005 when he will begin broadcasting via satellite radio.Howard Allan Stern is an American radio and television personality, producer, author, actor, and photographer. He is best known for his radio show The Howard Stern Show, which gained popularity when it was nationally syndicated on terrestrial radio from 1986 to 2005. Stern has broadcast on Sirius XM Radio since 2006. Stern first wished to be on the radio at five years of age. He landed his first radio jobs while at Boston University. From 1976 to 1982, Stern developed his on-air personality through morning positions at WRNW in Briarcliff Manor, New York, WCCC in Hartford, Connecticut, WWWW in Detroit, Michigan, and WWDC in Washington, D.C. Stern worked afternoons at WNBC in New York City from 1982 until his firing in 1985.
Born: Jan 12, 1954 (age 63) · Jackson Heights, NY Height: 6′ 5″ (1.96 m) Spouse: Beth Ostrosky Stern (m. 2008) · Alison Stern (m. 1978 – 2001) Children: Emily Beth Stern (Daughter) · Deborah Jennifer Stern (Daughter) · Ashley Jade Stern (Daughter) Education: Boston University · Roosevelt High School · South Side High School Parents: Ben Stern (Father) · Ray Stern (Mother)
wiki/Howard_Stern(1990) Hubble Space Telescope launched into Earth’s orbitRiding on the Space Shuttle ‘Discovery,’ a 24,000-pound space telescope with an almost 8-foot mirror will be deployed to a low Earth orbit. It will transmit spectacular images of distant galaxies, black holes, nebulas, and other deep-space wonders.The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble, and is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Website:www.nasa.gov/hubble Launched: Apr 24, 1990 Orbital height: 347 miles (559 km) Weight: 24,493 pound (11,110 kg) Orbital period: 96.50 minutes Orbital speed: 4.66 miles/s (7.50 km/s) Launch vehicle: STS-31