(1986) Challenger space shuttle explodes after liftoff Seven crew, including schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe, die when the Challenger space shuttle explodes 73 seconds after liftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida. A single faulty ‘O-ring’ will be identified as the cause of the explosion.On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 EST. Disintegration of the vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster failed at liftoff. The O-ring was not designed to fly under unusually cold conditions as in this launch. Its failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing pressurized burning gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB aft field joint attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB’s aft field joint attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter.
Date: Jan 28, 1986 Fatalities: 7
montage of PD-USGov-NASA images File:Challenger explosion.jpg, File:STS-51-L.jpg, File:STS-51-J TV1 01.jpg, File:Challenger breakup.jpg, File:STS-51-L Recovered Debris (O-Ring Tracks on Right SRB Joint) – GPN-2004-00010.jpg, File:STS-51-L Recovered Debris (Left Solid Rocket Booster) – GPN-2004-00009.jpg, File:Sts33-e204.jpg and PD-USGov Whitehouse Photo File:Reagans attend Challenger memorial service.jpg wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger_disaster4.8.d17
(1986) Superpower leaders meet in Iceland’s capitalNothing less than the eradication of nuclear ballistic missiles is on the table during a negotiating summit between US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev. Their talks will end in an apparent stalemate, but later lead to the groundbreaking INF Treaty.The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Hofdi in Reykjavík, on 11–12 October 1986. The talks collapsed at the last minute, but the progress that had been achieved eventually resulted in the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The former French consulate, called Hofdi, was the site of the Reykjavík Summit in 1986
wiki/Reykjavík_Summit(1991) Supreme Court confirmation hearing rivets a nationThe US Senate Judiciary Committee calls a former assistant to Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas to testify regarding her time working for him. What Anita Hill tells the panel will cause a firestorm of controversy and open up a national debate around workplace sexual harassment.
On July 1, 1991, President George H. W. Bush nominated Clarence Thomas for the Supreme Court of the United States to replace Thurgood Marshall, who had announced his retirement. The nomination proceedings were contentious from the start, especially over the issue of abortion, and many women’s groups and civil rights groups opposed Thomas on the basis of his conservative political views, as they had also opposed Bush’s Supreme Court nominee from the previous year, David Souter.
Toward the end of the confirmation hearings, sexual harassment allegations by Anita Hill, a law professor who had previously worked under Thomas at the United States Department of Education and then at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), were leaked to the media from a confidential FBI report. The allegations led to a media frenzy and further investigations. Televised hearings were re-opened and held by the Senate Judiciary Committee before the nomination was moved to the full Senate for a vote. Thomas was confirmed by a narrow majority of 52 to 48.
Official portrait of Clarence Thomas as chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission c. 1989-1990
(1787) Forming a ‘more perfect union’ is debated in Philadelphia What’s at stake for Philadelphia’s Constitutional Convention is no less than the formulation of a system to lead a newly born nation into a mature, and revolutionary, form of government. George Washington presides over a gathering of eminent minds to hammer out the details.The Constitutional Convention took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States.
Start date: May 25, 1787 End date: Sep 17, 1787 Founder: James Madison
wiki/Constitutional_Convention_(United_States)(1810) Argentina’s ‘May Revolution’ wrests independence from SpainCatching wind of chaos in Spain during its Peninsular War, rebels in Argentina form a new government, the Primera Junta, replacing 34 years of Spanish colonial rule. Inspired, in part, by the American and French Revolutions, the May Revolution will lead to the 8-year Argentine War of Independence.The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included roughly the territories of present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and parts of Brazil. The result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process.
Date: May 18, 1810
wiki/May_Revolution(1977) George Lucas’ space opera opens in theatersDirector George Lucas’ newest project hasn’t inspired much confidence at 20th Century Fox. It opens in only 32 theatres, its premiere pushed ahead of other, presumed, sure-fire summer hits. ‘Star Wars’ proves the naysayers wrong, becoming a blockbuster hit and an unstoppable cultural phenomenon.Luke Skywalker joins forces with a Jedi Knight, a cocky pilot, a wookiee and two droids to save the galaxy from the Empire’s world-destroying battle-station, while also attempting to rescue Princess Leia from the evil Darth Vader.
IMDB: www.imdb.com/title/tt0076759 Release date: May 25, 1977 (United States) Director: George Lucas Gross revenue: $775.40 million USD Estimated budget: $11 million USD Sequel: Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back Prequel: Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith
wiki/Star_Wars_(film)(1986) Americans hold Hands Across America An estimated 5 million people hold hands, forming a human chain across the contiguous United States to raise money and awareness for the charity USA for Africa. While the chain has some breaks, it stretches from New York to Los Angeles. A theme song is played simultaneously on radio stations around the country.Hands Across America was a benefit event and publicity campaign staged on Sunday, May 25, 1986 in which approximately 6.5 million people held hands in a human chain for fifteen minutes along a path across the contiguous United States. Many participants donated ten dollars to reserve their place in line; the proceeds were donated to local charities to fight hunger and homelessness and help those in poverty. wiki/Hands_Across_America4.2.m17
(1793) Spanish inventor glides over the countryside on wingsOn a moonlit night, Diego Marín Aguilera flies on his invention made of iron, wood, and a myriad of feathers. He soars some 500 yards over Coruña del Conde, Spain, before landing. Others see his glider as heretical and they will burn it, ending Aguilera’s budding career in aviation.Diego Marín Aguilera was a Spanish inventor who was an early aviation pioneer. Born in Coruña del Conde, Marín became the head of his household after his father died and had to take care of his seven siblings. He worked as an agricultural laborer, tending his animals and fields. Marín spent long afternoons and days herding sheep in the surrounding fields.
Born: 1757 Died: 1799
wiki/Diego_Marín_Aguilera(1928) A mouse named Mickey makes his debutScreened before a test audience, a silent short animated film made by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks fails to find a movie distributor. The lead character of ‘Plane Crazy,’ Mickey Mouse, won’t be fated to obscurity however, as his second outing, ‘Steamboat Willie,’ makes a big splash.Inspired by Lindbergh’s flight from New York to Paris, Mickey builds a plane to take Minnie for a trip involving some necking, though Minnie objects to the necking.
Release date: May 15, 1928 (United States) Directors: Walt Disney · Ub Iwerks Estimated budget: $3,528 USD Music by: Carl Stalling IMDB: www.imdb.com/title/tt0019278
wiki/Plane_Crazy(1972) Assassination attempt fells US presidential candidateArthur Bremer shoots Alabama governor and US presidential hopeful George Wallace as he campaigns at a Maryland shopping center. Wallace survives the assassination attempt, but will be paralyzed from the waist down the rest of his life.George Corley Wallace Jr. was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. Wallace has the third longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history, at 16 years and four days. He was a U.S. Presidential candidate for four consecutive elections, in which he sought the Democratic Party nomination in 1964, 1972, and 1976, and was the American Independent Party candidate in the 1968 presidential election. He remains the last third-party candidate to receive pledged electoral college votes from any state.
Lived: Aug 25, 1919 – Sep 13, 1998 (age 79) Height: 5′ 7″ (1.70 m) Parties: Dixiecrat · Democratic Party Education: University of Alabama · University of Alabama School of Law Related movies: Selma Previous offices: Governor of Alabama (1983 – 1987) · Governor of Alabama (1971 – 1979) · Governor of Alabama (1963 – 1967)
1943: George Wallace married Lurleen Wallace on May 21, 1943; their marriage lasted 25 years till May 07, 1968.
1963: Wallace took the oath of office on January 14, 1963, standing on the gold star marking the spot where, nearly 102 years earlier, Jefferson Davis was sworn in as provisional president of the Confederate States of America.
1966: He felt somewhat vindicated when Republicans in Idaho denied renomination in 1966 to Governor Robert E. Smylie, author of the article entitled “Why I Feel Sorry for Lurleen Wallace.”
1971: On January 4, 1971, Wallace wed the former Cornelia Ellis Snively (1939–2009), a niece of former Alabama Governor Jim Folsom, known as “Big Jim”.
1982: In the 1982 Alabama gubernatorial Democratic primary, Wallace’s main opponents were Lieutenant Governor George McMillan and Alabama House Speaker Joe McCorquodale.
1998: Wallace died of septic shock from a bacterial infection in Jackson Hospital in Montgomery on September 13, 1998.
wiki/George_Wallace(1986) Run-D.M.C. breaks throughThe hip-hop group releases its third album, which includes a collaboration with Aerosmith on a new version of the band’s hit ‘Walk This Way.’ ‘Raising Hell’ will expand rap’s popularity to MTV and a broader audience, selling more than 3 million copies.Raising Hell is the third studio album by hip hop group Run–D.M.C.. The breakthrough album trumped standing perceptions of commercial viability for hip-hop groups, achieving triple-platinum status and receiving critical attention from quarters that had previously ignored hip hop, dismissing it as a fad.
Release year: 1986 Genre: Hip Hop, Old School Hip Hop Label: Arista Artist: Run-D.M.C.
(4977 BCE) Universe allegedly comes into beingGerman astronomer Johannes Kepler pegs the year everything started. Although a pioneer in his field, and responsible for great leaps of learning during the 17th-century’s scientific revolution, his calculations won’t stand the test of time.Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation.
Lived: Dec 27, 1571 – Nov 15, 1630 (age 58) Spouse: Susanna Reuttinger (m. 1613) · Barbara Müller (m. 1597 – 1611) Education: Tübinger Stift (1587 – 1591) Children: Sebald Kepler (Son) · Heinrich Kepler (Son) · Ludwig Kepler (Son) · Friedrich Kepler (Son) · Hildebert Kepler (Son) · Fridmar Kepler (Son) · Cordula Kepler (Daughter) · Susanna Kepler (Daughter) · Margareta Regina Kepler (Daughter) Siblings: Katharina Kepler (Sister) Parents: Katharina Kepler (Mother) · Heinrich Kepler (Father)
1600: On February 4, 1600, Kepler met Tycho Brahe and his assistants Franz Tengnagel and Longomontanus at Benátky nad Jizerou (35 km from Prague), the site where Tycho’s new observatory was being constructed.
1601: Two days after Tycho’s unexpected death on October 24, 1601, Kepler was appointed his successor as imperial mathematician with the responsibility to complete his unfinished work.
1609: By the end of the year, he completed the manuscript for Astronomia nova, though it would not be published until 1609 due to legal disputes over the use of Tycho’s observations, the property of his heirs.
1613: On October 30, 1613, Kepler married the 24-year-old Susanna Reuttinger.
1623: In 1623, Kepler at last completed the Rudolphine Tables, which at the time was considered his major work.
1630: He died on November 15, 1630, and was buried there; his burial site was lost after the Swedish army destroyed the churchyard.
wiki/Johannes_Kepler(1865) Steamboat Sultana explodes on the Mississippi Burdened with six times the passengers considered safe to carry, and routine maintenance overdue, tragedy inevitably finds the steamship Sultana when a boiler blows. The vessel catches fire and sinks, killing 1,800 Union vets newly freed from Andersonville Prison.Sultana was a Mississippi River side-wheel steamboat. On April 27, 1865, the boat exploded in the worst maritime disaster in United States history. She was designed with a capacity of only 376 passengers, but she was carrying 2,155 when three of the boat’s four boilers exploded and she burned to the waterline and sank near Memphis, Tennessee, killing 1,196 passengers. This disaster was overshadowed in the press by other events, most particularly the killing on the previous day of President Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth.
Launched: Jan 03, 1863
wiki/Sultana_(steamboat)(1961) Sierra Leone gains independence A century and a half after Britain took Sierra Leone as its own, the West African nation becomes an independent country under Prime Minister Milton Margai. The transfer of power is peaceful, and the sun sets earlier on the once globe-spanning British Colonial Empire.Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north-east, Liberia to the south-east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. Sierra Leone has a total area of 71,740 km² and a population of 7,075,641.
Founded: Apr 27, 1961 GDP: $4.21 billion USD (2015) Calling code: 232 Capital: Freetown President: Ernest Bai Koroma Currency: Sierra Leonean leone
wiki/Sierra_Leone(1986) Captain Midnight hacks HBO signalSatellite TV dealer John MacDougall, under the pseudonym ‘Captain Midnight,’ jams the broadcast signal of cable network HBO for a few minutes, replacing its programming with a protest message. The protest? HBO has scrambled its signal, forcing satellite TV customers to pay for HBO. MacDougall will receive a $5,000 fine and a year of probation.On April 27, 1986, American electrical engineer and business owner John R. MacDougall, using the pseudonym Captain Midnight, jammed HBO’s satellite signal to broadcast a message protesting their rates for satellite dish owners, which he considered too expensive.