(1982) Soviet leader Brezhnev dies at age 75Leonid Brezhnev, who ruled the USSR for 18 years during the height of the Cold War, dies of a heart attack. In poor health, he had been largely a figurehead during his final years. His death will start a long cycle of reform eventually leading to the country’s breakup.Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in duration. During Brezhnev’s rule, the global influence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time. His tenure as leader was marked by the beginning of an era of economic and social stagnation in the Soviet Union.
Lived: Dec 19, 1906 – Nov 10, 1982 (age 75) Height: 5′ 8″ (1.73 m) Spouse: Viktoria Brezhneva (m. 1928 – 1982) Buried: Kremlin Wall Necropolis Children: Yuri Brezhnev (Son) · Galina Brezhneva (Daughter) Previous offices: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1977 – 1982) · General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1964 – 1982)
1928: Leonid Brezhnev married Viktoria Brezhneva in 1928.
1931: Brezhnev had met Khrushchev in 1931, shortly after joining the Party, and before long, as he continued his rise through the ranks, he became Khrushchev’s protégé.
1952: In 1952 Brezhnev became a member of the Central Committee, and during 1964, Brezhnev succeeded Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary, while Alexei Kosygin succeeded Khrushchev in his post as Soviet premier.
1957: He was now a senior member of Khrushchev’s entourage, and in June 1957, he backed Khrushchev in his struggle with Malenkov’s Stalinist old guard in the Party leadership, the so-called “Anti-Party Group”.
1977: In 1977, he forced the retirement of Podgorny and became once again Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, making this position equivalent to that of an executive president.
1982: After years of declining health, Brezhnev died on 10 November 1982 and was quickly succeeded in his post as General Secretary by Yuri Andropov.
USSR postage stamp of 1979, celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Virgin Lands Campaign
(1877) Irish immigrant activists executed in Pennsylvania Ten men are executed for murder in two separate Pennsylvania hangings, but the guilty verdicts against the ‘Molly Maguires,’ a group of Irish immigrant coal miners, will remain controversial, as many believe they were made martyrs for attempting to unionize fellow workers.The Molly Maguires was an Irish 19th-century secret society active in Ireland, Liverpool and parts of the eastern United States, best known for their activism among Irish-American and Irish immigrant coal miners in Pennsylvania. After a series of often violent conflicts, twenty suspected members of the Molly Maguires were convicted of murder and other crimes and were executed by hanging in 1877 and 1878. This history remains part of local Pennsylvania lore. wiki/Molly_Maguires(1964) Three civil rights workers disappear in MississippiAndrew Goodman, James Chaney, and Mickey Schwerner are in Mississippi to register black voters, and after being arrested and released by the local sheriff, are never seen alive again. Eighteen people will be charged with their deaths in what becomes known as the ‘Mississippi Burning’ murders.In June 1964 in Neshoba County, Mississippi, three civil rights workers were abducted and murdered in an act of racial violence. The victims were Andrew Goodman and Michael “Mickey” Schwerner from New York City, and James Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi. All three were associated with the Council of Federated Organizations and its member organization the Congress of Racial Equality. They had been working with the “Freedom Summer” campaign by attempting to register African Americans in the southern states to vote. This registration effort was a part of contesting over 70 years of laws and practices that supported a systematic policy of disenfranchisement of potential black voters by several southern states that began in 1890.
Date: Jun 21, 1964
wiki/Mississippi_civil_rights_workers’_murders(1970) Pelé and Brazil win World Cup in legendary finalMexico City’s Azteca Stadium is filled to the brim as Brazil and Italy meet in football’s World Cup final. The game will pass into legend, in part for superstar Pelé’s magnificent athleticism, and team captain Carlos Alberto’s final goal, considered by many the greatest of all time.The 1970 FIFA World Cup Final was held on Sunday, 21 June, in the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, to determine the winner of the 1970 FIFA World Cup. This final, between Brazil and Italy, marked the first time that two former world champions met in a final; Italy had previously won the World Cup in 1934 and 1938, while Brazil won in 1958 and 1962.
Date: Jun 21, 1970 Champion: Brazil national football team
wiki/1970_FIFA_World_Cup_Final(1982) Would-be presidential assassin is found legally insaneHaving shot six times at President Ronald Reagan in an assassination attempt, John Hinckley, Jr. is found not guilty by reason of insanity. The verdict will spur much argument, leading states to change or even abolish laws allowing the admissibility of the insanity defense in US courts.John Warnock Hinckley Jr. is an American citizen who, on March 30, 1981, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C. Hinckley wounded Reagan with a bullet that ricocheted and hit him in the chest. Hinckley also wounded police officer Thomas Delahanty and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy, and critically wounded Press Secretary James Brady. All of the shooting victims survived, although Brady’s 2014 death was later ruled a homicide 33 years after he was shot.
Born: May 29, 1955 (age 62) · Ardmore, OK Parents: Jo Ann Moore · John Warnock Hinckley Sr. Siblings: Scott · Diane Education: Yale University · Texas Tech University · Highland Park High School
1955: John Warnock Hinckley Jr. was born on May 29, 1955 in Ardmore, Oklahoma, and moved with his wealthy family to Dallas, Texas, at the age of 4.
1981: On March 30, 1981, at 2:27 p.m. local time, Hinckley shot a .22 caliber Röhm RG-14 revolver six times at Reagan as he left the Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., after the president addressed an AFL–CIO conference.
1982: At his trial in 1982, in Washington, D.C., having been charged with 13 offenses, Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity on June 21.
2005: On December 30, 2005, a federal judge ruled that Hinckley would be allowed visits, supervised by his parents, to their home in Williamsburg, Virginia.
2011: On March 29, 2011, the day before the 30th anniversary of the assassination attempt, Hinckley’s attorney filed a court petition requesting more freedom for his client, including additional unsupervised visits to the Virginia home of Hinckley’s mother, Joanne.
2016: Hinckley was released from institutional psychiatric care on September 10, 2016, and will live full-time at his mother’s home.
(1824) Beethoven’s 9th premieres in ViennaIn his first stage appearance in over a decade, German composer Ludwig van Beethoven premieres his Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 in Vienna, Austria. Although he wrote the symphony when nearly deaf, it will turn out to be his greatest triumph.The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, also known as “the Choral”, is Ludwig van Beethoven’s final complete symphony. Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the best-known works in classical music. It is almost universally considered by critics to be one of Beethoven’s greatest works, and many consider it one of the greatest compositions in the western musical canon. The symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony. The words are sung during the final movement by four vocal soloists and a chorus. They were taken from the “Ode to Joy”, a poem written by Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and revised in 1803, with text additions made by the composer. In the 2010s, it stands as one of the most performed symphonies in the world.
Completed: 1824 Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven Compositional forms: Symphony · Choral symphony · Lied Key: D minor
wiki/Symphony_No._9_(Beethoven)(1965) Keith Richards gets ‘Satisfaction’Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards has placed a tape recorder next to his bed in a Clearwater, Florida, motel room, and he awakes to find that at some point in the early morning he’d laid down the opening riff of ‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.’ The Stones will record the song, with its distinctive guitar hook, just days later and it will make them superstars.
“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” is a song by the English rock band the Rolling Stones, released in 1965. It was written by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards and produced by Andrew Loog Oldham. Richards’ three-note guitar riff—intended to be replaced by horns—opens and drives the song. The lyrics refer to sexual frustration and commercialism.
The song was first released as a single in the United States in June 1965 and was also featured on the American version of the Rolling Stones’ fourth studio album, Out of Our Heads, released that July. “Satisfaction” was a hit, giving the Stones their first number one in the US. In the UK, the song initially was played only on pirate radio stations, because its lyrics were considered too sexually suggestive. It later became the Rolling Stones’ fourth number one in the United Kingdom.
In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine placed “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” in the second spot on its list of “The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time”. The song was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2006.
Album: Out of Our Heads Artist: The Rolling Stones Release year: 1965 Duration: 3:43 Genre: Rock, Classic Rock
wiki/(I_Can%27t_Get_No)_Satisfaction(1982) NFL’s Raiders move to Los AngelesAfter two years of lawsuits, outspoken, uncompromising team owner Al Davis is finally allowed to move the Raiders from Oakland to Los Angeles. The Raiders will play there until 1995 when they will move back to Oakland. In 2017, they will flirt with a return to L.A. before announcing plans to relocate to Las Vegas.The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The team was founded on January 30, 1960, and commenced operations on September 11, 1960, as a member of the American Football League at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, California; they are currently members of the National Football League, which merged with the AFL in 1970. The Raiders currently compete in the NFL as a member club of the league’s American Football Conference West division and play their home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. At the end of the NFL’s 2015 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular-season record of 444 wins, 397 losses, and 11 ties; their lifetime playoff record currently stands at 25 wins and 18 losses.
Founded: 1960 Coach: Jack Del Rio Venue: Mount Davis Owner: Mark Davis Championships: 2003 AFC Championship Game · Super Bowl XVIII · Super Bowl XV · Super Bowl XI · 1967 American Football League Championship Game Location: Oakland
wiki/Oakland_Raiders(2000) Russia inaugurates Vladimir Putin as presidentA former lieutenant colonel in the Soviet KGB, Vladimir Putin becomes Russia’s second president after winning the popular vote. He will wrest tight control of the country’s power structure, as president and later as prime minister, re-establishing the firm authority of the centralized government.Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012. He was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, President from 2000 to 2008, and again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling United Russia Party.
Born: Oct 07, 1952 (age 64) · Saint Petersburg, Russia Height: 5′ 7″ (1.70 m) Office: President of Russia (Since 2012) Spouse: Lyudmila Putina (m. 1983 – 2014) Children: Yekaterina Putina (Daughter) · Mariya Putina (Daughter) Previous offices: Prime Minister of Russia (2008 – 2012) · Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union State (2008 – 2012) · Leader of United Russia (2008 – 2012) · President of Russia (2000 – 2008) · Prime Minister of Russia (1999 – 2000) · Acting President of Russia (1999 – 2000) · Acting Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (1999 – 1999)
1983: Vladimir Putin married Lyudmila Putina on July 28, 1983; their marriage lasted 31 years till April 02, 2014.
1998: On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Putin as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the primary intelligence and security organization of the Russian Federation and successor of the KGB.
2008: In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian President who visited Libya.
2008: In a power-switching operation on 8 May 2008, only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, maintaining his political dominance.
2012: Putin’s presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.
2015: In June 2015, Putin told an Italian newspaper that Russia has no intention of attacking NATO.
(1800) Vienna premieres Beethoven’s First SymphonyLudwig van Beethoven is pianist at the debut performance of his First Symphony at the Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria. The 30-year-old composer also plays works by his friend Joseph Haydn and the late Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 1 in C major, Op. 21, was dedicated to Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an early patron of the composer. The piece was published in 1801 by Hoffmeister & Kühnel of Leipzig. It is not known exactly when Beethoven finished writing this work, but sketches of the finale were found to be from 1795.
Completed: 1800 Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven Compositional form: Symphony Key: C major First performance: Burgtheater
wiki/Symphony_No._1_(Beethoven)(1968) ‘2001’ opens, causing controversy and blowing mindsStanley Kubrick’s collaboration with science-fiction master Arthur C. Clarke premieres in Washington, DC, and the movie will go on to garner glowing and glowering reviews in equal measure. It will eventually be hailed as a masterpiece.Humanity finds a mysterious, obviously artificial object buried beneath the Lunar surface and, with the intelligent computer H.A.L. 9000, sets off on a quest.
Release date: Apr 03, 1968 (United States) Director: Stanley Kubrick Gross revenue: $190.70 million USD Sequel: 2010 Story by: Stanley Kubrick · Arthur C. Clarke Awards: Academy Award for Best Visual Effects · Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation · BAFTA Award for Best Sound · BAFTA Award for Best Art Direction · Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director IMDB: www.imdb.com/title/tt0062622
wiki/2001:_A_Space_Odyssey_(film)(1982) Falklands War beginsBritain’s colonial past rears its head when Argentina invades and occupies an archipelago of islands in the South Atlantic they say is rightfully theirs. The British will send troops to hold on to the territory they’ve claimed since the 18th century, and Argentina will surrender by June 14.The Falklands War, also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur, was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.
Start date: Apr 02, 1982 End date: Jun 14, 1982
wiki/Falklands_War(1992) The “Teflon Don” is finally convictedJohn Gotti, head of the Gambino crime family and famously dapper dresser, is found guilty of homicide, after a history of being acquitted by juries. The charismatic mafia don will spend the rest of his life behind bars.John Joseph Gotti Jr. was an Italian-American gangster who became boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City. Gotti and his brothers grew up in poverty and turned to a life of crime at an early age. Gotti quickly rose to prominence, becoming one of the crime family’s biggest earners and a protégé of Gambino family underboss Aniello Dellacroce, operating out of the Ozone Park neighborhood of Queens.
Lived: Oct 27, 1940 – Jun 10, 2002 (age 61) Height: 5′ 10″ (1.78 m) Spouse: Victoria DiGiorgio (m. 1962 – 2002) Children: Victoria Gotti (Daughter) · John A. Gotti (Son) · Frank Gotti (Son) · Peter Gotti, Jr. (Son) · Angel Gotti (Daughter) Siblings: Peter Gotti (Brother) · Gene Gotti (Brother) · Richard V. Gotti (Brother) · Vincent Gotti (Brother) Parents: John Joseph Gotti, Sr. (Father) · Philomena Gotti
1962: John Gotti married Victoria DiGiorgio on March 06, 1962.
1985: After Dellacroce died of cancer on December 2, 1985, Castellano revised his succession plan: appointing Bilotti as underboss to Thomas Gambino as the sole acting boss, while making plans to break up Gotti’s crew.
1986: He was formally acclaimed as the new boss of the Gambino family at a meeting of 20 capos held on January 15, 1986.
1990: On December 11, 1990, FBI agents and New York City detectives raided the Ravenite Social Club, arresting Gotti, Gravano and Frank Locascio.
1991: In 1991, Gravano agreed to turn state’s evidence and testify for the prosecution against Gotti after hearing Gotti on wiretap making several disparaging remarks about Gravano that implicated them both in several murders.
2002: Gotti died of throat cancer on June 10, 2002, at the United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.
(1582) Pope Gregory XIII reforms the calendarThe Gregorian calendar is introduced as Pope Gregory reworks the Julian calendar, unyoking Easter from the spring equinox, changing leap year protocol, and subtracting 10 minutes and 48 seconds a year.
The Gregorian calendar is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582.
The calendar was a refinement to the Julian calendar involving a 0.002% correction in the length of the year. The motivation for the reform was to stop the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes and solstices—particularly the vernal equinox, which set the date for Easter celebrations. Transition to the Gregorian calendar would restore the holiday to the time of the year in which it was celebrated when introduced by the early Church. The reform was adopted initially by the Catholic countries of Europe. Protestants and Eastern Orthodox countries continued to use the traditional Julian calendar and adopted the Gregorian reform after a time, for the sake of convenience in international trade. The last European country to adopt the reform was Greece, in 1923.
The Gregorian reform contained two parts: a reform of the Julian calendar as used prior to Pope Gregory XIII’s time and a reform of the lunar cycle used by the Church, with the Julian calendar, to calculate the date of Easter. The reform was a modification of a proposal made by Aloysius Lilius. His proposal included reducing the number of leap years in four centuries from 100 to 97, by making 3 out of 4 centurial years common instead of leap years. Lilius also produced an original and practical scheme for adjusting the epacts of the moon when calculating the annual date of Easter, solving a long-standing obstacle to calendar reform.
The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar’s scheme of leap years as follows:
Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the years 1600 and 2000 are.
In addition to the change in the mean length of the calendar year from 365.25 days (365 days 6 hours) to 365.2425 days (365 days 5 hours 49 minutes 12 seconds), a reduction of 10 minutes 48 seconds per year, the Gregorian calendar reform also dealt with the accumulated difference between these lengths. The canonical Easter tables were devised at the end of the third century, when the vernal equinox fell either on 20 March or 21 March depending on the year’s position in the leap year cycle. As the rule was that the full moon preceding Easter was not to precede the equinox, the date was fixed at 21 March for computational purposes and the earliest date for Easter was fixed at 22 March. The Gregorian calendar reproduced these conditions by removing ten days.
To unambiguously specify the date, dual dating or Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are sometimes used with dates. Dual dating uses two consecutive years because of differences in the starting date of the year, or includes both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Old Style and New Style (N.S.) indicate either whether the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (N.S.) even though documents written at the time use a different start of year (O.S.), or whether a date conforms to the Julian calendar (O.S.) rather than the Gregorian (N.S.).
The Gregorian calendar continued to use the previous calendar era (year-numbering system), which counts years from the traditional date of the nativity (Anno Domini), originally calculated in the 6th century by Dionysius Exiguus. This year-numbering system, also known as Dionysian era or Common Era, is the predominant international standard today.
wiki/Gregorian_calendar(1981) Socialite convicted of Scarsdale doctor murderAfter testifying that the shooting of her ex-lover was an accident, Jean Harris is found guilty of killing ‘Scarsdale Diet’ doctor Herman Tarnower. Harris will go on to lead reforms for female convicts.Jean Struven Harris was the headmistress of The Madeira School for girls in McLean, Virginia, who made national news in the early 1980s as she was tried and convicted of the murder of her ex-lover, Herman Tarnower, a well-known cardiologist and author of the best-selling book The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet.
Born: Apr 27, 1923 · Cleveland, OH Died: Dec 23, 2012 · New Haven, CT Education: Smith College
1966: Harris met Tarnower, a cardiologist (later known, due to a popular diet book he published, as the “Scarsdale Diet Doctor”), in December 1966, the year after her divorce.
1980: On March 10, 1980, Harris drove 264 miles from the Madeira School in Virginia to Tarnower’s home in Purchase, New York, with a .32 caliber revolver in her possession.
1981: Harris’ murder trial was depicted in the 1981 made-for-television movie The People vs. Jean Harris.
1992: Eleven years after Harris’s conviction, Governor Mario Cuomo commuted the remainder of her sentence on December 29, 1992, as she was being prepped for quadruple bypass heart surgery.
1997: In the 1997 Seinfeld episode “The Summer of George,” Raquel Welch plays herself portraying Harris in a fictional Tony Award-winning musical about the murders called Scarsdale Surprise.
2012: Harris died of natural causes on December 23, 2012, at an assisted-living center in New Haven, Connecticut at age 89.
wiki/Jean_Harris(1982) Wayne Gretzky scores record goalHockey phenom Wayne Gretzky scores his 77th goal for the season, breaking a single-season record that many predicted couldn’t be bested. ‘The Great One’ will go on to become one of Canada’s greatest sports heroes.Wayne Douglas Gretzky CC is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and former head coach. He played twenty seasons in the National Hockey League for four teams from 1979 to 1999. Nicknamed “The Great One”, he has been called “the greatest hockey player ever” by many sportswriters, players, and the league itself. He is the leading scorer in NHL history, with more goals and assists than any other player. He garnered more assists than any other player scored total points, and is the only NHL player to total over 200 points in one season – a feat he accomplished four times. In addition, he tallied over 100 points in 16 professional seasons, 14 of them consecutive. At the time of his retirement in 1999, he held 61 NHL records: 40 regular-season records, 15 playoff records, and six All-Star records. As of 2014, he still holds 60 NHL records.
Born: Jan 26, 1961 (age 56) · Brantford, Canada Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Net worth: $200 million USD (2016) Spouse: Janet Jones (m. 1988) Children: Paulina Gretzky (Daughter) · Emma Gretzky (Daughter) · Tristan Gretzky (Son) · Trevor Gretzky (Son) · Ty Gretzky (Son) Siblings: Keith Gretzky (Brother) · Brent Gretzky (Brother) · Glen Gretzky (Brother) · Kim Gretzky (Sister) Website: www.gretzky.com Twitter: @OfficialGretzky
1979: One of the highlights of Gretzky’s season was his appearance in the 1979 WHA All-Star Game.
1985: The Oilers also won the Cup with Gretzky in 1985, 1987 and 1988.
1988: Wayne Gretzky married Janet Jones on July 16, 1988.
1988: His trade to the Los Angeles Kings on August 9, 1988, had an immediate impact on the team’s performance, eventually leading them to the 1993 Stanley Cup Finals, and he is credited with popularizing hockey in California.
1996: On February 27, 1996, Gretzky joined the St. Louis Blues in a trade for Patrice Tardif, Roman Vopat, Craig Johnson, and two draft picks (Peter Hogan and Matt Zultek).
1998: The next season, Gretzky broke Gordie Howe’s career goal-scoring record and won the scoring title, but the team began a long slide, and despite numerous player and coaching moves, they failed to qualify for the playoffs again until 1998.
wiki/Wayne_Gretzky(1991) Gulf War ground offensive launchedA single US infantry battalion and two US Marine divisions cross from Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and begin a push to liberate it from occupying Iraqi forces. Saddam Hussein’s army will fully retreat three days later, leading to the end of the Gulf War.The Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Shield for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait.