(1959) First Grammy Awards held in New York and Los AngelesThe National Academy of Recording Arts and Services hosts black-tie dinners on both coasts to give out the first Grammy Awards. Attendees include Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., and Dean Martin. ‘Volare’ wins Song and Record of the Year, and Henry Mancini’s ‘The Music From Peter Gunn’ takes Album of the Year.A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, and the Academy Awards.
Categories: Grammy Award for Album of the Year · Grammy Award for Song of the Year · Grammy Award for Record of the Year · Grammy Award for Best New Artist · Grammy Award for Best Rap Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Song · Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award · Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album
wiki/Grammy_Award(1961) Freedom Riders head to the US South Calling themselves the ‘Freedom Riders,’ 13 activists board an interstate bus departing Washington, DC, for New Orleans, Louisiana. Along the way they will defy Jim Crow travel laws, be beaten by angry crowds, and be arrested and jailed.Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia, which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
Start date: May 04, 1961 End date: Dec 10, 1961
wiki/Freedom_Riders(1970) Students killed as National Guard opens fire on campus A war protest turns deadly as Ohio National Guard troops shoot at unarmed students on the Kent State University commons. Four die, nine are wounded, and less than a week later 100,000 will march against the killings, and the Vietnam War, in Washington, DC.The Kent State shootings were the shootings of unarmed college students protesting the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, by members of the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970. Twenty-nine guardsmen fired approximately 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
Fatalities: 4 Date: May 04, 1970
wiki/Kent_State_shootings(1979) Thatcher sworn in as Britain’s first female prime ministerThe first woman prime minister in British history arrives at at 10 Downing Street after her Conservative Party sweeps the elections. Margaret Thatcher will prove to be one of the country’s longest tenured PMs as well as one of the most controversial.Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC was a British stateswoman, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and as Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Lived: Oct 13, 1925 – Apr 08, 2013 (age 87) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Spouse: Denis Thatcher (m. 1951 – 2003) Education: Somerville College, Oxford (1943 – 1947) · Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School (1936 – 1943) · City Law School (1952 – 1954) Children: Mark Thatcher (Son) · Carol Thatcher (Daughter) Related movies: The Iron Lady
1951: During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.
1975: Thatcher became party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975; she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy.
1979: Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979.
2002: Thatcher was voted the fourth-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by MORI, and in 2002 was ranked number 16 in the BBC poll 100 Greatest Britons.
2005: After leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties.
2013: In 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87.
(193) Pertinax is assassinated in Imperial Rome power-grabEmperor Commodus’ murder on New Year’s Eve 192 had set off ‘the year of five emperors,’ an epic struggle for Roman rule that escalates when Commodus’ successor, Emperor Pertinax, is killed by his own Pretorian Guard after just three months as caesar.The Year of the Five Emperors refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. The five were Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war where multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. wiki/Year_of_the_Five_Emperors(845) Vikings sack ParisThe Frankish Empire is no match for a plundering hoard of Viking warriors, headed, tradition holds, by the legendary Danish chieftain Ragnar Lodbrok. The invaders will be paid a literal king’s ransom to leave Paris.The Siege of Paris and the Sack of Paris of 845 was the culmination of a Viking invasion of the kingdom of the West Franks. The Viking forces were led by a Norse chieftain named “Reginherus”, or Ragnar, who traditionally has been identified with the legendary saga character Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar’s fleet of 120 Viking ships, carrying thousands of men, entered the Seine in March and proceeded to sail up the river. The West Frankish king Charles the Bald assembled a smaller army in response, but as the Vikings defeated one division, comprising half of the army, the remaining forces retreated. The Vikings reached Paris at the end of the month, during Easter. After plundering and occupying the city, the Vikings finally withdrew after receiving a ransom payment of 7,000 French livres of silver and gold from Charles the Bald. wiki/Siege_of_Paris_(845)(1776) First Europeans settle in San Francisco With 247 colonists in tow, Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza founds a fort, or ‘presidio,’ on a wide bay in northern California. The modest outpost will grow into one of the biggest cities in North America.San Francisco officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations. Located at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula, San Francisco is about 47.9 square miles in area, making it the smallest county—and the only consolidated city-county—within the state of California. With a density of about 18,451 people per square mile, San Francisco is the most densely settled large city in California and the second-most densely populated major city in the United States after New York City. San Francisco is the fourth-most populous city in California, after Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Jose, and the 13th-most populous city in the United States—with a census-estimated 2015 population of 864,816. The city and its surrounding areas are known as the San Francisco Bay Area, and are a part of the larger OMB-designated San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland combined statistical area, the fifth most populous in the nation with an estimated population of 8.7 million.
Website: www.sfgov.org Population: 864,816 (2015) Area: 231.89 sq miles (600.59 km²) Travel tip: Who cares about a little fog (okay, a lot of fog) when there’s so much to do in San Francisco? By day, explore Fisherman’s Wharf and the Aquarium of the Bay, ride a cable car, @tripadvisor Nearby airports: San Francisco International Airport · Oakland International Airport Mayor: Ed Lee
wiki/San_Francisco(1979) Three Mile Island plant suffers a partial meltdown Fears of radioactive contamination run rampant after a coolant leak causes a reactor at Pennsylvania’s Three Mile Island to overheat. The power plant, just 10 miles from the state capital, is stabilized before complete meltdown. The accident will swell anti-nuclear sentiment in the public.The Three Mile Island accident was a partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. It was the most significant accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. The incident was rated a five on the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale: Accident With Wider Consequences.
(1351) The Combat of the Thirty tests chivalry’s limits Thirty of the best knights from France, and 30 from England, fight with spears, axes, and daggers over who will rule Brittany. Contemporaries hail it as a shining example of chivalry, while historians will see a dark underside.The Combat of the Thirty was an episode in the Breton War of Succession, a war fought to determine who would rule the Duchy of Brittany. It was an arranged fight between picked combatants from both sides of the conflict.
Date: Mar 26, 1351
wiki/Combat_of_the_Thirty(1920) F. Scott Fitzgerald’s first novel is publishedPrinceton dropout, Army vet, and car-roof repairman F. Scott Fitzgerald sees his first novel, ‘This Side of Paradise,’ published. Its popular and critical success will announce the 23-year-old author as the poet of the Jazz Age. He’ll finish just three other novels in his lifetime, including ‘The Great Gatsby.’This Side of Paradise is the debut novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Published in 1920 and taking its title from a line of Rupert Brooke’s poem Tiare Tahiti, the book examines the lives and morality of post–World War I youth. Its protagonist, Amory Blaine, is an attractive Princeton University student who dabbles in literature. The novel explores the theme of love warped by greed and status seeking.
Author: F. Scott Fitzgerald First published: Mar 26, 1920 Number of pages: 305 Characters: Beatrice Blaine · Amory Blaine · Monsignor Darcy · Rosalind Connage · Isabelle Borgé Genre: Novel
wiki/This_Side_of_Paradise(1971) East Pakistan officially becomes BangladeshA Declaration of Independence is issued as East Pakistan formally breaks away from West Pakistan, renaming itself the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. A nine-month war and genocide, especially targeting Bengalis, will follow.Bangladesh, officially the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar. Nepal, Bhutan and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The country’s maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world’s eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the country’s largest port.
Founded: Mar 26, 1971 GDP: $195.08 billion USD (2015) Population: 161 million (2015) Area: 55,598 sq miles (143,998 km²) Calling code: 880 Capital: Dhaka
wiki/Bangladesh(1979) Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty ends 30-year warSeven months after meeting with US President Jimmy Carter for peace talks at Camp David, Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel sign a treaty ending decades of conflict between their two countries.The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-‘Isrā’īlīyah; Hebrew: הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords. The Egypt–Israel treaty was signed by Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, and witnessed by United States president Jimmy Carter. wiki/Egypt–Israel_Peace_Treaty3.3.f17
(1820) Missouri Compromise passed by US SenateThe tinderbox debate over slavery in the United States is temporarily tamped down as the Senate cobbles together a compromise allowing Missouri to be a slave state while Maine becomes a free state.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th Congress of the United States on May 8, 1820. The measures provided for the admission of the District of Maine as a state free to ratify a state constitution that both did not recognize and prohibited slavery within the state. Further, the Compromise provided that the Missouri territory was free to enact a state constitution that both recognized as legal and permitted (through affirmative state legislation and state government regulation), the institution of chattel slavery. In addition, it outlawed as a matter of Federal law both the recognition and legality of the institution of chattel slavery in the Federal territory that remained of the Louisiana Purchase that was still unorganized and north of the 36°30′ parallel (excepting Missouri, hence “Missouri Compromise”) within the Purchase lands. With these actions, the Compromise committed the largest remaining portion of Purchase territory to free soil. It did not permit either the plantation of or the expansion of slavery in the Purchase, as the territory became populated and organized first into Federal territories, and eventually into states of the union. However, South of the parallel no slavery restrictions were imposed in the Arkansas Territory, which later became Indian territory, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. There also were not any statements about restrictions or recognition of the institution of slavery at or South of the latitude, or in territory possessed by Spain. President James Monroe signed the legislation on April 6, 1820.
The compromise bills served to quell the furious sectional debates that had first erupted during the final session of the 15th Congress. On February 3, 1819, Representative James Tallmadge, Jr., a Jeffersonian Republican from New York State, had submitted two amendments to Missouri’s request for statehood. The first proposed to federally prohibit further slave migration into Missouri; the second would require all slave offspring, born after statehood, freed at 25 years of age. At issue among southern legislators was the encroachment by their northern free state colleagues in what they considered a purely sectional concern: slave labor.
Northern critics including Federalists and Republicans, objected to the expansion of slavery into the Louisiana Purchase territory on the Constitutional inequalities of the three-fifths rule, which conferred Southern representation in the federal government, derived from a states’ slave population. Nonetheless, the more populous North held a firm numerical advantage in the House. Jeffersonian Republicans in the North ardently maintained that a strict interpretation of the Constitution required that Congress act to limit the spread of slavery on egalitarian grounds.
The slave-holding states were acutely aware that maintaining a balance in the number of free-to-slave states was necessary to ensure political equilibrium in the US Senate. With the Senate evenly split at the opening of the debates, both sections possessing 11 states, the admission of Missouri would give the South a two-seat advantage in the upper house and diminish the Northern lower house majority. The South sought to enlist Missouri to maintain Southern political preeminence and ensure security of their institutions.
The Missouri question in the 15th Congress ended in stalemate on March 4, 1819, the House sustaining its northern antislavery position, and the Senate blocking a slavery restricted statehood. Antislavery agitation grew in the North in the aftermath of the debates, leading to widespread opposition to slavery in Missouri. As the 16th Congress assembled in December 1819, the two houses remained thoroughly polarized over slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territories.
When the free-soil District of Maine offered its petition for statehood, the Senate quickly linked the Maine and Missouri bills, making Maine admission a condition for Missouri entering the Union with slavery unrestricted. Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois added a compromise proviso, excluding slavery from all remaining lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36 30’ parallel. The combined measures passed the Senate, only to be voted down in the House by those Northern representatives who held out for a free Missouri. Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, in a desperate bid to break the deadlock, divided the Senate bills. Clay and his pro-compromise allies succeeded in pressuring half the anti-restrictionist House Southerners to submit to the passage of the Thomas proviso, while maneuvering a number of restrictionist House northerners to acquiesce in supporting Missouri as a slave state. This was the Missouri Compromise.
The legislation extracted by the compromisers served to effect a “brokered truce” or “armistice” rather than a genuine compromise. The crux of the Compromise was that it circumvented the deepening disaffection among Jeffersonian Republicans.
The Missouri crisis would spur the formation of two powerful political organizations – the Democratic and Whig Parties – both committed to preserving the federal Union by means of sectional compromise and the suppression of the explosive proslavery and antislavery arguments that had surfaced over Missouri statehood. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 would hasten the growth of a mass antislavery coalition – the Republican Party – whose precepts of which were first formulated by Jeffersonian Republican restrictionists during the Missouri crisis.
wiki/Missouri_Compromise(1913) Armory Show sends shockwaves through the art worldBringing the European avant-garde on a grand scale to American viewers for the first time, the works in this modern art exhibition, representing the latest styles of Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism, will inspire anger, disgust, delight, and a colossal buzz.John Quinn organized the famous Armory Show in 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory with the help of Henri-Pierre Roche and the Association of American Painters and Sculptors. The Irish American lawyer and premier art collector was active at Tammany Hall and used his influence to convince Congress to overturn the 1909 Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act, allowing him to stage at “the Fightin Irish Armory” a very controversial and the first large exhibition of modern art in America. The three-city exhibition started in the New York City venue on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and then to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, where, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed. The show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism.
Date: Feb 17, 1913
wiki/Armory_Show(1966) The Beach Boys begin recording ‘Good Vibrations’Previously purveyors of sunshine-and-sand pop tunes, The Beach Boys begin recording what is arguably their greatest and most blissfully complex song, thanks mainly to the work of their frontman, Brian Wilson.“Good Vibrations” is a song composed and produced by Brian Wilson with words by Mike Love for the American rock band the Beach Boys. Released as a single in October 1966, it was an immediate critical and commercial hit, topping record charts in several countries including the US and UK. Characterized by its complex soundscapes, episodic structure, and subversions of pop music formula, it was the most costly single ever recorded at the time of its release. “Good Vibrations” later became widely acclaimed as one of the greatest masterpieces of rock music.
Album: Smiley Smile Artist: The Beach Boys Duration: 3:35 Genre: Pop music, Contemporary Pop
wiki/Good_Vibrations(1979) China invades VietnamAfter Vietnam topples the Chinese-backed Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, China launches the Third Indochina War. Tensions between China and the Soviet Union underlie the invasion.The Sino-Vietnamese War, also known as the Third Indochina War, was a brief border war fought between the People’s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979. China launched the offensive in response to Vietnam’s invasion and occupation of Cambodia in 1978. Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger wrote that Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping saw this as a Soviet attempt “to extend its evil tentacles to Southeast Asia and…carry out expansion there”, which reflected the long-standing Sino-Soviet split. Kissinger also noted that hatever the shortcomings of its execution, the Chinese campaign reflected a serious, long-term strategic analysis”.
(1858) Bernadette has vision of Virgin MaryBernadette Soubirous, age 14, claims the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a grotto near the French town of Lourdes. The peasant girl will face skepticism, but the grotto will become a shrine and Bernadette will be made a saint.Bernadette Soubirous was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes, France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. Soubirous is best known for the Marian apparitions of a “small young lady” who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby garbage dump of the cave-grotto at Massabielle where apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858. She would later receive recognition when the lady who appeared to her identified herself as the Immaculate Conception.
Born: Jan 07, 1844 · Lourdes, France Died: Apr 16, 1879 · Nevers, France Related movies: The Song of Bernadette Siblings: Jean-Marie Soubirous (Brother) · Jean Soubirous (Brother) · Justin Soubirous (Brother) · Toinette Soubirous (Sister) · Louise Soubirous (Sister) · Pierre Soubirous (Brother) Parents: François Soubirous (Father) · Louise Soubirous (Mother)
1844: Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844 and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierre’s, on 9 January, her parents’ wedding anniversary.
1858: On 11 February 1858, Bernadette, then aged 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle (Tuta de Massavielha) when she experienced her first vision.
1866: On 29 July 1866, with 42 other candidates, she took the religious habit of a postulant and joined the Sisters of Charity at their motherhouse at Nevers.
1876: She had followed the development of Lourdes as a pilgrimage shrine while she still lived at Lourdes, but was not present for the consecration of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception there in 1876.
1879: She eventually died of her long-term illness at the age of 35 on 16 April 1879, while praying the holy rosary.
wiki/Bernadette_Soubirous(1937) General Motors recognizes autoworker’s unionFollowing a six-week strike by the United Auto Workers, violent clashes with police, and Michigan’s governor calling in the National Guard, General Motors is the first American auto company to sign a union contract.The 1936–1937 Flint sit-down strike against General Motors changed the United Automobile Workers from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Start date: 1936
wiki/Flint_sit-down_strike(1979) Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power in IranAfter defeating the last of the Iranian shah’s forces, rebel groups seize power and install their formerly exiled leader, Khomeini, as the head of the new Islamic republic.Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country’s Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei.
Lived: Sep 24, 1902 – Jun 03, 1989 (age 86) Height: 5′ 9″ (1.76 m) Spouse: Khadijeh Saqafi (m. 1929 – 1989) Previous office: Supreme Leader of Iran (1979 – 1989) Written works: Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist · Tahrir al-Wasilah · Kitab Albai’i · Alrasail Alashara · Almakasib Almuharrama · Anwar Alhidaya fi Alt’aliqa ‘Ala Alkifaya · Misbah Alhidaya Ila Alkhilafa wal Wilaya Children: Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini (Daughter) · Ahmad Khomeini (Son) · Mostafa Khomeini (Son) · Farideh Mostafavi (Daughter) · Sadiqeh Khomeini (Son)
1929: In 1929, Khomeini married Khadijeh Saqafi, the 16-year-old daughter of a cleric in Tehran.
1963: On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran.
1970: In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih).
1979: Shortly after Khomeini’s return from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahá’ís) be treated well.
1985: Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, a former student of Khomeini and a major figure of the Revolution, was chosen by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader and approved as such by the Assembly of Experts in November 1985.
1989: After spending eleven days in Jamaran hospital, Ruhollah Khomeini died on 3 June 1989 after suffering five heart attacks in just ten days, at the age of 86 just before midnight.
wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini(1990) Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prisonSouth Africa’s most prominent anti-apartheid activist, Nelson Mandela, is released after almost three decades of captivity. He will go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize and become the nation’s president.Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997.
Lived: Jul 18, 1918 – Dec 05, 2013 (age 95) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Graça Machel (m. 1998 – 2013) · Winnie Mandela (m. 1958 – 1996) · Evelyn Mase (m. 1944 – 1958) Parties: African National Congress · South African Communist Party Education: University of Fort Hare (1939 – 1940) · University of the Witwatersrand (1943 – 1949) · University of London · University of South Africa (1942) · University of London International Programmes Previous office: President of South Africa (1994 – 1999)