(1739) India’s ‘Peacock Throne’ stolen from DelhiSaid to cost more than the Taj Mahal, the Mughal emperor’s Peacock Throne is stolen by invading Persian forces. Incalculably valuable and made of solid gold, precious gemstones, and rare pearls, it will be lost ever since.The Peacock Throne was a famous jeweled throne that was the seat of the Mughal emperors of India. It was commissioned in the early 17th century by emperor Shah Jahan and was located in the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audiences) in the Red Fort of Delhi. The original throne was subsequently captured and taken as a war trophy in 1739 by the Persian king Nadir Shah, and has been lost ever since. A replacement throne based on the original was commissioned afterwards and existed until the Indian war of Independence in 1857. wiki/Peacock_Throne(1895) First screening of a projected movieCinema is born in Paris, as 200 invited guests watch ‘Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory,’ a one-minute film made by Auguste and Louis Lumière with their new creation, the cinematograph film camera. The film, probably the first real motion picture ever made, is shown together with several short clips, one of which startles the audience with the image of an oncoming train.A man opens the big gates to the Lumière factory. Through the gateway and a smaller doorway beside it, workers are streaming out, turning either left or right. Most of them are women in long dresses and big hats, but some are men. Suddenly a man with a long apron rushes out through the crowd, followed by a big dog. At last some men on bikes leave the gateway. When all workers have left the factory, the doorkeeper starts closing the gates again.
Release date: Mar 22, 1895 (France) Director: Louis Lumière
wiki/Workers_Leaving_the_Lumière_Factory(1960) The laser is patentedPhysicists Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes of Bell Labs are awarded a patent for the laser, or “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” Some experts will contend that physicist grad student Gordon Gould should’ve received the patent.A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently. Spatial coherence allows a laser to be focused to a tight spot, enabling applications such as laser cutting and lithography. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances, enabling applications such as laser pointers. Lasers can also have high temporal coherence, which allows them to emit light with a very narrow spectrum, i.e., they can emit a single color of light. Temporal coherence can be used to produce pulses of light as short as a femtosecond.
Inventors: Charles H. Townes · Theodore Maiman · Gordon Gould · Alexander Prokhorov · Nikolay Basov May treat: Acne · Sebaceous cyst
wiki/Laser(1972) US Congress passes the Equal Rights Amendment Introduced to Congress in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), a proposed constitutional guarantee of women’s rights, passes and is sent to the states for ratification. Final ratification will fall short of the threshold needed by three states and the amendment will eventually die.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. The ERA was originally written by Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. In 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. The ERA has always been highly controversial regarding the meaning of equality for women. It was “feminist against feminist”, said historian Judith Sealander; the result was the eventual defeat of the ERA. Middle-class women generally were supportive. Those speaking for the working class were strongly opposed, arguing that employed women needed special protections regarding working conditions and hours. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. It seemed headed for quick approval until Phyllis Schlafly mobilized conservative women in opposition, arguing that the ERA would disadvantage housewives.
Congress had set a ratification deadline of March 22, 1979. Through 1977, the amendment received 35 of the necessary 38 state ratifications. Five states rescinded their ratifications before the 1979 deadline. In 1978, a joint resolution of Congress extended the ratification deadline to June 30, 1982, but no further states ratified the amendment and so it did not become part of the Constitution. Several organizations continue to work for the adoption of the ERA.
(1791) The semaphore machine boosts long-distance messagingThe Chappe brothers demonstrate their new communications machine by sending a coded message via pivoting metal shutters set atop tall towers. This will be the precursor of the electric telegraph.A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles. wiki/Exeter_railway_station,_Adelaide(1933) ‘King Kong’ debuts on silver screenAn epic take on the tale of beauty and the beast, and a special effects extravaganza, ‘King Kong’ premieres at New York City’s Radio City Music Hall. Box office and critical reception will both be boffo.A film crew goes to a tropical island for an exotic location shoot and discovers a colossal giant gorilla who takes a shine to their female blonde star. He is then captured and brought back to New York City for public exhibition.
Release date: Apr 07, 1933 (United States) Directors: Merian C. Cooper · Ernest B. Schoedsack Gross revenue: $2.80 million USD Music by: Max Steiner Sequel: Son of Kong Screenwriters: Merian C. Cooper · Edgar Wallace · Ruth Rose · James Ashmore Creelman
wiki/King_Kong_(1933_film)(1972) NASA launches first manmade object to leave solar systemThe Pioneer 10 space probe lifts off from the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, heading for a rendezvous with Jupiter and other outer planets, then onward past the farthest reaches of our galaxy.Pioneer 10 is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing 258 kilograms, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter. Thereafter, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. This space exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW Inc.
Orbital speed: 7.48 miles/s (12.04 km/s) Manufacturer: TRW Inc.
wiki/Pioneer_10(1983) Digital audio revolution hits the US and Europe The first compact discs go on sale in the US, Europe, and other locales. The format will eclipse vinyl before being eclipsed itself less than two decades later by solid-state digital audio players.Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips and Sony. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings but was later adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, and Enhanced Music CD. Audio CD players have been commercially available since October 1982, when the first commercially available CD player was released in Japan.
(1599) Shakespeare leases marshland on the Thames RiverWilliam Shakespeare joins seven other men in signing a lease on a Southwark lot along the Thames. The playwright now owns a share in what will become the Globe Theatre, where some of his most memorable plays will first be staged, including ‘Julius Caesar,’ ‘Macbeth,’ ‘Othello,’ ‘King Lear,’ and ‘Hamlet.’The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare’s playing company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and grandson Sir Matthew Brend, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. A second Globe Theatre was built on the same site by June 1614 and closed by an Ordinance issued on 6 September 1642.
Address: 21 New Globe Walk, Bankside, London SE1 9 Phone: 020 7620 0202 Opened: 1599 Closed: 1642 Architects: Peter Street · Theo Crosby
wiki/Globe_Theatre(1804) World’s first steam train railway journeyThe steam train makes its maiden run, as Richard Trevithick and his locomotive embark on a rail journey between the Penydarren Ironworks to Abercynon in South Wales, reaching a speed of 5 mph on the 9-mile trip.Richard Trevithick was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England. The son of a mining captain, and born in the mining heartland of Cornwall, Trevithick was immersed in mining and engineering from an early age. He performed poorly in school, but went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was the development of the first high-pressure steam engine. He also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. On 21 February 1804 the world’s first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick’s unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
Born: Apr 13, 1771 · Tregajorran, United Kingdom Died: Apr 22, 1833 · Dartford, United Kingdom Romance: Jane Harvey Inventions: Steam locomotive Children: Francis Trevithick (Son) Parents: Richard F Francis Trevithick · Ann Trevithick
1801: Trevithick built a full-size steam road locomotive in 1801 on a site near the present day Fore Street at Camborne.
1804: These were sent to John Whitfield at Gateshead, Trevithick’s agent, who in 1804 built what was probably the first locomotive to have flanged wheels.
1804: On 21 February 1804 the world’s first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick’s unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
1808: In 1808, Trevithick publicised his steam railway locomotive expertise by building a new locomotive called Catch Me Who Can, built for him by John Hazledine and John Urpeth Rastrick at Bridgnorth in Shropshire, and named by Davies Giddy’s daughter.
1818: Uville died in 1818 and Trevithick soon returned to Cerro de Pasco to continue mining.
1829: In 1829 he built a closed cycle steam engine followed by a vertical tubular boiler.
wiki/Richard_Trevithick(1916) Battle of Verdun beginsWorld War I’s battle at Verdun, in France, begins with Germany’s massive heavy artillery array inspiring their confidence in winning the engagement quickly. The battle’s 303 days and 714,000 casualties will prove them wrong.The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was one of the largest and longest battles of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Région Fortifiée de Verdun and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse. Inspired by the experience of the Second Battle of Champagne the year before, the Germans planned to rapidly capture the Meuse Heights, providing them with an excellent defensive position that would also allow them to bombard Verdun with observed artillery fire. The Germans hoped that the French would commit their strategic reserve to recapture the position and suffer catastrophic losses in a battle of attrition, as the Germans would have a tactical advantage.
Start date: Feb 21, 1916 End date: Dec 18, 1916
wiki/Battle_of_Verdun(1972) President Nixon arrives for historic China visitThe Cold War freeze begins a slow thaw as Nixon makes a historic trip to China for two weeks of talks in Beijing. The diplomatic breakthrough will be a high point in Nixon’s career.U.S. President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to the People’s Republic of China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and China. It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, which at that time considered the U.S. one of its foes, and the visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides. wiki/1972_Nixon_visit_to_China3.3.f17
(1763) The French and Indian War endsThe North American theater of the Seven Years’ War comes to an end, with Britain gaining Quebec and Spanish Florida, while Spain acquires Louisiana. Economic losses stemming from the war will help spark world-altering revolutions in both Britain and France.The French and Indian War comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years’ War of 1754–1763. The war pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France, as well as by Native American allies. At the start of the war, the French North American colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 European settlers, compared with 2 million in the British North American colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians. Following months of localised conflict, the metropole nations declared war on each other in 1756, escalating the war from a regional affair into an intercontinental conflict.
Start date: 1754 End date: 1763
wiki/French_and_Indian_War(1846) Mormons begin exodus from Illinois to the western USFleeing religious persecution that included the assassination of their leader, Joseph Smith, 1,600 members of what will become the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their new leader, Brigham Young, head west, where they will eventually settle in the Great Salt Lake Valley.The history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is typically divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith which is in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches, a “pioneer era” under the leadership of Brigham Young and his 19th-century successors, and a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century as the practice of polygamy was discontinued. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traces its origins to western New York, where Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was raised. Joseph Smith gained a small following in the late 1820s as he was dictating the Book of Mormon, which he said was a translation of words found on a set of “golden plates” that had been buried near his home in western New York by an indigenous American prophet. On April 6, 1830, in western New York, Smith organized the religion’s first legal church entity, the Church of Christ.
Author: Joseph Smith First published: 1897
wiki/History_of_The_Church_of_Jesus_Christ_of_Latter-day_Saints(1906) The HMS Dreadnought launches a new era in battleshipsKing Edward VII christens a game-changing new class of naval warfare in the HMS Dreadnought, whose armaments, speed, and agility are leagues beyond ships that sailed into battle before.HMS Dreadnought was a battleship built for the Royal Navy that revolutionised naval power. Her entry into service in 1906 represented such an advance in naval technology that her name came to be associated with an entire generation of battleships, the “dreadnoughts”, as well as the class of ships named after her. The generation of ships she made obsolete became known as “pre-dreadnoughts”. Admiral Sir John “Jacky” Fisher, First Sea Lord of the Board of Admiralty, is credited as the father of Dreadnought. Shortly after he assumed office, he ordered design studies for a battleship armed solely with 12-inch guns and a speed of 21 knots. He convened a “Committee on Designs” to evaluate the alternative designs and to assist in the detailed design work. One ancillary benefit of the Committee was that it would shield him and the Admiralty from political charges that they had not consulted leading experts before designing such a radically different battleship.
Keel laid: Oct 02, 1905 Launched: Feb 10, 1906
wiki/HMS_Dreadnought_(1906)(1972) David Bowie becomes Ziggy StardustRock and roll begins to freak out in a moon-age daydream the moment a slender, pale, androgynous, ginger-haired, and decidedly otherworldly presence steps onto the stage at London’s Toby Jug Pub.The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars is the fifth studio album by the English musician David Bowie, released on 16 June 1972. It is a concept album telling the story of a fictional rock star named Ziggy Stardust. It peaked at No. 5 in the United Kingdom on the UK Albums Chart and No. 75 in the United States on the Billboard 200, then improved to a No. 21 position in the wake of Bowie’s death.
Release year: 1972 Genre: Rock, Contemporary Pop Label: Parlophone UK Artist: David Bowie
(1649) England’s King Charles I executed on charge of treasonControversial from his reign’s start, King Charles clashed frequently with the English parliament, leading to two civil wars, Oliver Cromwell’s rise, and finally to his own beheading.Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.
Lived: Nov 19, 1600 – Jan 30, 1649 (age 48) Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Henrietta Maria of France (m. 1625) Children: Charles II of England (Son) · James II of England (Son) · Elizabeth Stuart (Daughter) · Henrietta of England (Daughter) · Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (Daughter) · Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester Parents: James VI and I (Father) · Anne of Denmark (Mother) Siblings: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (Brother) · Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia (Sister) · Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne (Brother)
1617: In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia.
1619: In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, who was leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election.
1623: Charles and the Duke of Buckingham, James’s favourite and a man who had great influence over the prince, travelled incognito to Spain in February 1623 to try to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish match.
1625: Charles I of England married Henrietta Maria of France on May 11, 1625.
1637: In 1637, the king ordered the use of a new prayer book in Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consulting either the Scottish Parliament or the Kirk.
1645: At the battle of Naseby on 14 June 1645, Rupert’s horsemen again mounted a successful charge, against the flank of Parliament’s New Model Army, but Charles’s troops elsewhere on the field were pushed back by the opposing forces.
wiki/Charles_I_of_England(1948) Mahatma Gandhi assassinated Gandhi, India’s political and spiritual leader whose use of nonviolent civil disobedience led to his country’s independence from British colonial rule, is slain in New Delhi by a Hindu extremist.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated at the Birla House in New Delhi on 30 January 1948. Gandhi was outside on the steps where a prayer meeting was going to take place, surrounded by a part of his family and some followers, when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist and prominent member of Hindu Mahasabha, approached and shot him three times in the chest at close range. Gandhi was taken back inside the Birla House, where he died. Godse was arrested, convicted in court and later executed.
Date: Jan 30, 1948
wiki/Assassination_of_Mahatma_Gandhi(1968) The Tet Offensive begins with surprise attacksViet Cong and North Vietnamese forces break the holiday truce, launching a widespread military campaign against US and South Vietnamese targets that is among the largest of the Vietnam War.The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People’s Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place.
Start date: Jan 30, 1968 End date: Sep 23, 1968
wiki/Tet_Offensive(1972) Northern Ireland suffers ‘Bloody Sunday’ British soldiers fire on unarmed Catholic civil rights protestors during a Derry, Northern Ireland, march, killing 14 and wounding 17. The incident ratchets up tension and strife during The Troubles.Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 26 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment. Fourteen people died: thirteen were killed outright, while the death of another man four months later was attributed to his injuries. Many of the victims were shot while fleeing from the soldiers and some were shot while trying to help the wounded. Other protesters were injured by rubber bullets or batons, and two were run down by army vehicles. The march had been organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. The soldiers involved were members of the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment, also known as “1 Para”.