(1970) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) goes into force as an effort to slow the ever-quickening pace of countries becoming armed with nuclear weapons. It’s feared that without it, there will be upwards of 30 more nations with “The Bomb” within 20 years.The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Participation in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Recognized nuclear weapon state ratifiers Recognized nuclear weapon state acceders Other ratifiers Other acceders or succeeders Withdrawn Non-signatory Unrecognized state, abiding by acceders wiki/Treaty_on_the_Non-Proliferation_of_Nuclear_Weapons4.8.d17
(1877) Irish immigrant activists executed in Pennsylvania Ten men are executed for murder in two separate Pennsylvania hangings, but the guilty verdicts against the ‘Molly Maguires,’ a group of Irish immigrant coal miners, will remain controversial, as many believe they were made martyrs for attempting to unionize fellow workers.The Molly Maguires was an Irish 19th-century secret society active in Ireland, Liverpool and parts of the eastern United States, best known for their activism among Irish-American and Irish immigrant coal miners in Pennsylvania. After a series of often violent conflicts, twenty suspected members of the Molly Maguires were convicted of murder and other crimes and were executed by hanging in 1877 and 1878. This history remains part of local Pennsylvania lore. wiki/Molly_Maguires(1964) Three civil rights workers disappear in MississippiAndrew Goodman, James Chaney, and Mickey Schwerner are in Mississippi to register black voters, and after being arrested and released by the local sheriff, are never seen alive again. Eighteen people will be charged with their deaths in what becomes known as the ‘Mississippi Burning’ murders.In June 1964 in Neshoba County, Mississippi, three civil rights workers were abducted and murdered in an act of racial violence. The victims were Andrew Goodman and Michael “Mickey” Schwerner from New York City, and James Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi. All three were associated with the Council of Federated Organizations and its member organization the Congress of Racial Equality. They had been working with the “Freedom Summer” campaign by attempting to register African Americans in the southern states to vote. This registration effort was a part of contesting over 70 years of laws and practices that supported a systematic policy of disenfranchisement of potential black voters by several southern states that began in 1890.
Date: Jun 21, 1964
wiki/Mississippi_civil_rights_workers’_murders(1970) Pelé and Brazil win World Cup in legendary finalMexico City’s Azteca Stadium is filled to the brim as Brazil and Italy meet in football’s World Cup final. The game will pass into legend, in part for superstar Pelé’s magnificent athleticism, and team captain Carlos Alberto’s final goal, considered by many the greatest of all time.The 1970 FIFA World Cup Final was held on Sunday, 21 June, in the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City, to determine the winner of the 1970 FIFA World Cup. This final, between Brazil and Italy, marked the first time that two former world champions met in a final; Italy had previously won the World Cup in 1934 and 1938, while Brazil won in 1958 and 1962.
Date: Jun 21, 1970 Champion: Brazil national football team
wiki/1970_FIFA_World_Cup_Final(1982) Would-be presidential assassin is found legally insaneHaving shot six times at President Ronald Reagan in an assassination attempt, John Hinckley, Jr. is found not guilty by reason of insanity. The verdict will spur much argument, leading states to change or even abolish laws allowing the admissibility of the insanity defense in US courts.John Warnock Hinckley Jr. is an American citizen who, on March 30, 1981, attempted to assassinate U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C. Hinckley wounded Reagan with a bullet that ricocheted and hit him in the chest. Hinckley also wounded police officer Thomas Delahanty and Secret Service agent Timothy McCarthy, and critically wounded Press Secretary James Brady. All of the shooting victims survived, although Brady’s 2014 death was later ruled a homicide 33 years after he was shot.
Born: May 29, 1955 (age 62) · Ardmore, OK Parents: Jo Ann Moore · John Warnock Hinckley Sr. Siblings: Scott · Diane Education: Yale University · Texas Tech University · Highland Park High School
1955: John Warnock Hinckley Jr. was born on May 29, 1955 in Ardmore, Oklahoma, and moved with his wealthy family to Dallas, Texas, at the age of 4.
1981: On March 30, 1981, at 2:27 p.m. local time, Hinckley shot a .22 caliber Röhm RG-14 revolver six times at Reagan as he left the Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., after the president addressed an AFL–CIO conference.
1982: At his trial in 1982, in Washington, D.C., having been charged with 13 offenses, Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity on June 21.
2005: On December 30, 2005, a federal judge ruled that Hinckley would be allowed visits, supervised by his parents, to their home in Williamsburg, Virginia.
2011: On March 29, 2011, the day before the 30th anniversary of the assassination attempt, Hinckley’s attorney filed a court petition requesting more freedom for his client, including additional unsupervised visits to the Virginia home of Hinckley’s mother, Joanne.
2016: Hinckley was released from institutional psychiatric care on September 10, 2016, and will live full-time at his mother’s home.
(1774) Teen sovereigns begin their sumptuous reignAmid rumblings of discontent from their subjects, Louis XVI, 19, and his bride Marie Antoinette, 18, become the reigning monarchs of France. Anti-aristocracy passions, already simmering due to the country’s debt problems, will only increase as the populace leans towards revolution.Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France and Navarre before the French Revolution; during which he was also known as Louis Capet. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. Upon his grandfather’s death on 10 May 1774, he became King of France and Navarre, which he remained until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of King of the French until his suspension on 10 August 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793.
Lived: Aug 23, 1754 – Jan 21, 1793 (age 38) Spouse: Marie Antoinette (m. 1770 – 1793) Children: Louis XVII of France (Son) · Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France (Son) · Marie Thérèse of France (Daughter) · Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrice of France (Daughter) Siblings: Marie Clotilde of France (Sister) · Louis XVIII of France (Brother) · Charles X of France (Brother) · Princess Élisabeth of France (Sister) · Princess Marie Zéphyrine of France (Sister) · Louis, Duke of Burgundy (Brother) · Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine (Brother) · Marie Thérèse, Madame Royale (Sister) Parents: Louis, Dauphin of France (Father) · Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France (Mother)
1765: Upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin.
1770: Louis XVI of France married Marie Antoinette on May 16, 1770.
1782: Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rule in India, in 1782–1783, fighting the British fleet along the coasts of India and Ceylon.
1788: As a last-ditch attempt to get new monetary reforms approved, Louis XVI convoked the Estates-General on 8 August 1788, setting the date of their opening at 1 May 1789.
1792: The two writers did not share the same sociopolitical vision, but they agreed that, even though the monarchy was rightly ended in 1792, the lives of the royal family should have been spared.
1793: Despite his signing of the “Civil Constitution of the Clergy”, Louis had been described as a martyr by Pope Pius VI in 1793.
wiki/Louis_XVI_of_FranceMarie Antoinette; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Lived: Nov 02, 1755 – Oct 16, 1793 (age 37) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.65 m) Spouse: Louis XVI of France (m. 1770 – 1793) Children: Marie Thérèse of France (Daughter) · Louis XVII of France (Son) · Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrice of France (Daughter) · Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France (Son) Parents: Maria Theresa (Mother) · Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (Father)
1770: In 1770 she was instrumental in ousting Étienne François, duc de Choiseul, who had helped orchestrate the Franco-Austrian alliance and Marie Antoinette’s marriage, and exiling his sister, the duchesse de Gramont, one of Marie Antoinette’s ladies-in-waiting.
1774: Upon the death of Louis XV on 10 May 1774, the Dauphin ascended the throne as King Louis XVI of France and Navarre and Marie Antoinette became Queen of France and Navarre.
1778: Marie Antoinette’s daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale, was born at Versailles on 19 December 1778.
1780: In 1780 she began to participate in amateur plays and musicals in a theatre built for her by Richard Mique at the Petit Trianon.
1781: Her third pregnancy was affirmed in March 1781, and on 22 October she gave birth to Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France.
1792: After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day.
wiki/Marie_Antoinette(1869) Golden spike completes transcontinental railroadA ceremonial golden spike, and the official telegraph message ‘DONE,’ mark the end of six years of labor on a massive scale, as the US transcontinental railroad is completed. Once a half-year’s journey, the trip from one coast of North America to the other now takes about a week.The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds. The Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory. And the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road’s eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroad(1872) First female US presidential candidate is nominatedThe Equal Rights Party nominates suffragist Victoria Woodhull for president of the United States. Her candidacy, the first ever by a woman in the US, will be derailed a few days before the election when she’s arrested on obscenity charges, but she will try again in subsequent elections.Victoria Claflin Woodhull, later Victoria Woodhull Martin was an American leader of the woman’s suffrage movement. In 1872, Woodhull ran for President of the United States. While many historians and authors agree that Woodhull was the first woman to run for President of the United States, some have questioned that priority given issues with the legality of her run. They disagree with classifying it as a true candidacy because she was younger than the constitutionally mandated age of 35. However, election coverage by contemporary newspapers does not suggest age was a significant issue. The presidential inauguration was in March 1873. Woodhull’s 35th birthday was in September 1873.
1865: Victoria Woodhull married James Blood in 1865; their marriage lasted 11 years till 1876.
1868: She said that she was guided in 1868 by Demosthenes to what symbolism to use supporting her theories of Free Love.
1870: Together with her sister, Tennessee Claflin, she was the first woman to operate a brokerage firm on Wall Street; they were among the first women to found a newspaper, Woodhull & Claflin’s Weekly, which began publication in 1870.
1872: Woodhull was the candidate in 1872 from the Equal Rights Party, supporting women’s suffrage and equal rights; her running mate was abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass.
1872: In 1872, Woodhull publicly criticized well-known clergyman Henry Ward Beecher for adultery.
1901: After her husband died in 1901, Martin gave up publishing and retired to the country, establishing residence at Bredon’s Norton, where she built a village school with Tennessee and Zula.
wiki/Victoria_Woodhull(1970) Bobby Orr’s Stanley Cup-winning shotBoston Bruins defenseman Bobby Orr scores in overtime to sweep the St. Louis Blues and win the Stanley Cup. Tripped as he shoots, Orr raises his arms in victory as he flies through the air, making it one of the most iconic goals in NHL history.Robert Gordon “Bobby” Orr, OC is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player, widely acknowledged as one of the greatest hockey players of all time. Orr used his ice skating speed, scoring, and play-making abilities to revolutionize the position of defenceman. He played in the National Hockey League for 12 seasons, starting with 10 with the Boston Bruins followed by two with the Chicago Black Hawks. Orr remains the only defenceman to have won the league scoring title with two Art Ross Trophies. He holds the record for most points and assists in a single season by a defenceman. Orr won a record eight consecutive Norris Trophies as the NHL’s best defenceman and three consecutive Hart Trophies as the league’s most valuable player. Orr was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1979 at age 31, the youngest to be inducted at that time. On January 27, 2017, in a ceremony during the All-Star Weekend in Los Angeles, Orr was part of the second group of players to be named one of the ‘100 Greatest NHL Players’ in history. After his hockey career, he became a well-known scout for many professional teams. He also spends time talking to and mentoring young skaters.
Born: Mar 20, 1948 (age 69) · Parry Sound, Canada Height: 6′ 0″ (1.82 m) Net worth: $35 million USD (2017) Spouse: Margaret Louise Wood (m. 1973) Written works: Orr: My Story · Orr: My Story 12 Copy Signed Prepack Awards: Art Ross Trophy (1974, 1969) · Conn Smythe Trophy (1972, 1970) · Calder Memorial Trophy (1967) · Ted Lindsay Award (1975) · Lester Patrick Trophy (1979) · Sports Illustrated Sportsperson of the Year (1970) · Lou Marsh Trophy (1970)
1962: Although three other NHL teams (Toronto Maple Leafs, Detroit Red Wings and Montreal Canadiens) were interested in Orr, he signed in 1962 with the Bruins.
1966: On December 4, 1966, Toronto Maple Leafs’ defenceman Marcel Pronovost checked him into the boards, injuring Orr’s knees for the first time in the NHL.
1970: Orr went on to lead the Bruins in a march through the 1970 playoffs that culminated on May 10, 1970, when he scored one of the most famous goals in hockey history and one that gave Boston its first Stanley Cup since 1941.
1973: Bobby Orr married Margaret Louise Wood on September 01, 1973.
1974: In the 1974–75 season, Orr broke his own previous record for goals by a defenceman, scoring 46 goals to go with 89 assists for his sixth straight 100-point season.
1994: Orr also helped out Bruins trainer John (Frosty) Forristall, his roommate during his first years with the Bruins, who had just been fired from the Tampa Bay Lightning for alcoholism in 1994.
(1959) First Grammy Awards held in New York and Los AngelesThe National Academy of Recording Arts and Services hosts black-tie dinners on both coasts to give out the first Grammy Awards. Attendees include Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., and Dean Martin. ‘Volare’ wins Song and Record of the Year, and Henry Mancini’s ‘The Music From Peter Gunn’ takes Album of the Year.A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, and the Academy Awards.
Categories: Grammy Award for Album of the Year · Grammy Award for Song of the Year · Grammy Award for Record of the Year · Grammy Award for Best New Artist · Grammy Award for Best Rap Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Song · Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award · Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album
wiki/Grammy_Award(1961) Freedom Riders head to the US South Calling themselves the ‘Freedom Riders,’ 13 activists board an interstate bus departing Washington, DC, for New Orleans, Louisiana. Along the way they will defy Jim Crow travel laws, be beaten by angry crowds, and be arrested and jailed.Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia, which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
Start date: May 04, 1961 End date: Dec 10, 1961
wiki/Freedom_Riders(1970) Students killed as National Guard opens fire on campus A war protest turns deadly as Ohio National Guard troops shoot at unarmed students on the Kent State University commons. Four die, nine are wounded, and less than a week later 100,000 will march against the killings, and the Vietnam War, in Washington, DC.The Kent State shootings were the shootings of unarmed college students protesting the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, by members of the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970. Twenty-nine guardsmen fired approximately 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
Fatalities: 4 Date: May 04, 1970
wiki/Kent_State_shootings(1979) Thatcher sworn in as Britain’s first female prime ministerThe first woman prime minister in British history arrives at at 10 Downing Street after her Conservative Party sweeps the elections. Margaret Thatcher will prove to be one of the country’s longest tenured PMs as well as one of the most controversial.Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC was a British stateswoman, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and as Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Lived: Oct 13, 1925 – Apr 08, 2013 (age 87) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Spouse: Denis Thatcher (m. 1951 – 2003) Education: Somerville College, Oxford (1943 – 1947) · Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School (1936 – 1943) · City Law School (1952 – 1954) Children: Mark Thatcher (Son) · Carol Thatcher (Daughter) Related movies: The Iron Lady
1951: During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.
1975: Thatcher became party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975; she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy.
1979: Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979.
2002: Thatcher was voted the fourth-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by MORI, and in 2002 was ranked number 16 in the BBC poll 100 Greatest Britons.
2005: After leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties.
2013: In 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87.
(1915) WWI’s Second Battle of Ypres shocks with chemical weapon useA battle to secure the Belgian town of Ypres introduces the world to the large-scale use of chemical weapons when the Germans release 168 long tons of chlorine gas on the Allied lines. Wind-borne poison gas kills 6,000 French troops in minutes.During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from 22 April – 25 May 1915 for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn. It was the first mass use by Germany of poison gas on the Western Front. For the first time, a former colonial force defeated a European power on European soil.
Start date: Apr 22, 1915 End date: May 25, 1915
wiki/Second_Battle_of_Ypres(1969) Londoner sails solo nonstop around the worldNine sailors take on the challenge of becoming the first to sail nonstop around the globe single-handedly, but only Robin Knox-Johnston completes the journey. The former sailor in the Royal Naval Reserve steers his 32-foot boat ‘Suhaili’ through the world’s oceans for 10 months.Sir William Robert Patrick “Robin” Knox-Johnston, CBE, RD and bar is an English sailor. In 1969 he became the first man to perform a single-handed non-stop circumnavigation of the globe and was the second winner of the Jules Verne Trophy, together with Sir Peter Blake.
Born: Mar 17, 1939 (age 78) · London, England Movies: Deep Water Education: Berkhamsted School
1965: In 1965 he sailed his William Atkins design ketch Suhaili from Bombay to England.
1967: His wife left him when he proposed taking her and the child back to England in his new boat Suhaili, and they were divorced in 1967.
1994: Knox-Johnston and Peter Blake (who both acted as co-skippers) won the Jules Verne Trophy for the fastest circumnavigation in 1994.
1996: In 1996 Knox-Johnston established the first Clipper Round the World Yacht Race and has since worked with the Clipper Ventures company as chairman to progress the race to higher levels every year.
2006: In 2006 he became at 67 the oldest yachtsman to complete a round the world solo voyage in the Velux 5 Oceans Race.
2007: He completed his second solo circumnavigation of the world in the yacht Saga Insurance on 4 May 2007, finishing in fourth place in the Velux 5 Oceans Race.
wiki/Robin_Knox-Johnston(1970) First Earth DayPeace activist John McConnell, US Senator Gaylord Nelson, and coordinator Denis Hayes create a day to honor and promote protection of the Earth and its ecosystems. Earth Day will gain in popularity, and grow to include observances in more than 192 countries.Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22. Worldwide, various events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day events in more than 193 countries are now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network.
wiki/Earth_Day(2004) Pat Tillman shot in AfghanistanThe former Arizona Cardinal who enlisted in the US Army following the September 11 attacks is killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan. Military officials will initially inform Tillman’s family he died in a firefight with enemy forces.Patrick Daniel Tillman was a professional American football player in the National Football League who left his sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in June 2002 in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. His service in Iraq and Afghanistan, and subsequent death, were the subject of much media attention.
Lived: Nov 06, 1976 – Apr 22, 2004 (age 27) Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Marie Tillman (m. 2002 – 2004) Education: Arizona State University · Leland High School Siblings: Richard Tillman (Brother) · Kevin Tillman (Brother) Movies: The Tillman Story
1994: He started his college career as a linebacker for Arizona State University in 1994, when he secured the last remaining scholarship for the team.
1998: In the 1998 National Football League Draft, Tillman was selected as the 226th pick by the Arizona Cardinals.
2002: Pat Tillman married Marie Tillman on May 04, 2002.
2003: In addition to his military awards, Pat Tillman received the Arthur Ashe Courage Award from ESPN in 2003, as part of that year’s ESPY Awards ceremony.
2003: Another article quotes Tillman as having told then-general manager of the Seattle Seahawks Bob Ferguson in December 2003, “You know I’m not religious.”
2004: On April 22, 2004, he was initially reported to have been killed by enemy combatants.