(1850) Los Angeles becomes an American citySettled for millennia by Native Americans, then claimed by the colonial Spanish, and later by Mexico, a dusty ranch town is officially incorporated as the city of Los Angeles. It will go on to be the second-most populous city in the United States.
The written history of Los Angeles city and county began with a small Mexican town that changed little in the three decades after 1848, when California became part of the United States. Much greater changes came from the completion of the Santa Fe railroad line from Chicago to Los Angeles in 1885. Immigrants flooded in, especially white Protestants from the Midwest. Los Angeles had a strong economic base in farming, oil, tourism, real estate and movies. It grew rapidly with many suburban areas inside and outside the city limits. Hollywood made the city world famous, and World War II brought new industry, especially high-tech aircraft construction. Politically the city was moderately conservative, with a weak labor union sector.
Since the 1960s growth has slowed—and traffic delays have become famous. LA was a pioneer in freeway development as the public transit system deteriorated. New arrivals, especially from Mexico and Asia, have transformed the demographic base since the 1960s. Old industries have declined, including farming, oil, military and aircraft, but tourism, entertainment and high tech remain strong.
wiki/History_of_Los_Angeles(1873) Kennel Club purebred dog registry is foundedSeeing the need for formal rules and regulations in the breeding, registry, and showing of pedigreed dogs in the United Kingdom, Sewallis Shirley establishes The Kennel Club with 12 other canine connoisseurs, the first such organization in the world.The Kennel Club is the official kennel club of the United Kingdom. It is the oldest recognised kennel club in the world. Its role is to act as governing body for various canine activities including dog shows, dog agility and working trials. It also operates the national register of pedigree dogs in the United Kingdom and acts as a lobby group on issues involving dogs in the UK. Its headquarters are located on Clarges Street in Mayfair, London, with business offices in Aylesbury.
Website: www.thekennelclub.org.uk Founded: 1873 Subsidiary: The Kennel Club Charitable Trust
wiki/The_Kennel_Club(1968) Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated Visiting Memphis, Tennessee, to support striking workers, civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot and killed as he stands on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel. Months later, James Earl Ray will be charged with the murder.Martin Luther King Jr. was an American clergyman and civil rights leader who was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. King was rushed to St. Joseph’s Hospital, where he was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. that evening. He was a prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who was known for his use of nonviolence and civil disobedience.
Date: Apr 04, 1968
wiki/Assassination_of_Martin_Luther_King_Jr.(1975) College dropouts start companyChildhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen launch the future tech giant in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with Gates as CEO. They initially spell the company’s name as Micro-Soft, a combination of the words ‘microcomputer’ and ‘software,’ but later drop the capital ‘S’ and hyphen. Other names they considered include ‘Outcorporated Inc.’ and ‘Allen & Gates.’Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, Microsoft Office office suite, and Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup. As of 2016, it was the world’s largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world’s most valuable companies.
(1800) Vienna premieres Beethoven’s First SymphonyLudwig van Beethoven is pianist at the debut performance of his First Symphony at the Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria. The 30-year-old composer also plays works by his friend Joseph Haydn and the late Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 1 in C major, Op. 21, was dedicated to Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an early patron of the composer. The piece was published in 1801 by Hoffmeister & Kühnel of Leipzig. It is not known exactly when Beethoven finished writing this work, but sketches of the finale were found to be from 1795.
Completed: 1800 Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven Compositional form: Symphony Key: C major First performance: Burgtheater
wiki/Symphony_No._1_(Beethoven)(1968) ‘2001’ opens, causing controversy and blowing mindsStanley Kubrick’s collaboration with science-fiction master Arthur C. Clarke premieres in Washington, DC, and the movie will go on to garner glowing and glowering reviews in equal measure. It will eventually be hailed as a masterpiece.Humanity finds a mysterious, obviously artificial object buried beneath the Lunar surface and, with the intelligent computer H.A.L. 9000, sets off on a quest.
Release date: Apr 03, 1968 (United States) Director: Stanley Kubrick Gross revenue: $190.70 million USD Sequel: 2010 Story by: Stanley Kubrick · Arthur C. Clarke Awards: Academy Award for Best Visual Effects · Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation · BAFTA Award for Best Sound · BAFTA Award for Best Art Direction · Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director IMDB: www.imdb.com/title/tt0062622
wiki/2001:_A_Space_Odyssey_(film)(1982) Falklands War beginsBritain’s colonial past rears its head when Argentina invades and occupies an archipelago of islands in the South Atlantic they say is rightfully theirs. The British will send troops to hold on to the territory they’ve claimed since the 18th century, and Argentina will surrender by June 14.The Falklands War, also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur, was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities.
Start date: Apr 02, 1982 End date: Jun 14, 1982
wiki/Falklands_War(1992) The “Teflon Don” is finally convictedJohn Gotti, head of the Gambino crime family and famously dapper dresser, is found guilty of homicide, after a history of being acquitted by juries. The charismatic mafia don will spend the rest of his life behind bars.John Joseph Gotti Jr. was an Italian-American gangster who became boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City. Gotti and his brothers grew up in poverty and turned to a life of crime at an early age. Gotti quickly rose to prominence, becoming one of the crime family’s biggest earners and a protégé of Gambino family underboss Aniello Dellacroce, operating out of the Ozone Park neighborhood of Queens.
Lived: Oct 27, 1940 – Jun 10, 2002 (age 61) Height: 5′ 10″ (1.78 m) Spouse: Victoria DiGiorgio (m. 1962 – 2002) Children: Victoria Gotti (Daughter) · John A. Gotti (Son) · Frank Gotti (Son) · Peter Gotti, Jr. (Son) · Angel Gotti (Daughter) Siblings: Peter Gotti (Brother) · Gene Gotti (Brother) · Richard V. Gotti (Brother) · Vincent Gotti (Brother) Parents: John Joseph Gotti, Sr. (Father) · Philomena Gotti
1962: John Gotti married Victoria DiGiorgio on March 06, 1962.
1985: After Dellacroce died of cancer on December 2, 1985, Castellano revised his succession plan: appointing Bilotti as underboss to Thomas Gambino as the sole acting boss, while making plans to break up Gotti’s crew.
1986: He was formally acclaimed as the new boss of the Gambino family at a meeting of 20 capos held on January 15, 1986.
1990: On December 11, 1990, FBI agents and New York City detectives raided the Ravenite Social Club, arresting Gotti, Gravano and Frank Locascio.
1991: In 1991, Gravano agreed to turn state’s evidence and testify for the prosecution against Gotti after hearing Gotti on wiretap making several disparaging remarks about Gravano that implicated them both in several murders.
2002: Gotti died of throat cancer on June 10, 2002, at the United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri.
(1850) Nathaniel Hawthorne’s morality tale arrivesMassachusetts native Nathaniel Hawthorne, having quit his job at the local customs house, sees his second novel published. The tale of adultery and redemption in Puritan America becomes an immediate bestseller.The Scarlet Letter: A Romance is an 1850 work of fiction in a historical setting, written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne. The book is considered to be his “masterwork”. Set in 17th-century Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony, during the years 1642 to 1649, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an affair and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity. Throughout the book, Hawthorne explores themes of legalism, sin, and guilt.
Authors: Nathaniel Hawthorne · James F. DeMaiolo First published: 1850 ATOS reading level: 3.60 Characters: Hester Prynne · Roger Chillingworth · Arthur Dimmesdale · Pearl · Gov. Bellingham Genres: Romanticism · Historical fiction Adaptations: The Scarlet Letter (1995) · Easy A (2010) · The Scarlet Letter (1973) · The Scarlet Letter (1934) · The Scarlet Letter (1911) · The Scarlet Letter (1913)
wiki/The_Scarlet_Letter(1926) First successful liquid-fueled rocket testThe Space Age edges closer when scientist Robert Goddard sends a rocket propelled by gasoline and liquid oxygen 41 feet in the air for 2.5 seconds at his Aunt Effie’s farm in Auburn, Massachusetts.A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be relatively low, and it is possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure. This permits the use of low-mass propellant tanks, resulting in a high mass ratio for the rocket.
Inventor: Robert H. Goddard
wiki/Liquid-propellant_rocket(1968) My Lai village massacre in VietnamUS Army soldiers use machine guns and grenade launchers to kill between 347 and 504 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians, perpetrating what many will deem the worst atrocity by American forces in the war.The Mỹ Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr., a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest.
Date: Mar 16, 1968 *** NOTICE: There are far more graphic images that were excluded for sake of sensitive audiences, you can view them at the source – if you are so inclined. ***
wiki/My_Lai_Massacre(1985) Journalist Terry Anderson taken hostage in BeirutThe chief Mideast correspondent for the Associated Press, Terry Anderson, is kidnapped off the streets of Beirut, Lebanon, and rushed away in the trunk of a car. He will remain a hostage of Hezbollah for nearly seven years.Terry A. Anderson is an American journalist. He reported for the Associated Press. In 1985, he was taken hostage by Shiite Hezbollah militants and held until 1991. In 2004, he ran unsuccessfully for the Ohio State Senate.
Born: Oct 27, 1947 (age 69) · Lorain, OH Spouse: Madeleine Bassil Founded: Vietnam Children’s Fund Children: Gabrielle Anderson · Sulome Anderson Education: Iowa State University
1965: He graduated from Batavia High School in 1965.
1983: He then joined the Associated Press, serving in Asia and Africa before being assigned to Lebanon as chief Mideast correspondent in 1983.
1996: His friend, Father Jenco, who died in 1996, also wrote his memoirs, Bound to Forgive, to which Anderson wrote the preface.
2009: In 2009, Anderson joined the faculty of the School of Journalism at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky.
2013: In 2013, he acted as Honorary Chair of the Committee to Protect Journalists, a non-profit that supports press freedom around the globe.
2014: In 2014, he moved to Gainesville, Florida, to teach a course in International Journalism at the University of Florida.
(1649) England’s King Charles I executed on charge of treasonControversial from his reign’s start, King Charles clashed frequently with the English parliament, leading to two civil wars, Oliver Cromwell’s rise, and finally to his own beheading.Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.
Lived: Nov 19, 1600 – Jan 30, 1649 (age 48) Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Henrietta Maria of France (m. 1625) Children: Charles II of England (Son) · James II of England (Son) · Elizabeth Stuart (Daughter) · Henrietta of England (Daughter) · Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (Daughter) · Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester Parents: James VI and I (Father) · Anne of Denmark (Mother) Siblings: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (Brother) · Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia (Sister) · Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne (Brother)
1617: In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia.
1619: In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, who was leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election.
1623: Charles and the Duke of Buckingham, James’s favourite and a man who had great influence over the prince, travelled incognito to Spain in February 1623 to try to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish match.
1625: Charles I of England married Henrietta Maria of France on May 11, 1625.
1637: In 1637, the king ordered the use of a new prayer book in Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consulting either the Scottish Parliament or the Kirk.
1645: At the battle of Naseby on 14 June 1645, Rupert’s horsemen again mounted a successful charge, against the flank of Parliament’s New Model Army, but Charles’s troops elsewhere on the field were pushed back by the opposing forces.
wiki/Charles_I_of_England(1948) Mahatma Gandhi assassinated Gandhi, India’s political and spiritual leader whose use of nonviolent civil disobedience led to his country’s independence from British colonial rule, is slain in New Delhi by a Hindu extremist.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated at the Birla House in New Delhi on 30 January 1948. Gandhi was outside on the steps where a prayer meeting was going to take place, surrounded by a part of his family and some followers, when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist and prominent member of Hindu Mahasabha, approached and shot him three times in the chest at close range. Gandhi was taken back inside the Birla House, where he died. Godse was arrested, convicted in court and later executed.
Date: Jan 30, 1948
wiki/Assassination_of_Mahatma_Gandhi(1968) The Tet Offensive begins with surprise attacksViet Cong and North Vietnamese forces break the holiday truce, launching a widespread military campaign against US and South Vietnamese targets that is among the largest of the Vietnam War.The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People’s Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place.
Start date: Jan 30, 1968 End date: Sep 23, 1968
wiki/Tet_Offensive(1972) Northern Ireland suffers ‘Bloody Sunday’ British soldiers fire on unarmed Catholic civil rights protestors during a Derry, Northern Ireland, march, killing 14 and wounding 17. The incident ratchets up tension and strife during The Troubles.Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 26 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment. Fourteen people died: thirteen were killed outright, while the death of another man four months later was attributed to his injuries. Many of the victims were shot while fleeing from the soldiers and some were shot while trying to help the wounded. Other protesters were injured by rubber bullets or batons, and two were run down by army vehicles. The march had been organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. The soldiers involved were members of the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment, also known as “1 Para”.
(1922) First diabetic patient to receive insulinFourteen-year-old Leonard Thompson is injected with insulin, a new drug that saves diabetics’ lives. A Nobel Prize will go to the Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod, the researchers who developed the drug.Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.
May treat: Diabetes mellitus type 1 · Type 2 diabetes · Diabetic ketoacidosis · Hyperglycemia · Gestational diabetes · Hyperkalemia · Myocardial Reperfusion Injury Possible side effect: Acanthosis nigricans Legal status: Over-the-counter drug · Prescription drug Brand name: Exubera Pregnancy risk category: Pregnancy Category C (FDA) · Pregnancy Category B (FDA)
wiki/Insulin(1957) The Frisbee takes flight The toy company Wham-O has taken notice of a plastic flying disc invented by WWII veteran pilot Walter Morrison, who’s been selling his Pluto Platters on the beaches of Santa Monica, California. He sells the rights for the Pluto Platter to Wham-O, which soon changes its name to the Frisbee.A frisbee is a disc-shaped gliding toy or sporting item that is generally plastic and roughly 20 to 25 centimetres in diameter with a lip, used recreationally and competitively for throwing and catching, for example, in flying disc games. The shape of the disc, an airfoil in cross-section, allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves through the air while spinning. Flying discs are thrown and caught for free-form recreation and as part of many flying disc games. A wide range of flying disc variants are available commercially. Disc golf discs are usually smaller but denser and tailored for particular flight profiles to increase/decrease stability and distance. The longest recorded disc throw is by Simon Lizotte with a distance of 263.2 meters. Disc dog sports use relatively slow flying discs made of more pliable material to better resist a dog’s bite and prevent injury to the dog. Flying rings are also available; they typically travel significantly farther than any traditional flying disc. There are also illuminated discs meant for nighttime play — they are made of a phosphorescent plastic or contain battery-powered light-emitting diodes or chemiluminescent glowing sticks. Others whistle when they reach a certain velocity in flight. wiki/Frisbee(1968) US Navy ship seized by North KoreaThe intelligence vessel USS Pueblo comes under fire and is captured by North Korean patrol boats off their coast. The 83 crewmembers will be held by the communist nation for 11 months.USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class environmental research ship, attached to Navy intelligence as a spy ship, which was attacked and captured by North Korean forces on 23 January 1968, in what is known today as the “Pueblo incident” or alternatively, as the “Pueblo crisis”.
Launched: Apr 16, 1944
wiki/USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)(1973) President Nixon announces accord ending Vietnam WarThe Paris Peace Accords signed by his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the top North Vietnamese negotiator, Richard Nixon announces that a ceasefire will go into effect in 72 hours.The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973 to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. It ended direct U.S. military combat, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. However, the agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate.
The negotiations that led to the accord began in 1968, after various lengthy delays. As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission (ICC) was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the two men were awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, although Lê Đức Thọ refused to accept it. wiki/Paris_Peace_Accords3.2.j17