(1850) Nathaniel Hawthorne’s morality tale arrivesMassachusetts native Nathaniel Hawthorne, having quit his job at the local customs house, sees his second novel published. The tale of adultery and redemption in Puritan America becomes an immediate bestseller.The Scarlet Letter: A Romance is an 1850 work of fiction in a historical setting, written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne. The book is considered to be his “masterwork”. Set in 17th-century Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony, during the years 1642 to 1649, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an affair and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity. Throughout the book, Hawthorne explores themes of legalism, sin, and guilt.
Authors: Nathaniel Hawthorne · James F. DeMaiolo First published: 1850 ATOS reading level: 3.60 Characters: Hester Prynne · Roger Chillingworth · Arthur Dimmesdale · Pearl · Gov. Bellingham Genres: Romanticism · Historical fiction Adaptations: The Scarlet Letter (1995) · Easy A (2010) · The Scarlet Letter (1973) · The Scarlet Letter (1934) · The Scarlet Letter (1911) · The Scarlet Letter (1913)
wiki/The_Scarlet_Letter(1926) First successful liquid-fueled rocket testThe Space Age edges closer when scientist Robert Goddard sends a rocket propelled by gasoline and liquid oxygen 41 feet in the air for 2.5 seconds at his Aunt Effie’s farm in Auburn, Massachusetts.A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density allows the volume of the propellant tanks to be relatively low, and it is possible to use lightweight centrifugal turbopumps to pump the propellant from the tanks into the combustion chamber, which means that the propellants can be kept under low pressure. This permits the use of low-mass propellant tanks, resulting in a high mass ratio for the rocket.
Inventor: Robert H. Goddard
wiki/Liquid-propellant_rocket(1968) My Lai village massacre in VietnamUS Army soldiers use machine guns and grenade launchers to kill between 347 and 504 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians, perpetrating what many will deem the worst atrocity by American forces in the war.The Mỹ Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr., a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest.
Date: Mar 16, 1968 *** NOTICE: There are far more graphic images that were excluded for sake of sensitive audiences, you can view them at the source – if you are so inclined. ***
wiki/My_Lai_Massacre(1985) Journalist Terry Anderson taken hostage in BeirutThe chief Mideast correspondent for the Associated Press, Terry Anderson, is kidnapped off the streets of Beirut, Lebanon, and rushed away in the trunk of a car. He will remain a hostage of Hezbollah for nearly seven years.Terry A. Anderson is an American journalist. He reported for the Associated Press. In 1985, he was taken hostage by Shiite Hezbollah militants and held until 1991. In 2004, he ran unsuccessfully for the Ohio State Senate.
Born: Oct 27, 1947 (age 69) · Lorain, OH Spouse: Madeleine Bassil Founded: Vietnam Children’s Fund Children: Gabrielle Anderson · Sulome Anderson Education: Iowa State University
1965: He graduated from Batavia High School in 1965.
1983: He then joined the Associated Press, serving in Asia and Africa before being assigned to Lebanon as chief Mideast correspondent in 1983.
1996: His friend, Father Jenco, who died in 1996, also wrote his memoirs, Bound to Forgive, to which Anderson wrote the preface.
2009: In 2009, Anderson joined the faculty of the School of Journalism at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky.
2013: In 2013, he acted as Honorary Chair of the Committee to Protect Journalists, a non-profit that supports press freedom around the globe.
2014: In 2014, he moved to Gainesville, Florida, to teach a course in International Journalism at the University of Florida.
(1649) England’s King Charles I executed on charge of treasonControversial from his reign’s start, King Charles clashed frequently with the English parliament, leading to two civil wars, Oliver Cromwell’s rise, and finally to his own beheading.Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.
Lived: Nov 19, 1600 – Jan 30, 1649 (age 48) Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Henrietta Maria of France (m. 1625) Children: Charles II of England (Son) · James II of England (Son) · Elizabeth Stuart (Daughter) · Henrietta of England (Daughter) · Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (Daughter) · Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester Parents: James VI and I (Father) · Anne of Denmark (Mother) Siblings: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (Brother) · Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia (Sister) · Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne (Brother)
1617: In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia.
1619: In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, who was leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election.
1623: Charles and the Duke of Buckingham, James’s favourite and a man who had great influence over the prince, travelled incognito to Spain in February 1623 to try to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish match.
1625: Charles I of England married Henrietta Maria of France on May 11, 1625.
1637: In 1637, the king ordered the use of a new prayer book in Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consulting either the Scottish Parliament or the Kirk.
1645: At the battle of Naseby on 14 June 1645, Rupert’s horsemen again mounted a successful charge, against the flank of Parliament’s New Model Army, but Charles’s troops elsewhere on the field were pushed back by the opposing forces.
wiki/Charles_I_of_England(1948) Mahatma Gandhi assassinated Gandhi, India’s political and spiritual leader whose use of nonviolent civil disobedience led to his country’s independence from British colonial rule, is slain in New Delhi by a Hindu extremist.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated at the Birla House in New Delhi on 30 January 1948. Gandhi was outside on the steps where a prayer meeting was going to take place, surrounded by a part of his family and some followers, when Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist and prominent member of Hindu Mahasabha, approached and shot him three times in the chest at close range. Gandhi was taken back inside the Birla House, where he died. Godse was arrested, convicted in court and later executed.
Date: Jan 30, 1948
wiki/Assassination_of_Mahatma_Gandhi(1968) The Tet Offensive begins with surprise attacksViet Cong and North Vietnamese forces break the holiday truce, launching a widespread military campaign against US and South Vietnamese targets that is among the largest of the Vietnam War.The Tet Offensive was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People’s Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. The name of the offensive comes from the Tết holiday, the Vietnamese New Year, when the first major attacks took place.
Start date: Jan 30, 1968 End date: Sep 23, 1968
wiki/Tet_Offensive(1972) Northern Ireland suffers ‘Bloody Sunday’ British soldiers fire on unarmed Catholic civil rights protestors during a Derry, Northern Ireland, march, killing 14 and wounding 17. The incident ratchets up tension and strife during The Troubles.Bloody Sunday – sometimes called the Bogside Massacre – was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, when British soldiers shot 26 unarmed civilians during a peaceful protest march against internment. Fourteen people died: thirteen were killed outright, while the death of another man four months later was attributed to his injuries. Many of the victims were shot while fleeing from the soldiers and some were shot while trying to help the wounded. Other protesters were injured by rubber bullets or batons, and two were run down by army vehicles. The march had been organised by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. The soldiers involved were members of the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment, also known as “1 Para”.
(1922) First diabetic patient to receive insulinFourteen-year-old Leonard Thompson is injected with insulin, a new drug that saves diabetics’ lives. A Nobel Prize will go to the Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod, the researchers who developed the drug.Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or fats via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.
May treat: Diabetes mellitus type 1 · Type 2 diabetes · Diabetic ketoacidosis · Hyperglycemia · Gestational diabetes · Hyperkalemia · Myocardial Reperfusion Injury Possible side effect: Acanthosis nigricans Legal status: Over-the-counter drug · Prescription drug Brand name: Exubera Pregnancy risk category: Pregnancy Category C (FDA) · Pregnancy Category B (FDA)
wiki/Insulin(1957) The Frisbee takes flight The toy company Wham-O has taken notice of a plastic flying disc invented by WWII veteran pilot Walter Morrison, who’s been selling his Pluto Platters on the beaches of Santa Monica, California. He sells the rights for the Pluto Platter to Wham-O, which soon changes its name to the Frisbee.A frisbee is a disc-shaped gliding toy or sporting item that is generally plastic and roughly 20 to 25 centimetres in diameter with a lip, used recreationally and competitively for throwing and catching, for example, in flying disc games. The shape of the disc, an airfoil in cross-section, allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves through the air while spinning. Flying discs are thrown and caught for free-form recreation and as part of many flying disc games. A wide range of flying disc variants are available commercially. Disc golf discs are usually smaller but denser and tailored for particular flight profiles to increase/decrease stability and distance. The longest recorded disc throw is by Simon Lizotte with a distance of 263.2 meters. Disc dog sports use relatively slow flying discs made of more pliable material to better resist a dog’s bite and prevent injury to the dog. Flying rings are also available; they typically travel significantly farther than any traditional flying disc. There are also illuminated discs meant for nighttime play — they are made of a phosphorescent plastic or contain battery-powered light-emitting diodes or chemiluminescent glowing sticks. Others whistle when they reach a certain velocity in flight. wiki/Frisbee(1968) US Navy ship seized by North KoreaThe intelligence vessel USS Pueblo comes under fire and is captured by North Korean patrol boats off their coast. The 83 crewmembers will be held by the communist nation for 11 months.USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class environmental research ship, attached to Navy intelligence as a spy ship, which was attacked and captured by North Korean forces on 23 January 1968, in what is known today as the “Pueblo incident” or alternatively, as the “Pueblo crisis”.
Launched: Apr 16, 1944
wiki/USS_Pueblo_(AGER-2)(1973) President Nixon announces accord ending Vietnam WarThe Paris Peace Accords signed by his Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the top North Vietnamese negotiator, Richard Nixon announces that a ceasefire will go into effect in 72 hours.The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973 to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. It ended direct U.S. military combat, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. However, the agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate.
The negotiations that led to the accord began in 1968, after various lengthy delays. As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission (ICC) was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the two men were awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts, although Lê Đức Thọ refused to accept it. wiki/Paris_Peace_Accords3.2.j17
(1842) Brydon survives massacre that kills 16,500 Emerging from an enemy attack on his retreating British army’s line leaving Kabul, Afghanistan, Dr. William Brydon and a few Indian sepoys (soldiers) stagger into a Jalalabad sentry post as the sole witnesses to the massacre.William Brydon CB was an assistant surgeon in the British East India Company Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, famous for reportedly being the only member of an army of 4,500 men, plus 12,000 accompanying civilians, to reach safety in Jalalabad at the end of the long retreat from Kabul. wiki/William_Brydon(1898) Zola’s ‘J’accuse!’ defends Dreyfus, thrashes militaryFrench novelist Émile Zola publishes his spirited defense of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, an officer of Jewish background charged with treason. Zola points to evidence of an army cover-up and accuses the military of anti-Semitism. The letter will spark heated debates in France about equal rights for all citizens.“J’accuse…!” was an open letter published on 13 January 1898 in the newspaper L’Aurore by the influential writer Émile Zola. In the letter, Zola addressed President of France Félix Faure and accused the government of anti-Semitism and the unlawful jailing of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Army General Staff officer who was sentenced to lifelong penal servitude for espionage. Zola pointed out judicial errors and lack of serious evidence. The letter was printed on the front page of the newspaper and caused a stir in France and abroad. Zola was prosecuted for and found guilty of libel on 23 February 1898. To avoid imprisonment, he fled to England, returning home in June 1899.
Author: Émile Zola First published: Jan 13, 1898
wiki/J’accuse…!(1910) World’s first radio broadcastThe Radio Telephone Company transmits live performances of Enrico Caruso performing opera arias at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera House. Radio receivers on ships in New York harbor, in hotels, and elsewhere throughout New York allow the public to hear the world’s first public wireless broadcast .Birth of public radio broadcasting is credited to Lee de Forest. On January 13, 1910, the first public radio broadcast was an experimental transmission of a live Metropolitan Opera House performance of several famous opera singers. wiki/Birth_of_public_radio_broadcasting(1968) Johnny Cash records live album ‘At Folsom Prison’ Newly sober after a serious drug problem, Johnny Cash brings his band, and wife June Carter Cash, to Folsom State Prison in California to record two live sets. The album will sell millions and revitalize the career of The Man in Black.At Folsom Prison is a live album and 27th overall album by Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in May 1968. After his 1955 song “Folsom Prison Blues”, Cash had been interested in recording a performance at a prison. His idea was put on hold until 1967, when personnel changes at Columbia Records put Bob Johnston in charge of producing Cash’s material. Cash had recently controlled his drug abuse problems, and was looking to turn his career around after several years of limited commercial success. Backed with June Carter, Carl Perkins and the Tennessee Three, Cash performed two shows at Folsom State Prison in California on January 13, 1968. The resulting album consisted of fifteen tracks from the first show and two tracks from the second.
Release year: 1968 Genre: Country, Traditional Country Label: COLUMBIA/LEGACY Artists: Johnny Cash · The Tennessee Three
(1896) Discovery of X-rays reportedGerman physicist Wilhelm Röntgen’s discovery of a new form of radiation, later dubbed by Röntgen as ‘X’ for unknown, is published in an Austrian newspaper. One of his first experiments is a film of his wife Bertha’s hand with a ring on her finger, seen here.X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. wiki/X-ray(1933) Golden Gate Bridge building beginsConstruction officially starts on the iconic San Francisco Bay span when 3.25 million cubic feet of soil is excavated to make way for the bridge’s anchorages. The bridge will open to traffic four years later, in May 1937.The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, three-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city of San Francisco, California – the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula – to Marin County, carrying both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Phone: (415) 921-5858 Opened: May 27, 1937 Length: 8,980 feet (2,737 m) Width: 89′ 11″ (27.40 m) Longest span: 4,200 feet (1,280 m) Clearance below: 220 feet (67.06 m)
wiki/Golden_Gate_Bridge(1968) Czechs defy Soviets and begin Prague SpringAlexander Dubček is elected in Czechoslovakia and begins reforms to Communist Party restrictions in place since the 1940s. Seven months later, Soviet tanks will arrive to halt the revolution.The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.
Start date: Jan 05, 1968 End date: Aug 21, 1968
wiki/Prague_Spring(1973) Bruce Springsteen releases first albumHeralded by critics but slow to sell, ‘Greetings From Asbury Park, N.J.’ is Springsteen’s debut album. Its folk-rock smolder is the first spark in a career that will catch fire two years later.Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J. is the debut album by Bruce Springsteen. Produced by Mike Appel and Jim Cretecos during July–September 1972 at the budget-priced 914 Sound Studios, it was released on January 5, 1973 by Columbia Records. Sales were poor in the first year, but the album gained some significant critical reviews.
Release year: 1973 Genre: Rock, Indie / Alternative Label: Columbia Artists: Bruce Springsteen · E Street Band