(1824) Beethoven’s 9th premieres in ViennaIn his first stage appearance in over a decade, German composer Ludwig van Beethoven premieres his Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 in Vienna, Austria. Although he wrote the symphony when nearly deaf, it will turn out to be his greatest triumph.The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, also known as “the Choral”, is Ludwig van Beethoven’s final complete symphony. Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the best-known works in classical music. It is almost universally considered by critics to be one of Beethoven’s greatest works, and many consider it one of the greatest compositions in the western musical canon. The symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony. The words are sung during the final movement by four vocal soloists and a chorus. They were taken from the “Ode to Joy”, a poem written by Friedrich Schiller in 1785 and revised in 1803, with text additions made by the composer. In the 2010s, it stands as one of the most performed symphonies in the world.
Completed: 1824 Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven Compositional forms: Symphony · Choral symphony · Lied Key: D minor
wiki/Symphony_No._9_(Beethoven)(1965) Keith Richards gets ‘Satisfaction’Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards has placed a tape recorder next to his bed in a Clearwater, Florida, motel room, and he awakes to find that at some point in the early morning he’d laid down the opening riff of ‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.’ The Stones will record the song, with its distinctive guitar hook, just days later and it will make them superstars.
“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” is a song by the English rock band the Rolling Stones, released in 1965. It was written by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards and produced by Andrew Loog Oldham. Richards’ three-note guitar riff—intended to be replaced by horns—opens and drives the song. The lyrics refer to sexual frustration and commercialism.
The song was first released as a single in the United States in June 1965 and was also featured on the American version of the Rolling Stones’ fourth studio album, Out of Our Heads, released that July. “Satisfaction” was a hit, giving the Stones their first number one in the US. In the UK, the song initially was played only on pirate radio stations, because its lyrics were considered too sexually suggestive. It later became the Rolling Stones’ fourth number one in the United Kingdom.
In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine placed “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” in the second spot on its list of “The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time”. The song was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2006.
Album: Out of Our Heads Artist: The Rolling Stones Release year: 1965 Duration: 3:43 Genre: Rock, Classic Rock
wiki/(I_Can%27t_Get_No)_Satisfaction(1982) NFL’s Raiders move to Los AngelesAfter two years of lawsuits, outspoken, uncompromising team owner Al Davis is finally allowed to move the Raiders from Oakland to Los Angeles. The Raiders will play there until 1995 when they will move back to Oakland. In 2017, they will flirt with a return to L.A. before announcing plans to relocate to Las Vegas.The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The team was founded on January 30, 1960, and commenced operations on September 11, 1960, as a member of the American Football League at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, California; they are currently members of the National Football League, which merged with the AFL in 1970. The Raiders currently compete in the NFL as a member club of the league’s American Football Conference West division and play their home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. At the end of the NFL’s 2015 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular-season record of 444 wins, 397 losses, and 11 ties; their lifetime playoff record currently stands at 25 wins and 18 losses.
Founded: 1960 Coach: Jack Del Rio Venue: Mount Davis Owner: Mark Davis Championships: 2003 AFC Championship Game · Super Bowl XVIII · Super Bowl XV · Super Bowl XI · 1967 American Football League Championship Game Location: Oakland
wiki/Oakland_Raiders(2000) Russia inaugurates Vladimir Putin as presidentA former lieutenant colonel in the Soviet KGB, Vladimir Putin becomes Russia’s second president after winning the popular vote. He will wrest tight control of the country’s power structure, as president and later as prime minister, re-establishing the firm authority of the centralized government.Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012. He was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, President from 2000 to 2008, and again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling United Russia Party.
Born: Oct 07, 1952 (age 64) · Saint Petersburg, Russia Height: 5′ 7″ (1.70 m) Office: President of Russia (Since 2012) Spouse: Lyudmila Putina (m. 1983 – 2014) Children: Yekaterina Putina (Daughter) · Mariya Putina (Daughter) Previous offices: Prime Minister of Russia (2008 – 2012) · Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union State (2008 – 2012) · Leader of United Russia (2008 – 2012) · President of Russia (2000 – 2008) · Prime Minister of Russia (1999 – 2000) · Acting President of Russia (1999 – 2000) · Acting Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (1999 – 1999)
1983: Vladimir Putin married Lyudmila Putina on July 28, 1983; their marriage lasted 31 years till April 02, 2014.
1998: On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Putin as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the primary intelligence and security organization of the Russian Federation and successor of the KGB.
2008: In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian President who visited Libya.
2008: In a power-switching operation on 8 May 2008, only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia, maintaining his political dominance.
2012: Putin’s presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.
2015: In June 2015, Putin told an Italian newspaper that Russia has no intention of attacking NATO.
(1925) Deadliest tornado in US history strikes three statesFor seven hours, a massive tornado wreaks destruction over some 200 miles, the longest twister track in recorded history, roaring through Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. The twister kills 695 people and causes an estimated $1.4 billion in damage.The Tri-State Tornado of Wednesday, March 18, 1925 was the deadliest tornado in U.S. history. It was also the most exceptional tornado of a major outbreak of at least twelve known significant tornadoes across a large portion of the Midwestern and Southern U.S. It alone inflicted 695 fatalities, more than twice as many as the second deadliest, the Great Natchez Tornado of 1840. The 151 to 235 mi track left by the tornado was the longest ever recorded in the world as it crossed from southeastern Missouri, through southern Illinois, then into southwestern Indiana. Although not officially rated by NOAA, it is recognized by most experts as an F5 tornado, the maximum damage rating issued on the Fujita scale.
Date: Mar 18, 1925 Fatalities: 695
wiki/Tri-State_Tornado(1962) Algerian War ends in a truceSeven years of war and 132 years of French rule come to an end in Algeria as the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) and France sign a peace agreement. Hundreds of thousands, mostly civilians, have died in the conflict.The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was a war between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a civil war between loyalist Algerians supporting a French Algeria and their Algerian nationalist counterparts.
Start date: Nov 01, 1954 End date: Mar 19, 1962
wiki/Algerian_War(1965) USSR’s Alexey Leonov takes the first spacewalk Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov emerges from his spacecraft and spends 12 minutes suspended in outer space, with only a tether connecting him to his craft. It’s humankind’s first “extravehicular activity,” or EVA.Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, a writer and an artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extravehicular activity, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk.
Born: May 30, 1934 (age 82) · Listvyanka, Irkutsky District, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Svetlana Pavlovna Dozenko Space missions: Voskhod 2 · Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Movies and TV shows: From the Earth to the Moon · Tank on the Moon Children: Oksana A. (Daughter) · Viktoria A. (Daughter)
1965: He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to the craft by a 5.35-meter tether.
1965: On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct extravehicular activity (EVA), exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk.
1968: In 1968, Leonov was selected to be commander of a circumlunar Soyuz 7K-L1 flight.
1984: Leonov, along with Rusty Schweickart, Vitaly Sevastyanov, and Georgi Grechko established the Association of Space Explorers in 1984.
2001: Space and Time Perception by the Cosmonaut written by Alexey Leonov was first published on January 01, 2001.
2005: Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race written by Alexey Leonov was first published on April 04, 2005.
wiki/Alexey_Leonov(1990) $500 million worth of art nabbedDisguised as cops, brazen thieves enter Boston’s Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and make off with 13 invaluable artworks, including paintings by Vermeer and Rembrandt. The crime will remain unsolved.The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum or Fenway Court, as the museum was known during Isabella Stewart Gardner’s lifetime, is a museum in the Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, located within walking distance of the Museum of Fine Arts and near the Back Bay Fens. The museum houses an art collection of world importance, including significant examples of European, Asian, and American art, from paintings and sculpture to tapestries and decorative arts. In 1990, thirteen of the museum’s works were stolen; the high-profile crime remains unsolved and the location of the artworks is still unknown.
Website: www.gardnermuseum.org Address: 25 Evans Way, Boston, MA 02115 Phone: (617) 566-1401 Established: 1903 Architects: Willard T. Sears · William T. Sears Founder: Isabella Stewart Gardner
(44 BCE) Roman dictator Julius Caesar is assassinatedThe usually festive Ides of March take a tragic turn as ‘dictator-for-life’ Julius Caesar is attacked by a group of knife-weilding Roman senators. Among the assassins is Caesar’s protégé and friend, Marcus Brutus.The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus, and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March, 44 BC. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate. This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favor of tyranny. The conspirators were unable to restore the Roman Republic. The ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators’ civil war and, ultimately, to the Principate period of the Roman Empire. wiki/Assassination_of_Julius_Caesar(1877) Australia and England meet in debut Test cricket matchMelbourne is the site of cricket’s first officially recognized Test match, with Australia hosting rival England in the sport’s most demanding challenge. This four-day match ends with Australia winning by 45 runs.
Test matches in the period 1877 to 1883 were organised somewhat differently from international cricket matches today. The teams were rarely representative, and the boat trip between Australia and England, which usually lasted about 48 days, was one that many cricketers (especially amateurs) were unable or unwilling to undertake. As such, the home teams enjoyed a great advantage.
Thirteen Test Matches were played during the period, all between Australian and English sides. Most were not styled as representative “England v. Australia” contests, however: this description was only applied later by cricket statisticians. The same is true of their designation as “Test matches”, which did not enter into the vernacular until 1885. Eleven of the thirteen matches played to 1883 were in Australia, where the colonials made the most of their home advantage, winning seven while England won four, and two matches were drawn.
By 1883, the tradition of England-Australia tours was well established, that year having concluded the first Ashes series. When England lost at home for the first time in 1882, The Sporting Times lamented the death of cricket in the mother country and declared that “the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia”. England captain Ivo Bligh promised that on the tour to Australia in 1882–83 he would regain “the ashes” and the term began to be established. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to Bligh by a group of Melbourne women. The urn is commonly, but erroneously, believed to be the trophy of the Ashes series, but it has never been formally adopted as such and Bligh always considered it to be a personal gift.
A number of the problems that continue to bedevil cricket today had already surfaced by 1883: there were umpiring disputes, betting controversies, match-fixing, and even a riot.
wiki/History_of_Test_cricket_from_1877_to_1883(1964) Hollywood power couple Taylor and Burton get hitchedScreen star Elizabeth Taylor takes her fifth walk down the aisle and British thespian Richard Burton his second, as they marry following an affair that caused years of tabloid frenzy. They will divorce 10 years later, only to remarry after just months later. Their second marriage will last less than a year.
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE was a British-American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian. She began as a child actress in the early 1940s, and was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s. She continued her career successfully into the 1960s, and remained a well known public figure for the rest of her life. The American Film Institute named her the seventh-greatest female screen legend in 1999.
Lived: Feb 27, 1932 – Mar 23, 2011 (age 79) Height: 5′ 3″ (1.60 m) Spouse: Larry Fortensky (m. 1991 – 1996) · John Warner (m. 1976 – 1982) · Richard Burton (m. 1975 – 1976) · Richard Burton (m. 1964 – 1974) · Eddie Fisher (m. 1959 – 1964) · Mike Todd (m. 1957 – 1958) · Michael Wilding Children: Maria Burton (Daughter) · Liza Todd (Daughter) · Michael Wilding Jr. (Son) · Christopher Edward Wilding (Son) Buried: Forest Lawn Memorial Park
Richard Burton, CBE was a Welsh actor who was noted for his mellifluous baritone voice. Burton established himself as a formidable Shakespearean actor in the 1950s, and he gave a memorable performance of Hamlet in 1964. He was called “the natural successor to Olivier” by critic and dramaturg Kenneth Tynan. An alcoholic, Burton’s failure to live up to those expectations disappointed critics and colleagues and fueled his legend as a great thespian wastrel.
Lived: Nov 10, 1925 – Aug 05, 1984 (age 58) Height: 5′ 10″ (1.78 m) Spouse: Sally Burton (m. 1983 – 1984) · Susan Hunt (m. 1976 – 1982) · Elizabeth Taylor (m. 1975 – 1976) · Elizabeth Taylor (m. 1964 – 1974) · Sybil Williams (m. 1949 – 1963) Children: Kate Burton (Daughter) · Liza Todd (Daughter) · Maria Burton (Daughter) · Jessica Burton (Daughter) Siblings: Ifor Jenkins (Brother) · Cecilia Jenkins (Sister) · Graham Jenkins (Brother)
wiki/Elizabeth_Taylor wiki/Richard_Burton(1965) President Johnson’s civil rights speechThe struggles of civil rights activists, and the recent violence they encountered in Alabama, inspire LBJ’s speech to the US Congress. He quotes the activists’ hallmark phrase, “we shall overcome,” and calls for voting rights for all. The speech will help galvanize support for the Voting Rights Act.
I speak tonight for the dignity of man and the destiny of democracy.
I urge every member of both parties—Americans of all religions and of all colors—from every section of this country—to join me in that cause.
At times history and fate meet at a single time in a single place to shape a turning point in man’s unending search for freedom. So it was at Lexington and Concord. So it was a century ago at Appomattox. So it was last week in Selma, Alabama.
There is no Negro problem. There is no southern problem. There is no northern problem. There is only an American problem.
And we are met here tonight as Americans—not as Democrats or Republicans—we are met here as Americans to solve that problem.
This was the first nation in the history of the world to be founded with a purpose. The great phrases of that purpose still sound in every American heart, north and south: “All men are created equal” — “Government by consent of the governed” — “Give me liberty or give me death.”…
Those words are a promise to every citizen that he shall share in the dignity of man. This dignity cannot be found in man’s possessions. It cannot be found in his power or in his position. It really rests on his right to be treated as a man equal in opportunity to all others. It says that he shall share in freedom, he shall choose his leaders, educate his children, provide for his family according to his ability and his merits as a human being….
Many of the issues of civil rights are very complex and most difficult. But about this there can and should be no argument. Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. There is no reason which can excuse the denial of that right. There is no duty which weighs more heavily on us than the duty we have to ensure that right.
Yet the harsh fact is that in many places in this country men and women are kept from voting simply because they are Negroes….
Experience has clearly shown that the existing process of law cannot overcome systematic and ingenious discrimination. No law that we now have on the books—and I have helped to put three of them there—can ensure the right to vote when local officials are determined to deny it.
In such a case our duty must be clear to all of us. The Constitution says that no person shall be kept from voting because of his race or his color. We have all sworn an oath before God to support and to defend that Constitution.
We must now act in obedience to that oath.
Wednesday I will send to Congress a law designed to eliminate illegal barriers to the right to vote….
To those who seek to avoid action by their National Government in their home communities—who want to and who seek to maintain purely local control over elections—the answer is simple. Open your polling places to all your people. Allow men and women to register and vote whatever the color of their skin. Extend the rights of citizenship to every citizen of this land. There is no constitutional issue here. The command of the Constitution is plain. There is no moral issue. It is wrong—deadly wrong—to deny any of your fellow Americans the right to vote in this country. There is no issue of States rights or National rights. There is only the struggle for human rights.
I have not the slightest doubt what will be your answer….
But even if we pass this bill, the battle will not be over. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. It is the effort of American Negroes to secure for themselves the full blessings of American life.
Their cause must be our cause too, because it is not just Negroes but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome….
This great, rich, restless country can offer opportunity and education and hope to all—all black and white, all North and South, sharecropper and city dweller. These are the enemies—poverty, ignorance, disease—they are our enemies, not our fellow man, not our neighbor. And these enemies too—poverty, disease, and ignorance—we shall overcome.
(1911) First pilot license for a womanA plumber’s daughter from Paris, having convinced an aviator friend, Charles Voisin, to instruct her in how to fly an airplane, demonstrates her flying skills to the Aero-Club of France which awards her a pilot’s license, the first ever issued to a woman.Raymonde de Laroche, born Elise Raymonde Deroche, was a French pilot and the first woman in the world to receive an aeroplane pilot’s licence. Born on 22 August 1882 in Paris, Elise Raymonde Deroche was the daughter of a plumber. She had a fondness for sports as a child, as well as for motorcycles and automobiles when she was older. As a young woman she became an actress and used the stage name “Raymonde de Laroche”. Inspired by Wilbur Wright’s 1908 demonstrations of powered flight in Paris and being personally acquainted with several aviators, including artist-turned-aviator Léon Delagrange, who was reputed to be the father of her son André, de Laroche determined to take up flying for herself.
Born: Aug 22, 1882 · Paris, France Died: Jul 18, 1919 · France
1990: In October 1909, de Laroche appealed to her friend, aviator and aeroplane builder Charles Voisin, to instruct her in how to fly.
1909: On 22 October 1909, de Laroche went to the Voisin brothers’ base of operations at Chalons, 90 miles (140 km) east of Paris.
1910: On 8 March 1910, de Laroche became the first woman in the world to receive a pilot licence when the Aero-Club of France issued her licence #36 of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (International Aeronautics Federation or F.A.I.).
1910: In July 1910, de Laroche was participating in the week-long airshow at Reims in France.
1912: On 26 September 1912, she and Charles Voisin were involved in a car crash.
1913: On 25 November 1913 de Laroche won the Aero-Club of France’s Femina Cup for a non-stop long-distance flight of over 4 hours duration.
wiki/Raymonde_de_Laroche(1917) Russia’s February Revolution roils Petrograd (St. Petersburg) sees 50,000 striking workers join others celebrating International Women’s Day and together they battle police over food shortages and government corruption in the beginnings of what will be known, in reference to the date in the nation’s Julian calendar, as the February Revolution.The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution was the first of two Russian revolutions in 1917.
Start date: Mar 03, 1917 End date: Nov 07, 1917
wiki/February_Revolution(1920) First modern-day Arab state is foundedWith British and French colonial powers angling for control of the Middle East, the Arab Kingdom of Syria establishes itself as an Arab-led state. It will last four months before falling to French forces.The Arab Kingdom of Syria was the first modern Arab state to come into existence but only lasted a little over four months. During its brief existence, the kingdom was led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali’s son Faisal bin Hussein. Despite its claims to territory of a Greater Syria, Faisal’s government controlled a limited area and was dependent on Britain which, along with France, generally opposed the idea of a Greater Syria and refused to recognize Faisal as its king. The kingdom surrendered to French forces on 24 July 1920.
Flag of Kingdom of Syria (1920-03-08 to 1920-07-24) wiki/Arab_Kingdom_of_Syria(1965) US ground combat troops land in VietnamAfter Viet Cong attacks on US Air Force bases in Da Nang, 3,500 Marines arrive for defense, the first US land combat deployment in Vietnam. Nine months later, they’ll be joined by almost 200,000 additional US combat troops.The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is therefore considered a Cold War-era proxy war.
(1876) Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephoneFollowing the development of his prototype ‘harmonic telegraph’ device, Scotland-born Alexander Graham Bell receives a US patent on a revolutionary new form of instantaneous communication, the telephone.Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone. Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
Lived: Mar 03, 1847 – Aug 02, 1922 (age 75) Spouse: Mabel Gardiner Hubbard (m. 1877 – 1922) Founded: AT&T · National Geographic Society · Bell Labs · Bell System · Oriental Telephone Company · Aerial Experiment Association Inventions: Telephone · Graphophone · Twisted pair Children: Elsie Bell (Daughter) · Robert Bell (Son) · Edward Bell (Son) · Marian Hubbard Bell (Daughter) Education: University of Edinburgh (1864 – 1865) · Royal High School, Edinburgh (1858 – 1862) · University College London (1868 – 1870) · Weston House Academy (1863 – 1864)
1877: On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1880: Canada’s first telephone company building, the “Henderson Home” of the late 1870s, a predecessor of the Bell Telephone Company of Canada (officially chartered in 1880).
1880: In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately US$260,000 in today’s dollars) for the invention of the telephone from the Académie française, representing the French government.
1893: In 1893, Keller performed the sod-breaking ceremony for the construction of the new Bell’s new Volta Bureau, dedicated to “the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf”.
1914: Bell was later awarded the AIEE’s Edison Medal in 1914 “For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone”.
1922: Bell died of complications arising from diabetes on August 2, 1922, at his private estate in Cape Brenton, Nova Scotia, at age 75.
wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell(1945) US forces capture Ludendorff Bridge on German Rhine Nine years to the day after Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles and reoccupied the Rhineland, the US Army’s 9th Armored Division secures one of the last still-standing bridges over the Rhine River. Allied forces will now be able to cross into the German interior and bring the war to a swifter conclusion.The Battle of Remagen during the Allied invasion of Germany resulted in the unexpected capture of the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine and possibly shortened World War II in Europe. After capturing the Siegfried Line, the 9th Armored Division of the U.S. First Army had advanced unexpectedly quickly towards the Rhine. They were very surprised to see one of the last bridges across the Rhine still standing. The Germans had wired the bridge with about 2,800 kilograms of demolition charges. When they tried to blow it up, only a portion of the explosives detonated. U.S. forces captured the bridge and rapidly expanded their first bridgehead across the Rhine, two weeks before Operation Plunder. The GIs’ actions prevented the Germans from regrouping east of the Rhine and consolidating their positions.
Start date: Mar 07, 1945 End date: Mar 25, 1945
wiki/Battle_of_Remagen(1951) Ridgway launches Korean War’s Operation Ripper Spearheaded by US General Matthew Ridgway, a UN force launches a huge offensive against enemy combatants around Seoul. A week later the South Korean capital will be liberated from Communist control.Operation Ripper, also known as the Fourth Battle of Seoul, was a United Nations military operation conceived by the commander US Eighth Army, General Matthew Ridgway, during the Korean War. The operation was intended to destroy as much as possible of the Chinese communist People’s Volunteer Army and North Korean military around Seoul and the towns of Hongch’on, 50 miles east of Seoul, and Ch’unch’on, 15 miles further south. The operation also aimed to bring UN troops to the 38th parallel. It followed upon the heels of Operation Killer, an eight-day UN offensive that concluded February 28, to push Communist forces north of the Han River. The operation was launched on March 6, 1951 with the US I Corps and IX Corps on the west near Seoul and Hoengsong and US X Corps and ROK III Corps in the east, to reach “Line Idaho”, an arc with its apex just south of the 38th Parallel in South Korea.
Start date: Mar 07, 1951 End date: Apr 04, 1951
wiki/Operation_Ripper(1965) Selma civil rights march becomes ‘Bloody Sunday’ Marching for civil rights for African Americans, hundreds of unarmed and peaceful protesters cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, and are set upon by state troopers wielding billy clubs and tear gas. Public disgust at the incident will help galvanize support for passage of the Voting Rights Act.The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the Civil Rights Movement.