(1961) Enos the chimp is launched in space and orbits EarthHaving completed 1,250 hours of training, Enos takes off from Cape Canaveral aboard the Mercury-Atlas 5, becoming the first chimp to successfully orbit the Earth. He’ll take two spins around the globe before splashing down near Bermuda. On the rescue boat, Enos will jump for joy and shake hands with his rescuers.Enos was the second chimpanzee launched into space by NASA. He was the first chimpanzee, and third hominid after cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov, to achieve Earth orbit. Enos’ flight occurred on November 29, 1961.
Died: Nov 04, 1962 Space missions: Mercury-Atlas 5 Space agency: NASA
Chimpanzee Enos with handler before Mercury-Atlas 5 flight Enos became the first chimp to orbit the earth on November 29, 1961, aboard a Mercury Atlas rocket. Although the mission plan originally called for three orbits, due to a malfunctioning thruster and other technical difficulties, flight controllers were forced to terminate Enos’ flight after two orbits. Enos landed in the recovery area and was picked up 75 minutes after splashdown. He was found to be in good overall condition and both he and the Mercury spacecraft performed well. His mission concluded the testing for a human orbital flight, achieved by John Glenn on February 20, 1962. Enos died at Holloman Air Force Base of a non-space related case of dysentery 11 months after his flight. For more information about Enos and other animals who have made the journey into space, visit: history.nasa.gov/animals.html
(1918) US Marines enlist their first female recruitHer country embroiled in World War I, 39-year-old Opha Johnson is first in line to enlist at the US Marine Corps Reserves, becoming the first female Marine in history. More than 300 other women will follow Johnson’s lead and serve as Marines during the war, paving the way for future women in the US military.Opha May Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the United States Marine Corps. She joined the Marine Corps Reserve in 1918, officially becoming the first female Marine.
Born: 1879 · Indiana, Midwestern United States Died: Aug 11, 1955 · Washington, D.C., United States Buried: Rock Creek Cemetery
1898: Historical records identify she married Victor H. Johnson on 20 December 1898 at the Sixth Presbyterian Church in Washington, DC.
1918: According to 1918 newspaper articles, as well as the published history of Women Marines in World War I, Johnson’s first duties were as a clerk at Marine Corps headquarters, managing the records of other female reservists who joined after she did.
1955: Opha May Johnson died on Thursday, 11 August 1955, at Mount Alto Veterans Hospital in Washington, D.C.
wiki/Opha_May_Johnson(1961) East is sealed off from West in a divided capitalWhile the city sleeps, Soviet-backed East German soldiers begin erecting a barbed-wire barrier in Berlin, making solid what’s been for 15 years a geopolitical split within Germany’s capital. Transit between communist East Berlin and capitalist West Berlin is now strictly verboten.The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and was completed in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, “fakir beds” and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the Wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the “will of the people” in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that had marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.
Address: Zimmer Street 88 · 10117 Berlin Phone: 030 3087770 Construction started: Aug 13, 1961 Destroyed: Nov 09, 1989 Map of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints.
(1314) Scotland fights England for independence at Bannockburn Stirling Castle watches over the Highlands road, and Scots want it back from its English occupiers. The Scots lay siege, and when England’s King Edward II sends reinforcements they are shockingly defeated at the Battle of Bannockburn by a smaller Scottish force commanded by Robert the Bruce.The Battle of Bannockburn was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.
Start date: Jun 23, 1314 End date: Jun 24, 1314
wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn(1868) Christopher Sholes receives a patent for his ‘Type-Writer’ Resembling a small piano set inside a wooden cabinet, a new writing machine invented by Christopher Sholes and his associates receives a US patent. Refinements, including the QWERTY keyboard, will be added in years to come as the typewriter taps into a vast business-world need.Christopher Latham Sholes was an American inventor who invented the QWERTY keyboard, and along with Frank Haven Hall, Samuel W. Soule, Carlos Glidden and John Pratt, has been contended as one of the inventors of the first typewriter in the United States. He was also a newspaper publisher and Wisconsin politician.
Born: Feb 14, 1819 · Mooresburg, PA Died: Feb 17, 1890 · Milwaukee, WI Inventions: QWERTY · Sholes and Glidden typewriter Siblings: Charles Sholes (Brother) Parents: Catherine Sholes (Mother) · Orrin Sholes (Father) Buried: Forest Home Cemetery
1837: After completing his apprenticeship, Sholes moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1837, and later to Southport, Wisconsin (present-day Kenosha).
1845: In 1845, Sholes was working as editor of the Southport Telegraph, a small newspaper in Kenosha, Wisconsin.
1867: Further inspiration came in July 1867, when Sholes came across a short note in Scientific American describing the “Pterotype”, a prototype typewriter that had been invented by John Pratt.
1890: Sholes died on February 17, 1890 after battling tuberculosis for nine years, and is buried at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee.
wiki/Christopher_Latham_Sholes(1931) Aviator Wiley Post takes off to break world recordOnce a flying circus performer, aviator Wiley Post has bigger plans as he and his navigator take off from New York in their single-engine plane hoping to beat a 21-day circumnavigation flight record. Post will break that record, and by a lot, when he flies around the world in just eight days.Wiley Hardeman Post was a famed American aviator during the interwar period, the first pilot to fly solo around the world. Also known for his work in high-altitude flying, Post helped develop one of the first pressure suits and discovered the jet stream. On August 15, 1935, Post and American humorist Will Rogers were killed when Post’s aircraft crashed on takeoff from a lagoon near Point Barrow in the Territory of Alaska.
Born: Nov 22, 1898 · Grand Saline, TX Died: Aug 15, 1935 · Barrow, AK Spouse: Mae Laine (m. 1927) Movies: Air Hawks Parents: William Francis Post · Mae Quinlan Post
1921: He was arrested in 1921 and sent to the Oklahoma State Reformatory.
1927: Wiley Post married Mae Laine on June 27, 1927.
1930: Post was the personal pilot of wealthy Oklahoma oilmen Powell Briscoe and F.C. Hall in 1930 when Hall bought a high-wing, single-engine Lockheed Vega, one of the most famous record-breaking aircraft of the early 1930s.
1933: In 1933, he repeated his flight around the world, this time using the auto-pilot and compass in place of his navigator and becoming the first to accomplish the feat alone.
1935: In 1935 Post became interested in surveying a mail-and-passenger air route from the West Coast of the United States to Russia.
1935: On August 15, 1935, Post and American humorist Will Rogers were killed when Post’s aircraft crashed on takeoff from a lagoon near Point Barrow in the Territory of Alaska.
wiki/Wiley_Post(1961) Antarctic arms control treaty avoids ‘Cold War’ Aimed at preserving a pristine part of the globe, the Antarctic Treaty System goes into effect, stipulating the continent can only be used for peaceful and scientific endeavors – military uses, such as weapons testing, are banned. With 12 signatories, it’s the first arms-control treaty of the Cold War.The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth’s only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty, entering into force in 1961 and having 53 parties as of 2016, sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation and bans military activity on that continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters have been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina, since September 2004.
(585 BCE) A calendar-setting solar eclipse halts a Greek battleArguably the oldest historical event that can be precisely dated, the Eclipse of Thales is named after the Greek philosopher who’s said to have predicted the event. The eclipse is responsible for ending the Battle of Halys, as both sides are sufficiently spooked into a ceasefire.The Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus accurately predicted a solar eclipse, according to The Histories of Herodotus. If Herodotus’s account is accurate, this eclipse is the earliest recorded as being known in advance of its occurrence. Many historians believe that the predicted eclipse was the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. How exactly Thales predicted the eclipse remains uncertain; some historians claim the eclipse was never predicted at all. Others have argued for different dates.
Date: 585 BC
wiki/Eclipse_of_Thales(1863) African-American 54th Regiment sets off for gloryAmid much celebration, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment departs Boston heading for Beaufort, South Carolina. Although sendoffs of Union soldiers are a common sight, the 54th distinguishes itself as one of the first African-American regiments to join the conflict.The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The unit was the first African-American regiment organized in the northern states during the Civil War. Authorized by the Emancipation Proclamation, the regiment consisted of African-American enlisted men commanded by white officers.
Founded: 1863 Force: Union Army
wiki/54th_Massachusetts_Infantry_Regiment(1934) Rare quintuplet birth leads to sensation and sadnessOntario, Canada’s Dionne family welcomes five baby girls, an extremely rare multiple birth. All will survive to adulthood, but at four months old they’re made wards of the state, becoming a lucrative attraction while living, and being constantly observed, in a tourist park called ‘Quintland.’The Dionne quintuplets are the first quintuplets known to have survived their infancy. The identical sisters were born in Canada, just outside Callander, Ontario, near the village of Corbeil. All five survived to adulthood.
Born: May 28, 1934 · Ontario, Canada Died: Jun 23, 2001 Parents: Elzire Dionne · Oliva Edouard
wiki/Dionne_quintuplets(1961) ‘The Forgotten Prisoners’ shines a light for human rights English lawyer Peter Benenson’s article in The Observer uncovers human rights abuses that fly under the world’s radar, and whose victims are usually powerless individuals speaking out against tyranny. The article will inspire such a response that Benenson will create Amnesty International within weeks.Peter Benenson was a British lawyer and the founder of human rights group Amnesty International. Benenson refused all honours but in his 80s, largely to please his family, he accepted the Pride of Britain Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2001.
Lived: Jul 31, 1921 – Feb 25, 2005 (age 83) Spouse: Susan Booth · Margaret Anderson Founded: Amnesty International Parents: Flora Solomon (Mother) Education: University of Oxford · Eton College · Balliol College
(1260) Kublai Khan becomes leader of the Mongol EmpireA grandson of the notoriously fierce Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan ascends the Mongol throne after his older brother dies, but subsequent battles with his younger brother will split the Mongolian Empire apart. Kublai will later go on to found the vast Yuan Dynasty.Kublai Khan, born Kublai and also known by the temple name Shizu, was the fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
1224: On his way home after the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Genghis Khan performed a ceremony on his grandsons Möngke and Kublai after their first hunt in 1224 near the Ili River.
1257: Möngke Khan sent two tax inspectors, Alamdar (Ariq Böke’s close friend and governor in North China) and Liu Taiping, to audit Kublai’s officials in 1257.
1262: In 1262, Hulagu’s complete purge of the Jochid troops and support for Kublai in his conflict with Ariq Böke brought open war with the Golden Horde.
1286: Kublai Khan married Nambui in 1286.
1287: Threatened by the advance of Kublai’s bureaucratization, Nayan a fourth generation descendant of one of Genghis Khan’s brothers, either Temüge or Belgutei, instigated a revolt in 1287.
1294: Nevertheless, by 1294, the year that Kublai died, the Thai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Chiang Mai had become vassal states of the Yuan dynasty.
wiki/Kublai_Khan(1921) Chanel No. 5 fragrence introducedFrench fashion designer Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel introduces ‘a woman’s perfume with a woman’s scent.’ Dozens of prototypes had been considered, but No. 5 stood out, due in part to its heavy use of aldehydes. The perfume will become iconic for its fragrance, celebrity endorsements, and distinctive glass bottle.Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by French couturier Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel. The chemical formula for the fragrance was compounded by French-Russian chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux. Traditionally, fragrance worn by women had adhered to two basic categories: respectable women favored the pure essence of a single garden flower, and sexually provocative perfumes heavy with animal musk or jasmine were associated with women of the demi-monde, prostitutes or courtesans. Chanel felt the time was right for the debut of a scent that would epitomize the flapper and would speak to the liberated spirit of the 1920s.
Inventor: Ernest Beaux
wiki/Chanel_No._5(1961) Mercury program sends the first American into spaceNaval officer, test pilot, and astronaut Alan Shepard pilots the Mercury-Redstone 3 mission as he takes a 15-minute suborbital flight to become the first American in outer space. A decade later he’ll venture somewhat farther and visit the moon.Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard. It was the first manned flight of Project Mercury, the objective of which was to put an astronaut into orbit around the Earth and return him safely. Shepard’s mission was a 15-minute suborbital flight with the primary objective of demonstrating his ability to withstand the high g forces of launch and atmospheric re-entry.
Mission start: May 05, 1961 Mission end: May 05, 1961 Astronaut: Alan Shepard Space program: Project Mercury
wiki/Mercury-Redstone_3(1981) Irish hunger striker Bobby Sands dies in prisonMember of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and prisoner in Northern Ireland’s Maze Prison, Bobby Sands, 27, dies after a 66-day hunger strike protesting prison conditions. A month earlier, he had won a seat in the British House of Commons.Robert Gerard Sands, commonly known as Bobby Sands, was an Irish member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze.
Lived: Mar 09, 1954 – May 05, 1981 (age 27) Height: 5′ 10″ (1.77 m) Spouse: Geraldine Noade (m. 1972 – 1981) Children: Gerard Sands Party: Sinn Féin Parents: Rosaleen Sands (Mother) · John Sands (Father)
1955: His younger sisters, Marcella and Bernadette, were born in 1955 and 1958, respectively.
1972: In 1972, Sands joined the Provisional IRA.
1972: Bobby Sands married Geraldine Noade in 1972.
1972: In June 1972, Sands’ parents’ home was attacked and damaged by a loyalist mob and they were again forced to move, this time to the West Belfast Catholic area of Twinbrook, where Sands, now thoroughly embittered, rejoined them.
1980: In late 1980 Sands was chosen as Officer Commanding of the Provisional IRA prisoners in Long Kesh, succeeding Brendan Hughes who was participating in the first hunger strike.
1981: Sands died on 5 May 1981 in the Maze’s prison hospital after 66 days on hunger strike, aged 27.