(1682) De La Salle claims “La Louisiane” for FranceFrench explorer Robert de La Salle, having ventured throughout the central northern regions of America, now arrives at the mouth of the mighty Mississippi River, names the entire basin area “La Louisiane,” after French King Louis XIV, and claims the territory for France.René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. He claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.
Born: Nov 22, 1643 · Rouen, France Died: Mar 19, 1687 · Huntsville, TX Romance: Danielle Cavelier Founded: Mississippi Company Siblings: Jean Cavelier Parents: Catherine Gest (Mother) · Jean Cavelier (Father)
wiki/René-Robert_Cavelier,_Sieur_de_La_Salle(1860) Oldest surviving recording of a human voice is madeParisian bookseller Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville sets up his invention, the phonautograph, and records someone singing ‘Au Claire de la Lune.’ It will predate Thomas Edison’s more famous first recordings by 28 years. The MP3 won’t arrive for another 133 years.Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville was a French printer and bookseller who lived in Paris. He invented the earliest known sound recording device, the phonautograph, which was patented in France on 25 March 1857.
wiki/Édouard-Léon_Scott_de_Martinville(1865) Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders In a last-ditch effort against Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee realizes the effort is futile and surrenders his 28,000 troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Virginia’s Appomattox Court House. The surrender triggers others across the South, as the American Civil War finally winds down.The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the final engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, after the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, hoping to join his army with the Confederate forces in North Carolina. Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederate’s retreat at the village of Appomattox Court House. Lee launched an attack to break through the Union force to his front, assuming the Union force consisted entirely of cavalry. When he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender.
Date: Apr 09, 1865
wiki/Battle_of_Appomattox_Court_House(1959) NASA introduces picks for Project Mercury Seven astronauts out of 500 applicants are determined to have the right stuff to conduct manned spaceflights, and they’re introduced in Washington, DC, in front of hundreds of reporters. Astronauts Carpenter, Cooper, Glenn, Grissom, Schirra, Shepard, and Slayton will become national heroes.
The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959. They are also referred to as the Original Seven or Astronaut Group 1. They piloted the manned spaceflights of the Mercury program from May 1961 to May 1963. These seven original American astronauts were Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton.
Members of the group flew on all classes of NASA manned orbital spacecraft of the 20th century — Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and the Space Shuttle. Gus Grissom died in 1967, in the Apollo 1 fire. The others all survived past retirement from service. John Glenn went on to become a U.S. senator, and flew on the Shuttle 36 years later to become the oldest person to fly in space. He was the last living member of the class when he died in 2016.
(1093) England’s Winchester Cathedral is consecratedA limestone Norman cathedral is formally dedicated in Winchester, England. In coming centuries, it will be altered from its medieval form with massive Gothic renovations, including the lengthiest nave of any European church.Winchester Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the longest nave and greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe. Dedicated to the Holy Trinity, Saint Peter, Saint Paul, and before the Reformation, Saint Swithun, it is the seat of the Bishop of Winchester and centre of the Diocese of Winchester. The cathedral is a Grade I listed building.
Address: 9 The Close, Winchester SO23 9LS Phone: 01962 857200 Opened: Apr 08, 1093 Burials: Jane Austen · William II of England · Egbert of Wessex · Cnut the Great · Æthelwulf · Harthacnut · Eadwig · Emma of Normandy · Henry Beaufort · William of Wykeham · Cenwalh of Wessex · Cynegils of Wessex Architectural styles: Norman architecture · English Gothic architecture Religion: Anglicanism
wiki/Winchester_Cathedral(1820) Venus de Milo is discoveredA peasant on the Aegean island of Milos uncovers a “fine marble statue” in an underground cave. The find, dating from Ancient Greece, will be dubbed the Venus de Milo, and in spite of, or perhaps partly because of its lack of arms, it will become an art sensation.Aphrodite of Milos, better known as the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greek statue and one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. Created sometime between 130 and 100 BCE, it is believed to depict Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty. It is a marble sculpture, slightly larger than life size at 203 cm high. Part of an arm and the original plinth were lost following its discovery. From an inscription that was on its plinth, it is thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch; earlier, it was mistakenly attributed to the master sculptor Praxiteles. It is currently on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris. The statue is named after the Greek island of Milos, where it was discovered.
Artist: Alexandros of Antioch Location: Louvre Subject: Venus Medium: Marble
wiki/Venus_de_Milo(1959) Grace Hopper leads computer programming milestoneMathematician, computer scientist, and rare woman in her field, Grace Hopper consults at a two-day conference with the best brains in the new realm of computer programming. The committee will build on Hopper’s earlier work to develop what will be the groundbreaking programming language COBOL.Grace Brewster Murray Hopper was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. In 1944, she was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer and invented the first compiler for a computer programming language. She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first high-level programming languages.
Lived: Dec 09, 1906 – Jan 01, 1992 (age 85) Spouse: Vincent Foster Hopper (m. 1930 – 1945) Inventions: COBOL · FLOW-MATIC · MATH-MATIC Education: Vassar College (1924 – 1928) · Yale University · Wardlaw-Hartridge School Awards: Defense Distinguished Service Medal · American Campaign Medal · National Medal of Technology and Innovation (1991) · IEEE Emanuel R. Piore Award (1988) Parents: Mary Campbell Van Horne Murray (Mother) · Walter Fletcher Murray (Father)
1930: Grace Hopper married Vincent Foster Hopper in 1930; their marriage lasted 15 years till 1945.
1947: While she was working on a Mark II Computer at a US Navy research lab in Dahlgren, Virginia in 1947, her associates discovered a moth stuck in a relay impeding its operation.
1952: In 1952 she had an operational compiler.
1954: In 1954 Hopper was named the company’s first director of automatic programming, and her department released some of the first compiler-based programming languages, including MATH-MATIC and FLOW-MATIC.
1971: 1971: The annual Grace Murray Hopper Award for Outstanding Young Computer Professionals was established in 1971 by the Association for Computing Machinery.
1992: She was then hired as a senior consultant to Digital Equipment Corporation, a position she retained until her death in 1992, aged 85.
wiki/Grace_Hopper(1974) ‘Hammerin’ Hank’ Aaron breaks a baseball recordThe Atlanta Braves’ Hank Aaron swings on a pitch from the L.A. Dodgers, driving it deep into left center field for his 715th career home run, beating Babe Ruth’s record. Aaron will rack up a total of 755 home runs in his career, a milestone that will stand for more than 30 years.Henry Louis “Hank” Aaron, nicknamed “Hammer”, or “Hammerin’ Hank”, is a retired American Major League Baseball right fielder who is currently the senior vice president of the Atlanta Braves. He played 21 seasons for the Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves in the National League and 2 seasons for the Milwaukee Brewers in the American League, from 1954 through 1976. Aaron held the MLB record for career home runs for 33 years, and he still holds several MLB offensive records. He hit 24 or more home runs every year from 1955 through 1973, and is one of only two players to hit 30 or more home runs in a season at least fifteen times. In 1999, The Sporting News ranked Aaron fifth on its “100 Greatest Baseball Players” list.
Born: Feb 05, 1934 (age 83) · Mobile, AL Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Billye Aaron (m. 1973) · Barbara Lucas (m. 1953 – 1971) Education: Central High School Children: Dorinda Aaron (Daughter) · Gaile Aaron (Daughter) · Ceci Aaron (Daughter) · Lary Aaron (Son) · Gary Aaron (Son) · Hank Aaron, Jr. (Son) Siblings: Tommie Aaron (Brother) · Alfredia Scott (Sister)
1953: Hank Aaron married Barbara Lucas on October 06, 1953; their marriage lasted 18 years till February 01, 1971.
1954: He played 21 seasons for the Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves in the National League (NL) and 2 seasons for the Milwaukee Brewers in the American League (AL), from 1954 through 1976.
1969: On July 31, 1969, Aaron hit his 537th home run, passing Mickey Mantle’s total; this moved Aaron into third place on the career home run list, after Willie Mays and Babe Ruth.
1971: At age 37, he hit a career-high 47 home runs during the season (along with a career-high .669 slugging percentage) and finished third in MVP voting for the sixth time.
1973: He hit home run number 713 on September 29, 1973, and with one day remaining in the season, many expected him to tie the record.
1999: In 1999, MLB created the Hank Aaron Award, to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Aaron’s surpassing of Babe Ruth’s career home run mark of 714 home runs and to honor Aaron’s contributions to baseball.
(1889) Eiffel Tower officially opensTowering nearly a thousand feet over the streets of Paris, Gustave Eiffel’s monument to the centenary of the French Revolution is formally dedicated. Many French intellectuals deem it an eyesore, but it will come to be regarded as a harbinger of the modern age and a cultural icon of France.The Eiffel Tower is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.
Address: 5 Avenue Anatole France, 75007 Paris Phone: +33 892 70 12 39 Opened: Mar 31, 1889 Floors: 3 Height: 986 feet (300.65 m) (Architectural) Architects: Gustave Eiffel · Stephen Sauvestre
wiki/Eiffel_Tower(1917) US gains a little slice of paradiseAfter paying $25 million to Denmark, the United States claims the Danish West Indies as its territory, and christens them the Virgin Islands. Residents of the islands are US citizens, but their voting rights will be limited.The United States Virgin Islands, officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, are a group of islands in the Caribbean that are an insular area of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles.
Founded: Jul 22, 1954 Population: 104,737 (2013) Calling code: 1 Area: 133.73 sq miles (346.36 km²) Travel tip: Made up of St Croix, St John and St Thomas, the laid-back USVI offer sophisticated dining, turquoise waters and quaint towns. On St Croix, Christiansted’s colourful Danish @tripadvisor Capital: Charlotte Amalie
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wiki/United_States_Virgin_Islands(1930) The Hays Code cracks down on HollywoodIn reaction to what they deem an excess of immorality in US motion pictures, government and industry officials begin enforcing the Motion Picture Production Code, better known as the Hays Code. The censorship rules won’t be dropped until 1968.
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines that was applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is also popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, who was the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) from 1922 to 1945. Under Hays’ leadership, the MPPDA, later known as the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), adopted the Production Code in 1930 and began strictly enforcing it in 1934. The Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States.
From 1934 to 1954, the code was closely identified with Joseph Breen, the administrator appointed by Hays to enforce the code in Hollywood. The film industry followed the guidelines set by the code well into the late 1950s, but during this time the code began to weaken due to the combined impact of television, influence from foreign films, bold directors (such as Otto Preminger) pushing the envelope, and intervention from the courts, including the Supreme Court. In 1968, after several years of minimal enforcement, the Production Code was replaced by the MPAA film rating system.
wiki/Motion_Picture_Production_Code(1959) Tibet’s Dalai Lama begins exile in IndiaNine years after China invades Tibet and begins dismantling its cultural and religious identity, Tibetans wage a revolt and their spiritual and political leader finds asylum after crossing the border into India. He will become a beloved world figure while in exile.The 14th Dalai Lama; is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism which is nominally headed by the Ganden Tripas. From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama to 1959, the central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the position of Dalai Lama with temporal duties.
Born: Jul 06, 1935 (age 81) · Taktser, China Speeches: Five Point Peace Plan Awards: Nobel Peace Prize (1989) · Congressional Gold Medal (2006) · Honorary degree (2013, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007) · Templeton Prize (2012) · Four Freedoms Award (1994) · Ján Langoš Human Rights Award Siblings: Jetsun Pema (Sister) · Thubten Jigme Norbu (Brother) · Tsering Dolma (Sister) Parents: Diki Tsering (Mother) · Choekyong Tsering (Father) Founded: Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts
(241 BCE) Romans defeat Carthage to end the First Punic WarTwo decades of conflict between Mediterranean goliaths end as the fleet of the Roman Republic captures or destroys half of the Carthage fleet. Nevertheless, two more wars between the powers are on the horizon.The First Punic War was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic. For more than 20 years, the two powers struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. The war signaled the beginning of a strategic transformation in the western Mediterranean. Carthage began the war as the great sea-power of the western Mediterranean, while Rome had but a small fleet of fighting ships. Over the course of the war, Rome built up a powerful navy, developed new naval tactics, and strategically used their navy, army, and local political alliances on Sicily in order to achieve a victory that expelled the Carthaginians from Sicily. The First Punic War ended with a treaty between Rome and Carthage, but years of bloodshed were to follow in the Second and Third Punic Wars before the strategic issue of power in the western Mediterranean was resolved in favor of Rome, and in the total destruction of Carthage.
Start date: 264 BC End date: 241 BC
wiki/First_Punic_War(1831) French Foreign Legion is foundedFrance’s King Louis Philippe establishes a new military unit that he hopes will corral mercenaries and misbehavers, attract foreign fighters, and bolster his North African colonial expansion.The French Foreign Legion is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831, unique because it was created for foreign nationals willing to serve in the French Armed Forces.
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wiki/French_Foreign_Legion(1864) Lincoln promotes Grant as head of Union armiesHoping to improve upon a string of mediocre commanders in the Union’s fight against the Confederacy in the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln promotes Ulysses S. Grant to lieutenant general of the US Army. Grant’s aggressive fighting strategy will prove decisive in helping to secure the Union’s victory.Ulysses S. Grant was the most acclaimed Union general during the American Civil War and was twice elected President. Grant began his military career as a cadet at the West Point military academy in 1839. After graduation he went on to serve with distinction as a lieutenant in the Mexican–American War. Grant was a keen observer of the war and learned battle strategies serving under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. After the war Grant served at various posts especially in the Pacific Northwest; he retired from the service in 1854. On the onset of the Civil War in 1861, Grant was working as a clerk in his father’s leather goods store in Galena, Illinois.
Born: Apr 27, 1822 · Point Pleasant, OH Died: Jul 23, 1885 · Wilton, NY Education: United States Military Academy
1861: Going on the offensive, Grant took 3,000 Union troops by boat and attacked the Confederate Army commanded by General Gideon J. Pillow positioned at Camp Johnson in Belmont, Missouri on November 7, 1861.
1862: Resolved to take control of the Mississippi River from the Confederacy, President Lincoln and the Union Army and Navy were determined to take the Confederate stronghold Vicksburg in 1862.
1862: In early March 1862, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck ordered Grant’s Army of the Tennessee to move southward up the Tennessee River to attack Confederate railroads.
1863: In January 1863, McClernand and Sherman’s combined XIII and XV corps, the Army of the Mississippi, successfully defeated the Confederates at Arkansas Post.
1863: Adm. David D. Porter’s navy ships had previously run the guns at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863, enabling Union troops to be transported to the east side of the Mississippi.
1863: When Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans was defeated at the Chickamauga in September 1863, the Confederates, led by Braxton Bragg, besieged the Union Army of the Cumberland in Chattanooga.
wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant_and_the_American_Civil_War(1959) Massive uprising in Chinese-occupied TibetTensions come to a head after 10 years of Chinese occupation, as some 300,000 Tibetans, fearful that the Dalai Lama is about to be kidnapped, surround his palace in Lhasa to protect him.The 1959 Tibetan Uprising or 1959 Tibetan Rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People’s Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement in 1951. Armed conflict between Tibetan rebels and the People’s Liberation Army had started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which had been subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962.
(1889) Famed femme outlaw Belle Starr killed in OklahomaWith two shotgun blasts to the back, ‘The Bandit Queen ‘ meets her end after a life of crime that included cattle rustling, thieving, and romantic entanglements with other outlaws.Myra Maybelle Shirley Reed Starr, better known as Belle Starr, was a notorious American outlaw. Belle associated with the James–Younger Gang and other outlaws. She was convicted of horse theft in 1883. She was fatally shot in 1889 in a case that is still officially unsolved. Her story was popularized by Richard K. Fox—editor and publisher of the National Police Gazette—and she later became a popular character in television and movies.
Born: Feb 05, 1848 · Carthage, MO Died: Feb 03, 1889 Spouse: Jim July Starr (m. 1888 – 1889) · Sam Starr (m. 1880 – 1886) · James C. Reed (m. 1866 – 1874) Children: Pearl Starr (Daughter) Parents: Elizabeth Pennington Shirley · John “Judge” Shirley · Elizabeth Shirley Siblings: Mansfield Shirley · Benton Edwin Shirley · John Allison Shirley · Cravens Shirley · Preston Shirley · Charlotte Shirley
1878: Allegedly, Belle was briefly married for three weeks to Charles Younger, uncle of Cole Younger in 1878, but this is not substantiated by any evidence.
1880: Belle Starr married Sam Starr on June 05, 1880; their marriage lasted 6 years till December 17, 1886.
1883: She was convicted of horse theft in 1883.
1886: In 1886, she escaped conviction on another theft charge, but on December 17, Sam Starr was involved in a gunfight with Officer Frank West.
1889: Fox made her name famous with his novel Bella Starr, the Bandit Queen, or the Female Jesse James, published in 1889 (the year of her murder).
1889: On February 3, 1889, two days before her 41st birthday, she was killed.
wiki/Belle_Starr(1953) Jacques Cousteau’s book ‘The Silent World’ is released Three years after launching his underwater research vessel The Calypso, the oceanographer publishes ‘The Silent World.’ A film version, co-directed by Cousteau and Louis Malle, will debut three years later and will win the Academy Award for best documentary, helping to make Cousteau world-famous.The Silent World is a 1953 book co-authored by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas, and edited by James Dugan. Although a French national, Cousteau wrote the book in English. Cousteau and Émile Gagnan designed, built, and tested the first “aqua-lung” in the summer of 1943, off the southern coast of France. In the opening chapters, Cousteau recounts the earliest days of scuba diving with his diving companions Frédéric Dumas and Philippe Tailliez. The aqualung allowed for the first time untethered, free-floating extended deep water diving, and ushered in the modern era of scuba diving. Later chapters include excursions diving ship wrecks.
Authors: Jacques-Yves Cousteau · Frédéric Dumas First published: 1953
wiki/The_Silent_World:_A_Story_of_Undersea_Discovery_and_Adventure(1959) Buddy Holly and three others die in Iowa plane crashRock ‘n’ roll star Buddy Holly, 22, perishes along with fellow hit-makers Richie Valens, J.P. ‘Big Bopper’ Richardson, and their pilot, when their Beechcraft plane goes down in a storm shortly after takeoff.On February 3, 1959, rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa, together with pilot Roger Peterson. The event later became known as “The Day the Music Died”, after singer-songwriter Don McLean so referred to it in his 1971 song “American Pie”.
Date: Feb 03, 1959 Fatalities: 4
wiki/The_Day_the_Music_Died(1971) NYPD officer and corruption whistleblower Serpico shotShot in the head during a Brooklyn drug bust, police officer Frank Serpico will survive and testify to widespread corruption in the New York Police Department. His shooting, suspected as having been set up by his fellow officers, will prompt an investigation of the department and inspire a popular film.Francesco Vincent “Frank” Serpico is a retired American New York Police Department officer who holds both American and Italian citizenship. He is known for whistleblowing on police corruption in the late 1960s and early 1970s, an act that prompted Mayor John V. Lindsay to appoint the landmark Knapp Commission to investigate the NYPD. Much of Serpico’s fame came after the release of the 1973 film Serpico, which was based on the book by Peter Maas and which starred Al Pacino in the title role, for which Pacino was nominated for an Oscar.
Born: Apr 14, 1936 (age 80) · Brooklyn, NY Spouse: Marianne Serpico (m. 1973) · Laurie Young (m. 1966 – 1969) · Leslie Lane (m. 1963 – 1965) · Mary Ann Wheeler (m. 1957 – 1962) Related movies: Serpico Children: Alexander Serpico (Son) Education: Brooklyn College Parents: Vincenzo · Maria Giovanna Serpico