(1959) Treaty turns Antarctica into a scientific preserveTwelve countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign a treaty that prohibits any military activity on Antarctica. The agreement stipulates that the continent will be used only for scientific research. It will be considered the first arms control agreement of the Cold War.The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth’s only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty, entering into force in 1961 and having 53 parties as of 2016, sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation and bans military activity on that continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters is located in Buenos Aires Argentina, since September 2004.
[ORANGE] Parties with consulting status making a claim to Antarctic territory [YELLOW] Parties with consulting status reserving the right to make a territorial claim [BLUE] Other parties with consulting status [GREEN] Parties without consulting status [RED] Non-party UN member states and observers
(1901) Roosevelt becomes US president after McKinley’s assassinationPresident William McKinley dies eight days after being shot by an assassin, and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as the 26th president of the United States. At 42, Teddy is the youngest US president, and will go on to be reelected in 1904 in a landslide victory.The first inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt as the 26th President of the United States, took place on Saturday, September 14, 1901 at the Ansley Wilcox House, at 641 Delaware Avenue in Buffalo, New York, following the death of President William McKinley earlier that day. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first term of Theodore Roosevelt as President. John R. Hazel, U.S. District Judge for the Western District of New York, administered the Oath of office.
Date: Sep 14, 1901
wiki/First_inauguration_of_Theodore_Roosevelt(1959) Spacecraft lands on the moonTwo days after launching, the Soviet Union’s space probe ‘Luna 2’ crash-lands on the moon’s surface near Mare Imbrium in the Palus Putredinis region. The spherical spacecraft becomes the first man-made object to reach another celestial body, and the first of many future moon visitors.Luna 2 or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union’s Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon. It was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, and the first man-made object to land on another celestial body. On September 13, 1959, it hit the Moon’s surface east of Mare Imbrium near the craters Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus.
Date: Sep 12, 1959 Luna 2 Soviet moon probe. Luna 2 site is near the right of the image, close to the Apollo 15 landing site
(1959) Earth is ready for its close-up as Explorer 6 launchesNASA’s Explorer 6 satellite blasts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, to orbit the Earth on a 60-day mission. A UHF transmitter will send back the first satellite TV image of the Earth from orbit a few days later, beginning an era of astounding portraits of our planet.Explorer 6, or S-2, was an American satellite launched on August 7, 1959. It was a small, spheroidal satellite designed to study trapped radiation of various energies, galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetism, radio propagation in the upper atmosphere, and the flux of micrometeorites. It also tested a scanning device designed for photographing the Earth’s cloud cover, and transmitted the first pictures of Earth from orbit.
(793) Shocking raid from the north ushers in a new ageThe Kingdom of Northumbria sees uninvited guests arrive on Lindisfarne, an island off of England’s northeast coast. What these ‘Northmen’ do there, including destroying the abbey and killing its monks, will jolt Europe and earn the Vikings a fierce reputation for the ages.The Viking Age is the period from the late 8th century to the mid-11th century in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, between the Germanic Iron Age and the Middle Ages, from a general Scandinavian perspective. It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids, colonisation and conquest. In this period, the Norsemen settled in Norse Greenland, Newfoundland, and present-day Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey. Though Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders, many historical documents suggest that their invasion of other countries was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionaries, and perhaps by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south, or, were motivated by overpopulation, trade inequities, and the lack of viable farmland in their homeland. Information about the Viking Age is drawn largely from what was written about the Vikings by their enemies, and primary sources of archaeology, supplied with secondary sources like the Icelandic Sagas. But the Vikingers were not illiterates. Some history can be found on Runestones, a good example of this is the larger of the two Jelling Stones. Further did travellers like Adam of Bremen and Ansgar visit Scandinavia by the end of the Viking Age, and wrote imperative works of chronicle-style. And later did Saxo do the same. Also some Scandinavian early Middle-Ages works like Hávamál, Codex Regius, the Scanian Law have also been of historical help.
Start date: 800 AD End date: 1066
wiki/Viking_Age(1949) Big Brother is watching you as ‘1984’ is publishedNewspeak, thoughtcrimes, and Big Brother are introduced as George Orwell’s vision of a dystopian future is published. ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ will be seen as both a great literary work and an accurate warning of the “double plus ungood” rise of totalitarianism and surveillance.Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell. The novel is set in Airstrip One, a province of the superstate Oceania in a world of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance, and public manipulation. The superstate and its residents are dictated to by a political regime euphemistically named English Socialism, shortened to “Ingsoc” in Newspeak, the government’s invented language. The superstate is under the control of the privileged elite of the Inner Party, a party and government that persecutes individualism and independent thinking as “thoughtcrime”, which is enforced by the “Thought Police”.
Author: George Orwell First published: Jun 08, 1949 Number of pages: 298 Characters: Big Brother · Winston Smith · Emmanuel Goldstein · O’Brien · Julia · Syme Preceded by: Animal Farm Adaptations: Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) · 1984 (1956) · Brazil (1985) · Nineteen Eighty-Four (1954) · 1984 · 1984: A Personal View of Orwell’s ‘Nineteen Eighty Four’ (1983) · 1984 · 1984
wiki/Nineteen_Eighty-Four(1959) US Post Office delivers mail by rocketThree thousand letters streak through the sky at 600 mph, encased in a guided missile shot from the nuclear submarine USS Barbero. This newfangled airmail travels a distance of more than 100 miles in 22 minutes, but Missile Mail delivery will prove cost-prohibitive and won’t catch on.Rocket mail is the delivery of mail by rocket or missile. The rocket lands by deploying an internal parachute upon arrival. It has been attempted by various organizations in many different countries, with varying levels of success. It has never become widely seen as being a viable option for delivering mail, due to the cost of the schemes and numerous failures. wiki/Rocket_mail(1968) Suspected killer of Martin Luther King, Jr. arrestedTwo months after civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. was gunned down in Memphis, Tennessee, his suspected assassin is apprehended at London’s Heathrow Airport. James Earl Ray will be extradited back to the US, stand trial, and be convicted and sentenced to 99 years in prison.James Earl Ray was a convicted murderer who assassinated Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee. Ray was convicted on his 41st birthday after entering a guilty plea to forgo a jury trial. Had he been found guilty by jury trial, he would have been eligible for the death penalty.
Born: Mar 10, 1928 · Alton, IL Died: Apr 23, 1998 · Nashville, TN Movies: Who Killed Martin Luther King? Parents: Lucille Ray (Mother) · James Gerald Ray (Father)
1959: In 1959 he was caught stealing $120 in an armed robbery of a St. Louis Kroger store.
1968: Arriving in Atlanta on March 24, 1968, Ray checked into a rooming house.
1968: There, on March 30, 1968, he bought a Remington Model 760 Gamemaster .30-06-caliber rifle and a box of 20 cartridges from the Aeromarine Supply Company.
1968: On April 4, 1968, Ray killed Martin Luther King with a single shot fired from his Remington rifle, while King was standing on the second-floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
1968: On June 8, 1968, two months after King’s death, Ray was arrested at London’s Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on the false Canadian passport.
1998: Ray died at age 70 on April 23, 1998, at the Columbia Nashville Memorial Hospital from complications related to kidney disease and liver failure caused by hepatitis C.
(1959) First Grammy Awards held in New York and Los AngelesThe National Academy of Recording Arts and Services hosts black-tie dinners on both coasts to give out the first Grammy Awards. Attendees include Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., and Dean Martin. ‘Volare’ wins Song and Record of the Year, and Henry Mancini’s ‘The Music From Peter Gunn’ takes Album of the Year.A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an honor awarded by The Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, and the Academy Awards.
Categories: Grammy Award for Album of the Year · Grammy Award for Song of the Year · Grammy Award for Record of the Year · Grammy Award for Best New Artist · Grammy Award for Best Rap Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Album · Grammy Award for Best Rock Song · Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award · Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album
wiki/Grammy_Award(1961) Freedom Riders head to the US South Calling themselves the ‘Freedom Riders,’ 13 activists board an interstate bus departing Washington, DC, for New Orleans, Louisiana. Along the way they will defy Jim Crow travel laws, be beaten by angry crowds, and be arrested and jailed.Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia and Boynton v. Virginia, which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17.
Start date: May 04, 1961 End date: Dec 10, 1961
wiki/Freedom_Riders(1970) Students killed as National Guard opens fire on campus A war protest turns deadly as Ohio National Guard troops shoot at unarmed students on the Kent State University commons. Four die, nine are wounded, and less than a week later 100,000 will march against the killings, and the Vietnam War, in Washington, DC.The Kent State shootings were the shootings of unarmed college students protesting the Vietnam War at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, by members of the Ohio National Guard on May 4, 1970. Twenty-nine guardsmen fired approximately 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.
Fatalities: 4 Date: May 04, 1970
wiki/Kent_State_shootings(1979) Thatcher sworn in as Britain’s first female prime ministerThe first woman prime minister in British history arrives at at 10 Downing Street after her Conservative Party sweeps the elections. Margaret Thatcher will prove to be one of the country’s longest tenured PMs as well as one of the most controversial.Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS, FRIC was a British stateswoman, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and as Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century, and the first woman to have held the office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her The Iron Lady, a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism.
Lived: Oct 13, 1925 – Apr 08, 2013 (age 87) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Spouse: Denis Thatcher (m. 1951 – 2003) Education: Somerville College, Oxford (1943 – 1947) · Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School (1936 – 1943) · City Law School (1952 – 1954) Children: Mark Thatcher (Son) · Carol Thatcher (Daughter) Related movies: The Iron Lady
1951: During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.
1975: Thatcher became party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975; she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy.
1979: Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979.
2002: Thatcher was voted the fourth-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by MORI, and in 2002 was ranked number 16 in the BBC poll 100 Greatest Britons.
2005: After leaving the House of Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation; the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 because of financial difficulties.
2013: In 2013, she died of another stroke in London, at the age of 87.