(241 BCE) Romans defeat Carthage to end the First Punic WarTwo decades of conflict between Mediterranean goliaths end as the fleet of the Roman Republic captures or destroys half of the Carthage fleet. Nevertheless, two more wars between the powers are on the horizon.The First Punic War was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic. For more than 20 years, the two powers struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. The war signaled the beginning of a strategic transformation in the western Mediterranean. Carthage began the war as the great sea-power of the western Mediterranean, while Rome had but a small fleet of fighting ships. Over the course of the war, Rome built up a powerful navy, developed new naval tactics, and strategically used their navy, army, and local political alliances on Sicily in order to achieve a victory that expelled the Carthaginians from Sicily. The First Punic War ended with a treaty between Rome and Carthage, but years of bloodshed were to follow in the Second and Third Punic Wars before the strategic issue of power in the western Mediterranean was resolved in favor of Rome, and in the total destruction of Carthage.
Start date: 264 BC End date: 241 BC
wiki/First_Punic_War(1831) French Foreign Legion is foundedFrance’s King Louis Philippe establishes a new military unit that he hopes will corral mercenaries and misbehavers, attract foreign fighters, and bolster his North African colonial expansion.The French Foreign Legion is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831, unique because it was created for foreign nationals willing to serve in the French Armed Forces.
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wiki/French_Foreign_Legion(1864) Lincoln promotes Grant as head of Union armiesHoping to improve upon a string of mediocre commanders in the Union’s fight against the Confederacy in the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln promotes Ulysses S. Grant to lieutenant general of the US Army. Grant’s aggressive fighting strategy will prove decisive in helping to secure the Union’s victory.Ulysses S. Grant was the most acclaimed Union general during the American Civil War and was twice elected President. Grant began his military career as a cadet at the West Point military academy in 1839. After graduation he went on to serve with distinction as a lieutenant in the Mexican–American War. Grant was a keen observer of the war and learned battle strategies serving under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. After the war Grant served at various posts especially in the Pacific Northwest; he retired from the service in 1854. On the onset of the Civil War in 1861, Grant was working as a clerk in his father’s leather goods store in Galena, Illinois.
Born: Apr 27, 1822 · Point Pleasant, OH Died: Jul 23, 1885 · Wilton, NY Education: United States Military Academy
1861: Going on the offensive, Grant took 3,000 Union troops by boat and attacked the Confederate Army commanded by General Gideon J. Pillow positioned at Camp Johnson in Belmont, Missouri on November 7, 1861.
1862: Resolved to take control of the Mississippi River from the Confederacy, President Lincoln and the Union Army and Navy were determined to take the Confederate stronghold Vicksburg in 1862.
1862: In early March 1862, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck ordered Grant’s Army of the Tennessee to move southward up the Tennessee River to attack Confederate railroads.
1863: In January 1863, McClernand and Sherman’s combined XIII and XV corps, the Army of the Mississippi, successfully defeated the Confederates at Arkansas Post.
1863: Adm. David D. Porter’s navy ships had previously run the guns at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863, enabling Union troops to be transported to the east side of the Mississippi.
1863: When Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans was defeated at the Chickamauga in September 1863, the Confederates, led by Braxton Bragg, besieged the Union Army of the Cumberland in Chattanooga.
wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant_and_the_American_Civil_War(1959) Massive uprising in Chinese-occupied TibetTensions come to a head after 10 years of Chinese occupation, as some 300,000 Tibetans, fearful that the Dalai Lama is about to be kidnapped, surround his palace in Lhasa to protect him.The 1959 Tibetan Uprising or 1959 Tibetan Rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People’s Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement in 1951. Armed conflict between Tibetan rebels and the People’s Liberation Army had started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which had been subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962.
(1889) Famed femme outlaw Belle Starr killed in OklahomaWith two shotgun blasts to the back, ‘The Bandit Queen ‘ meets her end after a life of crime that included cattle rustling, thieving, and romantic entanglements with other outlaws.Myra Maybelle Shirley Reed Starr, better known as Belle Starr, was a notorious American outlaw. Belle associated with the James–Younger Gang and other outlaws. She was convicted of horse theft in 1883. She was fatally shot in 1889 in a case that is still officially unsolved. Her story was popularized by Richard K. Fox—editor and publisher of the National Police Gazette—and she later became a popular character in television and movies.
Born: Feb 05, 1848 · Carthage, MO Died: Feb 03, 1889 Spouse: Jim July Starr (m. 1888 – 1889) · Sam Starr (m. 1880 – 1886) · James C. Reed (m. 1866 – 1874) Children: Pearl Starr (Daughter) Parents: Elizabeth Pennington Shirley · John “Judge” Shirley · Elizabeth Shirley Siblings: Mansfield Shirley · Benton Edwin Shirley · John Allison Shirley · Cravens Shirley · Preston Shirley · Charlotte Shirley
1878: Allegedly, Belle was briefly married for three weeks to Charles Younger, uncle of Cole Younger in 1878, but this is not substantiated by any evidence.
1880: Belle Starr married Sam Starr on June 05, 1880; their marriage lasted 6 years till December 17, 1886.
1883: She was convicted of horse theft in 1883.
1886: In 1886, she escaped conviction on another theft charge, but on December 17, Sam Starr was involved in a gunfight with Officer Frank West.
1889: Fox made her name famous with his novel Bella Starr, the Bandit Queen, or the Female Jesse James, published in 1889 (the year of her murder).
1889: On February 3, 1889, two days before her 41st birthday, she was killed.
wiki/Belle_Starr(1953) Jacques Cousteau’s book ‘The Silent World’ is released Three years after launching his underwater research vessel The Calypso, the oceanographer publishes ‘The Silent World.’ A film version, co-directed by Cousteau and Louis Malle, will debut three years later and will win the Academy Award for best documentary, helping to make Cousteau world-famous.The Silent World is a 1953 book co-authored by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas, and edited by James Dugan. Although a French national, Cousteau wrote the book in English. Cousteau and Émile Gagnan designed, built, and tested the first “aqua-lung” in the summer of 1943, off the southern coast of France. In the opening chapters, Cousteau recounts the earliest days of scuba diving with his diving companions Frédéric Dumas and Philippe Tailliez. The aqualung allowed for the first time untethered, free-floating extended deep water diving, and ushered in the modern era of scuba diving. Later chapters include excursions diving ship wrecks.
Authors: Jacques-Yves Cousteau · Frédéric Dumas First published: 1953
wiki/The_Silent_World:_A_Story_of_Undersea_Discovery_and_Adventure(1959) Buddy Holly and three others die in Iowa plane crashRock ‘n’ roll star Buddy Holly, 22, perishes along with fellow hit-makers Richie Valens, J.P. ‘Big Bopper’ Richardson, and their pilot, when their Beechcraft plane goes down in a storm shortly after takeoff.On February 3, 1959, rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa, together with pilot Roger Peterson. The event later became known as “The Day the Music Died”, after singer-songwriter Don McLean so referred to it in his 1971 song “American Pie”.
Date: Feb 03, 1959 Fatalities: 4
wiki/The_Day_the_Music_Died(1971) NYPD officer and corruption whistleblower Serpico shotShot in the head during a Brooklyn drug bust, police officer Frank Serpico will survive and testify to widespread corruption in the New York Police Department. His shooting, suspected as having been set up by his fellow officers, will prompt an investigation of the department and inspire a popular film.Francesco Vincent “Frank” Serpico is a retired American New York Police Department officer who holds both American and Italian citizenship. He is known for whistleblowing on police corruption in the late 1960s and early 1970s, an act that prompted Mayor John V. Lindsay to appoint the landmark Knapp Commission to investigate the NYPD. Much of Serpico’s fame came after the release of the 1973 film Serpico, which was based on the book by Peter Maas and which starred Al Pacino in the title role, for which Pacino was nominated for an Oscar.
Born: Apr 14, 1936 (age 80) · Brooklyn, NY Spouse: Marianne Serpico (m. 1973) · Laurie Young (m. 1966 – 1969) · Leslie Lane (m. 1963 – 1965) · Mary Ann Wheeler (m. 1957 – 1962) Related movies: Serpico Children: Alexander Serpico (Son) Education: Brooklyn College Parents: Vincenzo · Maria Giovanna Serpico
(1863) Emancipation Proclamation takes effectPresident Abraham Lincoln’s executive order proclaiming the freedom of all slaves held in rebel states goes into effect, signaling an ideological change in the Union’s reasons for fighting the Civil WarThe Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It purported to change the federal legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from “slave” to “free”, although its immediate effect was less. It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally free. Eventually it reached and liberated all of the designated slaves. It was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States.
(1892) Ellis Island immigrant gateway opensThe processing center on Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay opens its doors to immigrants. By 1954, ancestors of over 100 million Americans alive today will have begun their journey to US citizenship here.Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the United States as the nation’s busiest immigrant inspection station for over sixty years from 1892 until 1954. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990. Long considered part of New York state, a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey. The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public and the object of restoration efforts spearheaded by Save Ellis Island.
(1959) Castro seizes power in CubaRevolutionary leader Fidel Castro and his rebel army take control of the Caribbean island nation, culminating their uprising against President Fulgencio Batista and causing a shift in the global geopolitical landscape.The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on 1 January 1959, replacing his government with a revolutionary socialist state. The 26th of July Movement later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October 1965.
(1983) The Internet is bornARPANET, an early computer network for universities and research labs, changes to TCP/IP protocols, which allows more flexible and powerful connections, and launches a communications revolution.The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. ARPANET was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense.