(1954) First successful kidney transplant performed A medical team described by one doctor as a “bunch of fools,” performs the procedure on 23-year-old identical twins, Richard and Ronald Herrick. The recipient will live for eight years; his donor brother will live until age 79. One of the doctors, Joseph Murray, will go on to win a Nobel Prize for his work in organ transplants.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is typically classified as deceased-donor (formerly known as cadaveric) or living-donor transplantation depending on the source of the donor organ.
Living-donor renal transplants are further characterized as genetically related (living-related) or non-related (living-unrelated) transplants, depending on whether a biological relationship exists between the donor and recipient.
Exchanges and chains are a novel approach to expand the living donor pool. In February 2012, this novel approach to expand the living donor pool resulted in the largest chain in the world, involving 60 participants organized by the National Kidney Registry. In 2014 the record for the largest chain was broken again by a swap involving 70 participants.
Kidney location after transplantation. Based on this image. Human figure adapted from this image by Connexions, which was licensed under CC BY 3.0.
(1954) US Senate condemns McCarthy for Redbaiting The Senate votes 65-22 to censure their colleague, Sen. Joseph McCarthy, for conduct unbecoming of a senator in his vitriolic campaign, known as McCarthyism, to root out suspected communists in the US. After the censure, his last traces of influence will evaporate, and he’ll die of alcoholism in 1957.Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He is known for alleging that numerous Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, universities, film industry, and elsewhere. Ultimately, the smear tactics he used led him to be censured by the U.S. Senate. The term “McCarthyism”, coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy’s practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used in reference to what are considered demagogic, reckless, and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents.
Lived: Nov 14, 1908 – May 02, 1957 (age 48) Spouse: Jean Kerr (m. 1953 – 1957) Movies: Point of Order Parties: Republican Party · Democratic Party Children: Tierney Elizabeth McCarthy (Daughter) Previous office: United States Senator WI (1947 – 1957)
1950: The term “McCarthyism”, coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy’s practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities.
1953: In 1953, McCarthy married Jean Kerr, a researcher in his office.
1954: McCarthy subpoenaed Peress to appear before his subcommittee on January 30, 1954.
1954: On March 9, 1954, Vermont Republican Senator Ralph E. Flanders gave a humor-laced speech on the Senate floor, questioning McCarthy’s tactics in fighting communism, likening McCarthyism to “housecleaning” with “much clatter and hullabaloo”.
1954: To counter the negative publicity, McCarthy appeared on See It Now on April 6, 1954, and made a number of charges against the popular Murrow, including the accusation that he colluded with VOKS, the “Russian espionage and propaganda organization”.
1957: McCarthy died in Bethesda Naval Hospital on May 2, 1957, at the age of just 48.
(1954) Ellis Island closes its doorsHaving processed about 12 million immigrants seeking entry to the US since it opened in 1892, Ellis Island shuts down operations. In the shadow of the Statue of Liberty, the processing center will fall into disrepair but the main building will be restored and will reopen in 1990 to host a museum of immigration.Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the United States as the nation’s busiest immigrant inspection station for over sixty years from 1892 until 1954. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990.
Website: www.libertyellisfoundation.org Address: 17 Battery Pl Ste 210, New York, NY 10004 Phone: (212) 561-4588 Established: Jan 01, 1892 Managed by: National Park Service
(68 CE) Emperor Nero commits suicide Rome’s Julio-Claudian dynasty comes to an abrupt end as Emperor Nero, 30, commits suicide. After noblemen revolt at Nero’s tax policies, and he mistakenly believes the Roman Senate is sending troops to kill him, he takes his own life with the assistance of his personal secretary.Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68 AD, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and like him, became emperor with the consent of the praetorian guard. Nero’s mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius’ death and Nero’s nomination as emperor. She dominated Nero’s early life and decisions until he cast her off; five years into his reign, he had her murdered.
Born: 37 AD · Anzio, Italy Died: 68 AD · Rome, Italy Spouse: Sporus (m. 67 AD – 68 AD) · Statilia Messalina (m. 66 AD – 68 AD) · Poppaea Sabina (m. 62 AD – 66 AD) · Claudia Octavia (m. 53 AD – 62 AD) Siblings: Domitia Lepida the Younger (Sister) Children: Claudia Augusta (Daughter) Parents: Agrippina the Younger (Mother) · Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (Father)
49 AD: In 49 AD, Claudius was married for a fourth time, to Nero’s mother Agrippina, despite her being his niece.
53 AD: Nero married Claudia Octavia in 53; their marriage lasted 9 years till January 01, 0001.
62 AD: Nero married Poppaea Sabina in 62; their marriage lasted 4 years till 66.
65 AD: She was already married when she became Nero’s mistress in 65 AD, with Statilia’s husband being driven to suicide in 66, so Nero could marry Statilia.
66 AD: Nero married Statilia Messalina in 66.
67 AD: Nero married Sporus in 67.
wiki/Nero(1946) An astonishingly long reign beginsAfter King Mahidol dies of gunshot wounds, his brother Bhumibol Adulyadej is the King of Siam, which will be renamed Thailand three years later. Bhumibol, a Massachusetts native, will reign for more than 60 years and amass great wealth, putting him on the list of world’s richest royals.Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Having reigned since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world’s longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history, serving for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha.
Lived: Dec 05, 1927 – Oct 13, 2016 (age 88) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.65 m) Spouse: Sirikit (m. 1950 – 2016) Children: Vajiralongkorn (Son) · Ubolratana Rajakanya Sirivadhana Phannavadi (Daughter) · Sirindhorn (Daughter) · Chulabhorn (Daughter) Education: University of Lausanne · Mater Dei School · École nouvelle de la Suisse romande Previous office: King of Thailand (1946 – 2016)
1946: Bhumibol ascended the throne following the death by gunshot wound of his brother, King Ananda Mahidol, on 9 June 1946, under circumstances that remain unclear.
1950: Bhumibol Adulyadej married Sirikit on April 28, 1950.
1950: After presiding over the long-delayed, ceremonial cremation of his brother Ananda Mahidol, Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on 5 May 1950 in the Baisal Daksin Throne Hall in the Grand Palace in Bangkok.
2006: Finally in February 2006 the Audit Commission reinstated Jaruvan when it became clear from a memo from the Office of the King’s Principal Private Secretary that King Bhumibol supported her appointment.
2009: On 20 April 2009, Thaksin claimed in an interview with the Financial Times that Bhumibol had been briefed by Privy Councillors Prem Tinsulanonda and Surayud Chulanont about their plans to stage the 2006 coup.
2016: After 2006, Bhumibol suffered declining health and spent extended periods at Siriraj Hospital, where he died on 13 October 2016.
wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej(1954) Has the red-scare ringleader ‘no sense of decency’? Wisconsin Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy’s relentless vendetta against supposed communist infiltration in the government and show biz enters a new stage of absurdity at hearings targeting the US Army. McCarthy’s groundless insinuations incite Joseph Welch, an Army lawyer, to utter his famous reproach.Joseph Nye Welch was the chief counsel for the United States Army while it was under investigation for Communist activities by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, an investigation known as the Army–McCarthy hearings. His confrontation with McCarthy during the hearings, in which he famously asked McCarthy “At long last, have you left no sense of decency?” is seen as a turning point in the history of McCarthyism.
Lived: Oct 22, 1890 – Oct 06, 1960 (age 69) Spouse: Agnes Rodgers Brown (m. 1957 – 1960) · Judith Lyndon (m. 1917 – 1956) Education: Harvard Law School · Grinnell College Parents: William Welch (Father) · Martha Thyer (Mother) Children: Joe Welch (Son) · Lyndon Welch (Son) Nominations: Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture (1960) · BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles (1960)
wiki/Joseph_N._Welch(1973) ‘Big Red’ wins the first Triple Crown in 25 yearsA chestnut colt runs the Belmont Stakes in record time and this victory, together with previous wins at the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, give Secretariat the first US Triple Crown in a quarter century. ESPN will later rank the thoroughbred the 35th best athlete of the 20th-century.Secretariat was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who, in 1973, became the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years. His record-breaking win in the Belmont Stakes, where he left the field 31 lengths behind him, is widely regarded as one of the greatest races of all time. During his racing career, he won five Eclipse Awards, including Horse of the Year honors at ages two and three. He was elected to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1974. In the List of the Top 100 U.S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, Secretariat is second only to Man o’ War, who also was a large chestnut colt given the nickname “Big Red”.
Lived: Mar 30, 1970 · Oct 04, 1989 Height: 5′ 6″ (1.68 m) Weight: 1,199 pound (544 kg) Parents: Bold Ruler · Somethingroyal Competition won: 1973 Belmont Stakes Children: Risen Star · Terlingua · Weekend Surprise · Lady’s Secret
(1642) French missionaries found MontrealHired to build a Catholic mission near the St. Lawrence River, 30-year-old Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve and his group of settlers found Ville-Marie de Montreal. The future city of Montreal faces an uncertain future at first, and the population will dwindle to 50 by a decade later.
The history of Montreal, located in Quebec, Canada, spans some 8,000 years. At the time of European contact, the area was inhabited by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a discrete and distinct group of Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people. They spoke Laurentian. Jacques Cartier became the first European to reach the area now known as Montreal in 1535 when he entered the village of Hochelaga on the Island of Montreal while in search of a passage to Asia during the Age of Exploration. Seventy years later, Samuel de Champlain unsuccessfully tried to create a fur trading post but the Mohawk of the Iroquois defended what they had been using as their hunting grounds.
A mission named Ville Marie was built in 1642 as part of a project to create a French colonial empire. Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and French expansion into New France until 1760, when it was surrendered to the British army, following the French defeat of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. British immigration expanded the city. The city’s golden era of fur trading began with the advent of the locally owned North West Company.
Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832. The city’s growth was spurred by the opening of the Lachine Canal and Montreal was the capital of the United Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849. Growth continued and by 1860 Montreal was the largest city in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada. Annexation of neighbouring towns between 1883 and 1918 changed Montreal back to a mostly Francophone city. The Great Depression in Canada brought unemployment to the city, but this waned in the mid-1930s, and skyscrapers began to be built.
World War II brought protests against conscription and caused the Conscription Crisis of 1944. Montreal’s population surpassed one million in the early 1950s. A new metro system was added, Montreal’s harbour was expanded and the St. Lawrence Seaway was opened during this time. More skyscrapers were built along with museums. International status was cemented by Expo 67 and the 1976 Summer Olympics. A major league baseball team, the Expos, played in Montreal from 1969 to 2004 when the team relocated to Washington, DC. Historically business and finance in Montreal was under the control of Anglophones. With the rise of Quebec nationalism in the 1970s, many institutions relocated their headquarters to Toronto.
wiki/History_of_Montreal(1875) First Kentucky Derby heldWith African-American jockey Oliver Lewis on board, Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby at a new track founded by the grandson of explorer William Clark. Eight years later, the venue will become known as Churchill Downs.The Kentucky Derby is a horse race that is held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and a quarter miles at Churchill Downs. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds and fillies 121 pounds.
2017 winner: Always Dreaming First occurred: 1875
wiki/Kentucky_Derby(1902) 2,000-year-old computer discoveredA Greek archaeologist examining finds from the haul of the Antikythera shipwreck notices a gear wheel embedded in rock. Decades later, examinations by X-ray and gamma ray will reveal the bronze gear clockwork Antikythera mechanism to be a complex ancient analog computer.
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes. It could also track the four-year cycle of athletic games which was similar, but not identical, to an Olympiad, the cycle of the ancient Olympic Games.
Found housed in a 340 millimetres (13 in) × 180 millimetres (7.1 in) × 90 millimetres (3.5 in) wooden box, the device is a complex clockwork mechanism composed of at least 30 meshing bronze gears. Using modern computer x-ray tomography and high resolution surface scanning, a team led by Mike Edmunds and Tony Freeth at Cardiff University peered inside fragments of the crust-encased mechanism and read the faintest inscriptions that once covered the outer casing of the machine. Detailed imaging of the mechanism suggests it dates back to 150-100 BC and had 37 gear wheels enabling it to follow the movements of the moon and the sun through the zodiac, predict eclipses and even recreate the irregular orbit of the moon. The motion, known as the first lunar anomaly, was developed by the astronomer Hipparchus of Rhodes in the 2nd century BC, and he may have been consulted in the machine’s construction, the scientists speculate. Its remains were found as one lump, later separated into three main fragments, which are now divided into eighty-two separate fragments after conservation works. Four of these fragments contain gears, while inscriptions are found on many others. The largest gear is approximately 140 millimetres (5.5 in) in diameter and originally had 224 teeth.
The artefact was recovered on May 17, 1902 from the Antikythera shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, which in antiquity was known as Aigila. Believed to have been designed and constructed by Greek scientists, the instrument has been variously dated to about 87 BC, or between 150 and 100 BC, or in 205 BC, or within a generation before the date of the shipwreck (in about 150 BC).
After the knowledge of this technology was lost at some point in antiquity, technological works approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the development of mechanical astronomical clocks in Europe in the fourteenth century.
All known fragments of the Antikythera mechanism are kept at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, along with a number of artistic reconstructions of how the mechanism may have looked.
wiki/Antikythera_mechanism(1954) US Supreme Court rules school segregation unconstitutionalA lawsuit against unfair segregation is heard before the Supreme Court, and the unanimous ruling finds that establishing separate public schools for black and white students is unconstitutional. ‘Brown v. Board of Education’ will be a major landmark in the growing civil rights movement.Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court’s unanimous decision stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the Civil Rights Movement, and a model for many future impact litigation cases. However, the decision’s fourteen pages did not spell out any sort of method for ending racial segregation in schools, and the Court’s second decision in Brown II, 349 U.S. 294 only ordered states to desegregate “with all deliberate speed”.