(532) Justinian I decrees the building of the Hagia SophiaByzantine emperor Justinian I orders a new basilica of grand proportions and precious materials be built in Constantinople. It will endure into the 21st century as one of the great architectural wonders of the world.Hagia Sophia was a Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica, later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931. It was then secularized and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935. Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture”. It remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.
Address: Sultanahmet Square, Istanbul Established: Feb 01, 1935 Height: 180 feet (55 m) (Architectural) Architects: Isidore of Miletus · Anthemius of Tralles Architectural style: Byzantine architecture Categories: Basilica · Mosque
wiki/Hagia_Sophia(1455) First book in the West to be printed by moveable typeThe Gutenberg Bible is produced using Johannes Gutenberg’s invention, the moveable type printing press. Forty-eight copies of the original pressing will survive to the 21st century, and be sought after as immensely valuable collectibles.The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the “Gutenberg Revolution” and the age of the printed book in the West. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has an iconic status. Written in Latin, the Catholic Gutenberg Bible is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, in present-day Germany, in the 1450s. Since its publication, 49 copies have survived, and they are considered to be among the most valuable books in the world even though no complete copy has been sold since 1978. wiki/Gutenberg_Bible
(1836) Battle of the Alamo beginsMexican general Santa Ana leads 1,500 men in a siege against US colonel William Travis’ much smaller Texian force garrisoned behind the walls of the Alamo Mission. The 13-day siege will end in death for all the Texians and inspire calls for vengeance in what will prove a turning point in the Texas Revolution.The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, Texas, United States, killing all of the Texian defenders. Santa Anna’s cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution.
Start date: Feb 23, 1836 End date: Mar 06, 1836
wiki/Battle_of_the_Alamo(1954) Mass polio vaccine inoculations startPittsburgh elementary school students are the first group to receive Dr. Jonas Salk’s new polio vaccine. The disease that for centuries has paralyzed and killed millions will be almost eradicated by the end of the 20th century.Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis. There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection, and one that uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth. The World Health Organization recommends all children be vaccinated against polio. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world, and reduced the number of cases each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 74 in 2015.
Developers: Jonas Salk · Albert Sabin May prevent: Polio (poliomyelitis) Drug class: Vaccine Pregnancy risk category: C
(1930) Pluto is first spottedClyde Tombaugh, a 23-year-old astronomer at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, finds ‘Planet X’ with the help of a blink microscope. The immensely far-off object will be called Pluto, but will be stripped of its planetary status in 2006 and reclassified as merely a “dwarf planet.”Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was originally considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its planethood was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, which is 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered. This led the International Astronomical Union to define the term “planet” formally. That definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a dwarf planet.
Radius: 736 miles (1,185 km) Surface area: 6.43 million sq miles (16.65 million km²) Orbital order: 9 Orbital period: 247.84 years Gravity: 2.16 feet/s² (0.66 m/s²) Star system: Solar System
wiki/Pluto(1943) White Rose resistance members arrested by Nazi GestapoSix members of a non-violent student group from the University of Munich are arrested for their campaign of writing and distributing leaflets critical of Hitler’s regime. They will be found guilty of treason and beheaded.The White Rose was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign which called for active opposition against the Nazi regime. Their activities started in Munich on June 27th, 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on February 18th, 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced unjust trials by the Nazi People’s Court, and many were sentenced to death or imprisonment.
Founders: Sophie Scholl · Hans Scholl
wiki/White_Rose(1954) The first Church of Scientology opens Following the 1950 publication of his book ‘Dianetics,’ L. Ron Hubbard and his followers establish the Church of Scientology in Los Angeles, the first in what will become more than 5,000 Scientology churches worldwide.The Church of Scientology is a multinational network and hierarchy of numerous ostensibly independent but interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, a new religious movement. The Church of Scientology International is officially the Church of Scientology’s parent organization, and is responsible for guiding local Scientology churches. At a local level, every church is a separate corporate entity set up as a licensed franchise and has its own board of directors and executives. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by L. Ron Hubbard. Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California. The location at Gilman Hotsprings is kept secret from most Scientologists. Scientology Missions International is under CSI and overseers Scientology missions, which are local Scientology organizations smaller than churches.
Founded: 1954 Headquarters: Gilman Hot Springs, California, CA Founder: L. Ron Hubbard
wiki/Church_of_Scientology(1978) The Ironman Triathlon holds its first competitionOahu, Hawaii, hosts a grueling triad of events, described on the competition’s rules sheet as “Swim 2.4 miles! Bike 112 miles! Run 26.2 miles! Brag for the rest of your life!” The race sees 15 men start and 12 finish. Navy specialist Gordon Haller wins the first Ironman title.
An Ironman Triathlon is one of a series of long-distance triathlon races organized by the World Triathlon Corporation (WTC), consisting of a 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim, a 112-mile (180.25 km) bicycle ride and a marathon 26.22-mile (42.20 km) run, raced in that order and without a break. It is widely considered one of the most difficult one-day sporting events in the world.
Most Ironman events have a strict time limit of 17 hours to complete the race. The race typically starts at 7:00 a.m.; the mandatory swim cut off for the 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim is 9:20 a.m. (2 hours 20 minutes), the mandatory bike cut off time is 5:30 p.m. (8 hours 10 minutes), and the mandatory marathon cut off is midnight (6 hours 30 minutes). Any participant who manages to complete the triathlon within these timings is designated an Ironman.
The name “Ironman Triathlon” is also associated with the original Ironman triathlon which is now the Ironman World Championship. Held in Kailua-Kona, the world championship has been held annually in Hawaii since 1978 (with an additional race in 1982) and is preceded by a series of qualifying Ironman events. The Ironman World Championship has become known for its grueling length, harsh race conditions, and Emmy Award-winning television coverage.
Other races exist that are of the same distance as an Ironman triathlon but are not produced, owned, or licensed by the World Triathlon Corporation. Such races include The Challenge Family series’ Challenge Roth or the Norseman Triathlon.
(1952) ‘The Today Show’ premieres on NBCAmerica’s first morning talk show debuts, featuring an innovative mixture of interviews, light banter, and hard news. The format succeeds and the program will go on to become one of TV’s longest-running series.A daily live broadcast provides current domestic and international news, weather reports and interviews with news-makers from the worlds of politics, business, media, entertainment and sports.
Website: www.today.com Number of episodes: 16,185 Episode duration: 180 minutes Creator: Sylvester Weaver Awards: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Morning Program · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Achievement In Daytime Programming – Programs · News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in a Craft: Camerawork Theme song: Scherzo for Today
wiki/Today_(U.S._TV_program)(1954) Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio wedAmerica’s biggest movie star and its most popular baseball player make headlines as they wed in San Francisco and emerge to a crush of press and public. They will divorce just nine months later.
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress and model. Famous for playing comic “dumb blonde” characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 1950s, emblematic of the era’s attitudes towards sexuality. Although she was a top-billed actress for only a decade, her films grossed $200 million by the time of her unexpected death in 1962. She continues to be considered a major popular culture icon.
IMDB:www.imdb.com/name/nm0000054 Lived: Jun 01, 1926 – Aug 05, 1962 (age 36) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Spouse: Arthur Miller (m. 1956 – 1961) · Joe DiMaggio (m. 1954 – 1954) · James Dougherty (m. 1942 – 1946) Buried: Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery Awards: Playboy Playmate (1953) · Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical (1960) · Golden Globe Henrietta Award for World Film Favorites (1962, 1954) · David di Donatello Golden Plate Award
Joseph Paul “Joe” DiMaggio, nicknamed “Joltin’ Joe” and “The Yankee Clipper”, was an American Major League Baseball center fielder who played his entire 13-year career for the New York Yankees. He is perhaps best known for his 56-game hitting streak, a record that still stands.
Lived: Nov 25, 1914 – Mar 08, 1999 (age 84) Height: 6′ 2″ (1.88 m) Spouse: Marilyn Monroe (m. 1954 – 1954) · Dorothy Arnold (m. 1939 – 1944) Children: Joseph Paul DiMaggio III (Son) Buried: Holy Cross Cemetery
1937: DiMaggio holds the record for most seasons with more home runs than strikeouts (minimum 20 home runs), a feat he accomplished seven times, and five times consecutively from 1937–1941.
1939: Joe DiMaggio married Dorothy Arnold on November 19, 1939; their marriage lasted 5 years till May 12, 1944.
1941: DiMaggio’s most famous achievement is his MLB record-breaking 56-game hitting streak in 1941.
1947: In 1947, Boston Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey and Yankees GM Larry MacPhail verbally agreed to trade DiMaggio for Ted Williams, but MacPhail refused to include Yogi Berra.
1949: On February 7, 1949, DiMaggio signed a record contract worth $100,000 ($996,000 in current dollar terms) ($70,000 plus bonuses), and became the first baseball player to break $100,000 in earnings.
1949: In the September 1949 issue of SPORT, Hank Greenberg said that DiMaggio covered so much ground in center field that the only way to get a hit against the Yankees was “to hit ’em where Joe wasn’t.”
wiki/Joe_DiMaggio(1967) Prelude to ‘Summer of Love’ in San FranciscoWith tunes from the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane, talks from Timothy Leary, and free LSD provided by Owsley Stanley, the Human Be-In turns on, tunes in, and drops out at Golden Gate Park.The Human Be-In was an event in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park Polo Fields on January 14, 1967. It was a prelude to San Francisco’s Summer of Love, which made the Haight-Ashbury district a symbol of American counterculture and introduced the word “psychedelic” to suburbia.
Date: Jan 14, 1967
wiki/Human_Be-In(1970) Diana Ross & the Supremes give their final concertA dozen #1 hits behind them, the mega-selling ’60s pop group performs together for the last time at Las Vegas’ Frontier Hotel. Ross will go on to launch a solo career and also earn a Best Actress Oscar nod, while the rest of the band will go through several lineup changes before disbanding in 1977.The Supremes were an American female singing group and the premier act of Motown Records during the 1960s. Founded as the Primettes in Detroit, Michigan, in 1959, the Supremes were the most commercially successful of Motown’s acts and are, to date, America’s most successful vocal group with 12 number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100. Most of these hits were written and produced by Motown’s main songwriting and production team, Holland–Dozier–Holland. At their peak in the mid-1960s, the Supremes rivaled the Beatles in worldwide popularity, and it is said that their success made it possible for future African American R&B and soul musicians to find mainstream success.
Movies: G.I.T. on Broadway · Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever · The T.A.M.I. Show Awards: Grammy Hall of Fame (2001, 1999) · Rhythm and Blues Foundation Pioneer Award (2003) Nominations: NME Award for World Group (1965) Siblings: Sundray Tucker