(1932) Australia’s Sydney Harbour Bridge opensUp to 1 million citizens celebrate the opening of the magnificent new bridge spanning Sydney Harbour. Nicknamed ‘the coat hanger,’ it’s the world’s tallest steel arch bridge and the widest long-span bridge.The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a steel through arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail, vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district and the North Shore. The dramatic view of the bridge, the harbour, and the nearby Sydney Opera House is an iconic image of Sydney, and Australia. The bridge is nicknamed “The Coathanger” because of its arch-based design.
Address: Cumberland Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2000 Opened: Mar 19, 1932 Length: 3,770 feet (1,149 m) Width: 161 feet (49 m) Longest span: 1,650 feet (503 m) Clearance below: 161 feet (49 m)
wiki/Sydney_Harbour_Bridge(1941) Tuskegee Airmen squadron is activatedThe 99th Pursuit Squadron is the first all-black unit in the US Army Air Corps. The squad of enlisted men will become the core of other black squadrons, collectively nicknamed the Tuskegee Airmen, that will go on to serve with great distinction in World War II’s North African and Italian campaigns.
The Tuskegee Airmen /tʌsˈkiːɡiː/ is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. Officially, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces. The name also applies to the navigators, bombardiers, mechanics, instructors, crew chiefs, nurses, cooks and other support personnel for the pilots.
All black military pilots who trained in the United States trained at Moton Field, the Tuskegee Army Air Field, and were educated at Tuskegee University, located near Tuskegee, Alabama; the group included five Haitians from the Haitian Air Force (Alix Pasquet, Raymond Cassagnol, Pelissier Nicolas, Ludovic Audant, and Eberle Guilbaud). There was also one pilot from Port of Spain, Trinidad, Eugene Theodore.
Although the 477th Bombardment Group trained with North American B-25 Mitchell bombers, they never served in combat. The 99th Pursuit Squadron (later, 99th Fighter Squadron) was the first black flying squadron, and the first to deploy overseas (to North Africa in April 1943, and later to Sicily and Italy). The 332nd Fighter Group, which originally included the 100th, 301st, and 302nd Fighter Squadrons, was the first black flying group. The group deployed to Italy in early 1944. In June 1944, the 332nd Fighter Group began flying heavy bomber escort missions, and in July 1944, the 99th Fighter Squadron was assigned to the 332nd Fighter Group, which then had four fighter squadrons.
The 99th Fighter Squadron was initially equipped with Curtiss P-40 Warhawk fighter-bomber aircraft. The 332nd Fighter Group and its 100th, 301st and 302nd Fighter Squadrons were equipped for initial combat missions with Bell P-39 Airacobras (March 1944), later with Republic P-47 Thunderbolts (June–July 1944), and finally with the aircraft with which they became most commonly associated, the North American P-51 Mustang (July 1944). When the pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group painted the tails of their P-47s and later, P-51s, red, the nickname “Red Tails” was coined. The red markings that distinguished the Tuskegee Airmen included red bands on the noses of P-51s as well as a red rudder; the P-51B and D Mustangs flew with similar color schemes, with red propeller spinners, yellow wing bands and all-red tail surfaces.
The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African-American military aviators in the United States Armed Forces. During World War II, black Americans in many U.S. states were still subject to the Jim Crow laws[N 1] and the American military was racially segregated, as was much of the federal government. The Tuskegee Airmen were subjected to discrimination, both within and outside the army.
wiki/Tuskegee_Airmen(1953) The Oscars are first broadcast on TVThe 25th Annual Academy Awards are held in Los Angeles and beamed into living rooms across the country as NBC televises the ceremony for the first time. ‘The Greatest Show on Earth’ is awarded the Best Picture award.The 25th Academy Awards ceremony was held on March 19, 1953. It took place at the RKO Pantages Theatre in Hollywood, California, and the NBC International Theatre in New York City. It was the first Academy Awards ceremony to be televised, and the first ceremony to be held in Hollywood and New York City simultaneously. It was also the only year that the New York ceremonies were to be held in the NBC International Theatre on Columbus Circle, which was shortly thereafter demolished and replaced by the New York Coliseum convention center.
Date: Mar 19, 1953
wiki/25th_Academy_Awards(1962) Bob Dylan’s first album is releasedA 21-year-old folk singer from Minnesota sees his self-titled debut LP, filled mostly with his Woody Guthrie-inspired takes on folk standards, released on Columbia Records. The album will not sell well and most critics are left unimpressed. Dylan’s fortunes, however, will soon be a-changin’ for the better.Bob Dylan is the debut studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on March 19, 1962 by Columbia Records. Produced by Columbia’s legendary talent scout John H. Hammond, who signed Dylan to the label, the album features folk standards, plus two original compositions, “Talkin’ New York” and “Song to Woody”.
Release year: 1962 Genre: Blues / Folk, Contemporary Folk Label: Columbia Artist: Bob Dylan
(1525) The last Aztec emperor is executed Having survived years of war, the Spanish conquest of his empire, torture, and seeming accord with conquistador Hernán Cortés and his army, Aztec emperor Cuauhtémoc is executed by order of Cortés.Cuauhtémoc was the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521, making him the last Aztec Emperor. The name Cuauhtemōc means “one who has descended like an eagle”, and is commonly rendered in English as “Descending Eagle,” as in the moment when an eagle folds its wings and plummets down to strike its prey. This is a name that implies aggressiveness and determination.
Born: 1497 Died: 1525 Parents: Ahuitzotl (Father)
wiki/Cuauhtémoc(1953) Watson and Crick reveal DNA discoveryCambridge University scientists James Watson and Francis Crick announce that they’ve uncovered the double-helix structure of the DNA molecule, helping to unlock the genetic code of humans and other living things. Their breakthrough drew on the pioneering work by their former colleague, Rosalind Franklin, who had produced X-ray diffraction images of DNA, but Franklin’s contribution to the discovery of the DNA double helix will go largely unrecognized during her lifetime.Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates, they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. wiki/DNA(1983) ‘M*A*S*H’ finale airs to record-smashing ratingsNearly 106 million viewers, or 77 percent of the American TV-watching public, tune in to the last episode of the beloved series ‘M*A*S*H.’ After 11 seasons, the television show about a US Army medical unit serving in the Korean War lasted longer than the war itself.The 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital is stuck in the middle of the Korean war. With little help from the circumstances they find themselves in, they are forced to make their own fun. Fond of practical jokes and revenge, the doctors, nurses, administrators, and soldiers often find ways of making wartime life bearable. Nevertheless, the war goes on,
First episode: Sep 17, 1972 Episode duration: 25 minutes Creators: Larry Gelbart · Gene Reynolds Theme song: Suicide Is Painless Awards: TV Land Impact Award · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series · People’s Choice Award for Favorite Male TV Performer · TV Land Classic TV Doctor of the Year Award Producers: Larry Gelbart · Gene Reynolds · Burt Metcalfe · Don Reo · Dan Wilcox · Allan Katz · Dennis Koenig · Thad Mumford · John Rappaport · Jim Mulligan
wiki/M*A*S*H_(TV_series)(1993) Branch Davidian standoff in Waco beginsWhen agents from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives serve warrants at the Branch Davidian compound outside of Waco, Texas, a gunfight erupts, killing four agents and six members of the fringe Christian group. The resulting siege will last 51 days.The Waco siege was a siege of a compound belonging to the group Branch Davidians by American federal and Texas state law enforcement and US military between February 28 and April 19, 1993. The Branch Davidians, a sect that separated in 1955 from the Seventh-day Adventist Church, was led by David Koresh and lived at Mount Carmel Center ranch in the community of Elk, Texas, nine miles east-northeast of Waco. The group was suspected of weapons violations, causing a search and arrest warrant to be obtained by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.
(1631) Religious pluralist Roger Williams lands in AmericaRoger Williams arrives in Boston from England, and will become a proponent of the separation between church and state. He’ll also found the state of Rhode Island and America’s first Baptist church.Roger Williams was a Puritan, an English Reformed theologian, and later a Reformed Baptist who was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the colony of Massachusetts because they thought that he was spreading “new and dangerous ideas” to his congregants. Williams fled the Massachusetts colony under the threat of impending arrest and shipment to an English prison; he began the settlement of Providence Plantation in 1636 as a refuge offering freedom of conscience.
Lived: 1603 – Mar 1683 Spouse: Mary Barnard (m. 1629 – 1676) Children: Freeborn Williams (Daughter) · Daniel Williams (Son) · Joseph Williams (Son) · Mercy Williams (Daughter) · Mary Williams (Daughter) · Providence Williams Education: University of Cambridge · Pembroke College, Cambridge Parents: James Williams · Alice Williams Nominations: British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Series (2002)
1629: Williams also married Mary Barnard (1609–76) on December 15, 1629 at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England.
1634: In August 1634, Williams became acting pastor of the Salem church, the Rev. Skelton having died, and continued to be embroiled in controversies.
1635: Finally, in October 1635, the General Court tried Williams and convicted him of sedition and heresy.
1636: He was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the colony of Massachusetts because they thought that he was spreading “new and dangerous ideas”, so he began the colony of Providence Plantation in 1636 which provided a refuge for religious minorities.
1644: Williams secured his precious charter from Parliament for “Providence Plantations” in July 1644, then published his most famous book The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience.
1647: Because of William Coddington’s opposition on Rhode Island, it took Williams until 1647 to get the four towns around Narragansett Bay to unite under a single government.
wiki/Roger_Williams(1909) Bakelite, the first synthetic plastic, is announcedLeo Baekeland, a Belgian-born chemist working in New York, announces his invention of the world’s first manmade plastic material, naming it Bakelite. It will help launch the plastics revolution.Bakelite, or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907.
Inventor: Leo Baekeland
wiki/Bakelite(1919) A powerhouse Hollywood quartet forms United Artists Seeking artistic freedom and greater monetary rewards, director D.W. Griffith and actors Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks form their own production studio, United Artists.United Artists is an American film and television entertainment studio. The studio was founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks with the intention of controlling their own interests rather than depending upon commercial studios. The studio was repeatedly bought, sold and restructured over the ensuing century.
Website: www.unitedartists.com Founded: Feb 05, 1919 CEO: Mark Burnett Founders: Charlie Chaplin · Mary Pickford · Douglas Fairbanks · D.W. Griffith Headquarters: Beverly Hills, CA Awards: Country Music Association Award for Album of the Year (1979) · Razzie Award for Worst Picture (1996) · Razzie Award for Worst Picture of the Decade (2000) · Satellite Award for Best Foreign Language Film Nominations: Country Music Association Award for Album of the Year · Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel · Razzie Award for Worst Picture · Razzie Award for Worst Drama of Our First 25 Years
wiki/United_Artists(1953) Britain’s sweets rationing comes to an endIn place since the start of WWII, sweets rationing limited the amount of sugary goods the public could buy. The first day of unrationed sweets sees a run on toffee apples, nougat sticks, and licorice strips.Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war. At the start of the Second World War in 1939, the United Kingdom imported 20 million long tons of food per year, including about 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 70% of cereals and fats. The U.K. also imported more than 50% of its meat and relied heavily on imported feed to support its domestic meat production. The civilian population of the country was about 50 million. It was one of the principal strategies of the Germans to attack shipping bound for Britain, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission. To deal with sometimes extreme shortages, the Ministry of Food instituted a system of rationing. To buy most rationed items, each person had to register at chosen shops, and was provided with a ration book containing coupons. The shopkeeper was provided with enough food for registered customers. Purchasers had to take ration books with them when shopping, so the relevant coupon or coupons could be cancelled. wiki/Rationing_in_the_United_Kingdom3.2.j17
(1889) Famed femme outlaw Belle Starr killed in OklahomaWith two shotgun blasts to the back, ‘The Bandit Queen ‘ meets her end after a life of crime that included cattle rustling, thieving, and romantic entanglements with other outlaws.Myra Maybelle Shirley Reed Starr, better known as Belle Starr, was a notorious American outlaw. Belle associated with the James–Younger Gang and other outlaws. She was convicted of horse theft in 1883. She was fatally shot in 1889 in a case that is still officially unsolved. Her story was popularized by Richard K. Fox—editor and publisher of the National Police Gazette—and she later became a popular character in television and movies.
Born: Feb 05, 1848 · Carthage, MO Died: Feb 03, 1889 Spouse: Jim July Starr (m. 1888 – 1889) · Sam Starr (m. 1880 – 1886) · James C. Reed (m. 1866 – 1874) Children: Pearl Starr (Daughter) Parents: Elizabeth Pennington Shirley · John “Judge” Shirley · Elizabeth Shirley Siblings: Mansfield Shirley · Benton Edwin Shirley · John Allison Shirley · Cravens Shirley · Preston Shirley · Charlotte Shirley
1878: Allegedly, Belle was briefly married for three weeks to Charles Younger, uncle of Cole Younger in 1878, but this is not substantiated by any evidence.
1880: Belle Starr married Sam Starr on June 05, 1880; their marriage lasted 6 years till December 17, 1886.
1883: She was convicted of horse theft in 1883.
1886: In 1886, she escaped conviction on another theft charge, but on December 17, Sam Starr was involved in a gunfight with Officer Frank West.
1889: Fox made her name famous with his novel Bella Starr, the Bandit Queen, or the Female Jesse James, published in 1889 (the year of her murder).
1889: On February 3, 1889, two days before her 41st birthday, she was killed.
wiki/Belle_Starr(1953) Jacques Cousteau’s book ‘The Silent World’ is released Three years after launching his underwater research vessel The Calypso, the oceanographer publishes ‘The Silent World.’ A film version, co-directed by Cousteau and Louis Malle, will debut three years later and will win the Academy Award for best documentary, helping to make Cousteau world-famous.The Silent World is a 1953 book co-authored by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas, and edited by James Dugan. Although a French national, Cousteau wrote the book in English. Cousteau and Émile Gagnan designed, built, and tested the first “aqua-lung” in the summer of 1943, off the southern coast of France. In the opening chapters, Cousteau recounts the earliest days of scuba diving with his diving companions Frédéric Dumas and Philippe Tailliez. The aqualung allowed for the first time untethered, free-floating extended deep water diving, and ushered in the modern era of scuba diving. Later chapters include excursions diving ship wrecks.
Authors: Jacques-Yves Cousteau · Frédéric Dumas First published: 1953
wiki/The_Silent_World:_A_Story_of_Undersea_Discovery_and_Adventure(1959) Buddy Holly and three others die in Iowa plane crashRock ‘n’ roll star Buddy Holly, 22, perishes along with fellow hit-makers Richie Valens, J.P. ‘Big Bopper’ Richardson, and their pilot, when their Beechcraft plane goes down in a storm shortly after takeoff.On February 3, 1959, rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa, together with pilot Roger Peterson. The event later became known as “The Day the Music Died”, after singer-songwriter Don McLean so referred to it in his 1971 song “American Pie”.
Date: Feb 03, 1959 Fatalities: 4
wiki/The_Day_the_Music_Died(1971) NYPD officer and corruption whistleblower Serpico shotShot in the head during a Brooklyn drug bust, police officer Frank Serpico will survive and testify to widespread corruption in the New York Police Department. His shooting, suspected as having been set up by his fellow officers, will prompt an investigation of the department and inspire a popular film.Francesco Vincent “Frank” Serpico is a retired American New York Police Department officer who holds both American and Italian citizenship. He is known for whistleblowing on police corruption in the late 1960s and early 1970s, an act that prompted Mayor John V. Lindsay to appoint the landmark Knapp Commission to investigate the NYPD. Much of Serpico’s fame came after the release of the 1973 film Serpico, which was based on the book by Peter Maas and which starred Al Pacino in the title role, for which Pacino was nominated for an Oscar.
Born: Apr 14, 1936 (age 80) · Brooklyn, NY Spouse: Marianne Serpico (m. 1973) · Laurie Young (m. 1966 – 1969) · Leslie Lane (m. 1963 – 1965) · Mary Ann Wheeler (m. 1957 – 1962) Related movies: Serpico Children: Alexander Serpico (Son) Education: Brooklyn College Parents: Vincenzo · Maria Giovanna Serpico
(1606) English conspirator Guy Fawkes foils own executionGuy Fawkes, head of The Gunpowder Plot to blow up the English parliament in London’s Westminster Palace, leaps off a ladder to his death moments before his planned hanging.Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Born: Apr 13, 1570 · York, United Kingdom Died: Jan 31, 1606 · Westminster, England Spouse: Maria Pulleyn (m. 1590) Children: Thomas Fawkes (Son) Education: St Peter’s School, York Parents: Edith Fawkes (Mother) · Edward Fawkes (Father)
1590: Guy Fawkes married Maria Pulleyn in 1590.
1601: Fawkes’s fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher (both later involved with Fawkes in the Gunpowder Plot) and Oswald Tesimond, Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, who became priests (the latter executed in 1601).
1604: In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth.
1604: Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to “doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott”, and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England.
1605: In an attempt to gain foreign support, in May 1605 Fawkes travelled overseas and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters’ plan.
1605: It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed.
wiki/Guy_Fawkes(1945) US Army Private Eddie Slovik executed for desertion In the first execution of an American soldier for desertion since the Civil War, and the only one in the whole of WWII, Private Eddie Slovik of the 28th Infantry Division dies by firing squad.Edward Donald “Eddie” Slovik was a United States Army soldier during World War II and the only American soldier to be court-martialled and executed for desertion since the American Civil War.
Born: Feb 18, 1920 · Detroit, MI Died: Jan 31, 1945 · Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, France Spouse: Antoinette Wisniewski (m. 1942 – 1945) Parents: Anna · Josef Slowikowski
1942: Eddie Slovik married Antoinette Wisniewski in 1942.
1942: In April 1942, Slovik was paroled once more, and he obtained a job at Montella Plumbing and Heating in Dearborn, Michigan.
1944: Slovik arrived at Camp Wolters in Texas for basic military training on January 24, 1944.
1944: Tankey wrote to their regiment to explain their absence before he and Slovik reported to their unit for duty on October 7, 1944.
1944: Slovik was charged with desertion to avoid hazardous duty and tried by court martial on 11 November 1944.
1945: Eddie Slovik died on January 31, 1945 in Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, France.
wiki/Eddie_Slovik(1949) First daytime network TV soap opera debuts‘These Are My Children’ is broadcast live on Chicago’s NBC station. It’s the first in what will become an institution of daytime drama serials, many of which will be sponsored by–yes–soap manufacturers. Television soap operas will begin dying out in the 21st century as tastes change.These Are My Children is an American television soap opera which ran on NBC from January 31, 1949, to February 25, 1949. The show was broadcast live from Chicago, Illinois, airing fifteen minutes a day, five days a week, at 5:00 p.m. EST. It is widely credited as the first soap opera broadcast on television. It may be more accurately described as the first daytime drama or the first soap opera strip, as it was preceded by DuMont series Faraway Hill in 1946 and Highway to the Stars in 1947, both of which are described as soap operas but aired later in the evenings and broadcast only once a week.
First episode: 1949 Episode duration: 15 minutes Creator: Irna Phillips Genre: Soap opera
wiki/These_Are_My_Children(1953) Catastrophic European flood kills thousands Roiling out of the North Sea, a storm bearing 100-mph winds and flooding rain devastates the Netherlands, destroying 50,000 buildings, leaving 300,000 homeless, and killing more than 1,500.The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland.