Start date: Feb 21, 1948
End date: Feb 25, 1948
Portraits of Klement Gottwald and Joseph Stalin at a 1947 meeting of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Start date: Feb 21, 1948
End date: Feb 25, 1948
Population: 25.37 million (2016)
Official language: Korean
GDP: $25 billion USD (2015)
Area: 46,541 sq miles (120,540 km²)
Calling code: 850
Area controlled by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
Points of interest: Historic Jamestowne · Jamestown Church · John Smith Statue · Ambler House · James Fort · Tercentenary Monument · Archaearium · Pocahontas Statue · Hunt Shrine
The History of Israel encompasses the Jewish history in the Land of Israel, as well as the history of the modern State of Israel. Modern Israel and the West Bank are roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It is the birthplace of the Hebrew language and of the Abrahamic religions, and contains sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism, Druze and Bahá’í Faith.
Although coming under the sway of various empires and home to a variety of ethnicities, the Land of Israel was predominantly Jewish until the 3rd century. The area became increasingly Christian after the 3rd century and then largely Muslim following the 7th century conquest and until the middle of the 20th century. It was a focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam between 1096 and 1291, and from the end of the Crusades was part of the Syrian province of first the Mamluk Sultanate and then the Ottoman Empire until the British conquest in 1917.
A Jewish national movement, Zionism, emerged in the late-19th century. Following the British capture of Ottoman territories in the Levant, the Balfour Declaration in World War I and the formation of the Mandate of Palestine, Aliyah (Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel) increased, causing Arab–Jewish tensions and a collision of the Arab and Jewish nationalist movements. Israeli independence in 1948 was marked by massive migration of Jews from both Europe and the Muslim countries to Israel, and of Arabs from Israel, followed by the extensive Arab–Israeli conflict. About 43% of the world’s Jews live in Israel today, the largest Jewish community in the world.
Since about 1970, the United States has become the principal ally of Israel. In 1979 an uneasy Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed, based on the Camp David Accords. In 1993, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed. Despite efforts to finalize the peace agreement, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political, social and economic life.
The economy of Israel was initially primarily socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1970s. Since then the Israeli economy has gradually moved to capitalism and a free market economy, partially retaining the social welfare system.
First episode: Jul 05, 1989
Episode duration: 22 minutes
Creators: Jerry Seinfeld · Larry David
Theme song: Seinfeld Theme Song
Producers: Jerry Seinfeld · Larry David · Alec Berg · Jeff Schaffer · George Shapiro · Andrew Scheinman
Awards: Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series · Peabody Award · Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series
Lived: Jan 22, 1788 – Apr 19, 1824 (age 36)
Height: 5′ 9″ (1.74 m)
Spouse: Anne Isabella Byron, Baroness Byron (m. 1815 – 1816)
Children: Elizabeth Medora Leigh (Daughter) · Ada Lovelace (Daughter) · Allegra Byron (Daughter)
Education: Trinity College, Cambridge (1805 – 1808) · Harrow School (1801 – 1805) · University of Cambridge · Aberdeen Grammar School
Siblings: Augusta Leigh (Sister)Highlights
- 1798: When Byron’s great-uncle, the “wicked” Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, the 10-year-old boy became the 6th Baron Byron of Rochdale and inherited the ancestral home, Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire.
- 1815: The vessel was launched only a few miles south of Seaham Hall, where in 1815 Byron married Annabella Milbanke.
- 1817: He also had an illegitimate child in 1817, Clara Allegra Byron, with Claire Clairmont, stepsister of Mary Shelley and stepdaughter of William Godwin, writer of Political Justice and Caleb Williams.
- 1822: Upon the death of Byron’s mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon. Lady Milbanke, in 1822, her will required that he change his surname to “Noel” in order for him to inherit half of her estate.
- 1823: Whilst sailing from Genoa to Cephalonia in 1823, every day at noon, Byron and Trelawny, in calm weather, jumped overboard for a swim without fear of sharks, which were not unknown in those waters.
- 1824: He died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted while in Missolonghi.
First episode: May 03, 1948
Episode duration: 15 minutes
Creator: Don Hewitt
Producers: CBS News · Don Hewitt · Keith Summa · Rick Kaplan · Jim Murphy · Patricia Shevlin · Mary Walsh · Vinnie Malhotra · Michael Rey · Thomas Flynn · Heather Abbott · Max McClellan · Bill Piersol · Christopher Scholl · Beth Loyd
Awards: Peabody Award · News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Continuing Coverage of a News Story in a Regularly Scheduled Newscast · News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Investigative Journalism – Segments · News & Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Business and Economic Reporting in a Regularly Scheduled Newscast
Author: Tom Jones
First published: 1964
First performed: May 03, 1960
Adaptations: The Fantasticks (1995)
Genre: Performing Arts
Born: Jan 31, 1862 · Ray County, MO
Died: Jun 08, 1892 · Creede, CO
Siblings: Charles Ford (Brother)
Related movies: The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford
Children: Maude Mae Powell (Daughter) · Odie Watson (Daughter)
Parents: James Thomas · Mary Bruin FordHighlights
- 1881: Ford’s brother Charles is believed to have taken part in the James gang’s Blue Cut train robbery in Jackson County, west of Glendale, Missouri (renamed Selsa and now part of Independence), on September 7, 1881.
- 1881: In November 1881, after the train robbery, James moved his family to St. Joseph, Missouri and intended to give up crime.
- 1889: On December 26, 1889, Ford survived an assassination attempt in Kansas City, Kansas when an assailant tried to slit his throat.
- 1892: Ford purchased a lot and on May 29, 1892 opened Ford’s Exchange, said to have been a dance hall.
- 1892: Three days after the fire, on June 8, 1892, Edward O’Kelley entered Ford’s tent saloon with a shotgun.
- 1892: Robert Ford died on June 08, 1892 in Creede, United States.
Lived: Oct 16, 1854 – Nov 30, 1900 (age 46)
Height: 6′ 3″ (1.91 m)
Partner: Lord Alfred Douglas (1897 – 1898)
Spouse: Constance Lloyd (m. 1884 – 1898)
Children: Vyvyan Holland (Son) · Cyril Holland (Son)
Awards: Retro Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation (1946)Highlights
- 1884: He proposed to her, and they married on 29 May 1884 at the Anglican St James’s Church, Paddington in London.
- 1889: In January 1889, The Decay of Lying: A Dialogue appeared in The Nineteenth Century, and Pen, Pencil and Poison, a satirical biography of Thomas Griffiths Wainewright, in The Fortnightly Review, edited by Wilde’s friend Frank Harris.
- 1891: In mid-1891 Lionel Johnson introduced Wilde to Lord Alfred Douglas, an undergraduate at Oxford at the time.
- 1895: Wilde’s friends had advised him against the prosecution at a Saturday Review meeting at the Café Royal on 24 March 1895; Frank Harris warned him that “they are going to prove sodomy against you” and advised him to flee to France.
- 1895: On 25 May 1895 Wilde and Alfred Taylor were convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years’ hard labour.
- 1900: Wilde died of cerebral meningitis on 30 November 1900.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion (approximately $120 billion in current dollar value as of June 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The plan was in operation for four years beginning April 8, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, and prevent the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, labour union membership, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.
The Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states roughly on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those that had been part of the Axis or remained neutral. The largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom (receiving about 26% of the total), followed by France (18%) and West Germany (11%). Some 18 European countries received Plan benefits. Although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, and also blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as East Germany and Poland. The United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not called “Marshall Plan”.
The initiative is named after Secretary of State George Marshall, who also served as the United States Army Chief of staff during WWII. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House with Harry S. Truman as president. The Plan was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan, with help from the Brookings Institution, as requested by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the economic recovery of nations after WWII as well as to antagonize the Soviet Union. In order to combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan, known as the Molotov Plan. It was not as effective as the Marshall Plan, and in some ways contradictory to eastern block countries that served alongside the axis powers in WWII.
The phrase “equivalent of the Marshall Plan” is often used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program.
Born: Dec 26, 1928 (age 88) · Chicago, IL
Net worth: $100 million USD (2016)
Spouse: Arlene Harris (m. 1991)
Inventions: Mobile phone
Education: Illinois Institute of TechnologyHighlights
- 1967: He developed many products including the first cellular-like portable handheld police radio system, produced for the Chicago police department in 1967.
- 1973: Here he conceived of the first portable cellular phone in 1973 and led the 10-year process of bringing it to market.
- 1986: In 1986, Cooper sold CBSI to Cincinnati Bell (now Convergys) for $23 million.
- 1986: Cooper and his wife Arlene Harris founded Dyna LLC in 1986 as a home base for their various developmental and support activities surrounding the incubation of new ideas and new companies.
- 1986: In 1986 Cooper co-founded Cellular Payphone Inc. (CPPI), the parent company of GreatCall, Inc. – Innovator of the Jitterbug cell phone (in partnership with Samsung).
- 1991: Martin Cooper married Arlene Harris in 1991.