(73 CE) Roman troops end siege of Jewish rebel stronghold MasadaHaving spent months building a giant ramp to reach Masada, a mountaintop fortress defended by just 967 Jewish rebels, a massive Roman force uses a battering ram to breach the walls. Inside, according to a Jewish chronicler of the events, the Romans find the rebels dead, having committed mass suicide.The siege of Masada was one of the final events in the First Jewish–Roman War, occurring from 73 to 74 CE on a large hilltop in current-day Israel. The siege was chronicled by Flavius Josephus, a Jewish rebel leader captured by the Romans, in whose service he became a historian. According to Josephus the long siege by the troops of the Roman Empire led to the mass suicide of the Sicarii rebels and resident Jewish families of the Masada fortress. Masada has become a controversial event in Jewish history, with some regarding it as a place of reverence, commemorating fallen ancestors and their heroic struggle against oppression, and others regarding it as a warning against extremism and the refusal to compromise.
(1746) The Battle of Culloden is Scottish Jacobites’ last standA pitched battle near Inverness between Scottish Highlanders and British Loyalists results in thousands of casualties for the Scots, and a victory for the Brits that will lead to a cracking down on the Scottish clan system and a depopulating of the Highlands.The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands.
Phone: 0844 493 2159 Date: Apr 16, 1746
wiki/Battle_of_Culloden(1943) Scientist Albert Hofmann takes history’s first LSD trip During research into compounds synthesized in part from a grain fungus, Swiss scientist Dr. Albert Hofmann accidentally touches and absorbs a small amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and experiences a 2-hour-long hallucinogenic journey.Albert Hofmann was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide. Hofmann was also the first person to isolate, synthesize, and name the principal psychedelic mushroom compounds psilocybin and psilocin. He authored more than 100 scientific articles and numerous books, including LSD: Mein Sorgenkind. In 2007, he shared first place, alongside Tim Berners-Lee, in a list of the 100 greatest living geniuses, published by The Telegraph newspaper.
Born: Jan 11, 1906 · Baden, Switzerland Died: Apr 29, 2008 · Burg im Leimental, Switzerland Inventions: Lysergic acid diethylamide Education: University of Zurich Parents: Adolf Hofmann
1938: While researching lysergic acid derivatives, Hofmann first synthesized LSD on 16 November 1938.
1958: He first synthesized 4-AcO-DET in 1958 in the Sandoz lab.
1969: The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) honored him with the title D.Sc. (honoris causa) in 1969 together with Gustav Guanella, his brother-in-law.
1971: After retiring from Sandoz in 1971, Hofmann was allowed to take his papers and research home.
1971: In 1971 the Swedish Pharmaceutical Association (Sveriges Farmacevtförbund) granted him the Scheele Award, which commemorates the skills and achievements of the Swedish Pomeranian chemist and pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
2008: Hofmann died of a heart attack on 29 April 2008, surrounded by several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
wiki/Albert_Hofmann(1947) A freighter’s payload explodes and wipes out Texas CityAmmonium nitrate fertilizer catches fire on a vessel in Galveston Bay and explodes, flattening much of the town of Texas City, Texas. The disaster will kill nearly 600 and wound over 3,000, becoming the worst industrial accident in US history.The Texas City disaster was an industrial accident that occurred April 16, 1947, in the Port of Texas City. It was the deadliest industrial accident in U.S. history, and one of the largest non-nuclear explosions. Originating with a mid-morning fire on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp, her cargo of approximately 2,200 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated, with the initial blast and subsequent chain-reaction of further fires and explosions in other ships and nearby oil-storage facilities. It killed at least 581 people, including all but one member of the Texas City fire department. The disaster triggered the first ever class action lawsuit against the United States government, under the then-recently enacted Federal Tort Claims Act, on behalf of 8,485 victims.
(1755) Dr. Johnson’s dictionary is publishedNine years of solitary scholarly effort are about to change the world as Samuel Johnson’s ‘A Dictionary of the English Language’ is published in London. It will stand as the definitive dictionary for 173 years.Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson’s Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
Author: Samuel Johnson First published: Apr 15, 1755 Original language: English
(1927) America’s worst river flood beginsSwollen by the previous year’s torrential rains, the Mississippi River begins flowing over levees as more record-breaking showers fall. The ensuing flood will wash into 10 states, eventually covering 14 percent of Arkansas.The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in the history of the United States, with 27,000 square miles inundated up to a depth of 30 feet. To try to prevent future floods, the federal government built the world’s longest system of levees and floodways. wiki/Great_Mississippi_Flood_of_1927(1942) Malta is awarded the George Cross for bravery Britain’s King George VI awards an entire island’s populace a medal for heroism. Malta, an island in the southern Mediterranean, and part of the British Empire, has been relentlessly bombarded by WWII Axis powers.The George Cross is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry “not in the face of the enemy” to members of the British armed forces and to British civilians. It has always been able to be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians including police, emergency services and merchant seamen although no British civilian has received the award since 1976. Many of the awards have been personally presented by the British monarch to both recipients and in the case of posthumous awards to next of kin. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. wiki/George_Cross(1947) Jackie Robinson integrates baseballMore than 26,000 spectators, at least 14,000 of them African Americans, crowd into New York’s Ebbet Field as Jack Roosevelt Robinson, the first African American to play baseball for a Major League team, starts as the Brooklyn Dodgers’ first baseman against the Boston Braves. Robinson will endure racist resistance throughout his first season in the majors, but the national pastime’s color barrier will be forever broken.Jack Roosevelt “Jackie” Robinson was an American professional baseball second baseman who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. The Dodgers, by signing Robinson, heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
Lived: Jan 31, 1919 – Oct 24, 1972 (age 53) Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Rachel Robinson (m. 1946 – 1972) Education: John Muir High School (1935 – 1936) · Pasadena City College (1937 – 1939) · University of California, Los Angeles (1939 – 1941) · Washington Middle School (1931 – 1935) Related movies: 42 Children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (Son) · David Robinson (Son) · Sharon Robinson (Daughter)
1945: In a famous three-hour exchange on August 28, 1945, Rickey asked Robinson if he could face the racial animus without taking the bait and reacting angrily—a concern given Robinson’s prior arguments with law enforcement officials at PJC and in the military.
1946: On February 10, 1946, Robinson and Isum were married by their old friend, the Rev. Karl Downs.
1947: Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947.
1947: Larry Doby (who broke the color barrier in the American League on July 5, 1947, just 11 weeks after Robinson) and Satchel Paige played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers had three other black players besides Robinson.
1948: Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues.
1972: On October 24, 1972, nine days after his appearance at the World Series, Robinson died of a heart attack at his home on 95 Cascade Road in North Stamford, Connecticut; he was 53 years old.
(1870) Hiram Revels is first African American US SenatorAfter two days of heated debate on the floor of the US Senate, and with spectators packing the Senate galleries to see this groundbreaking event, a former Union Army chaplain, Mississippi’s Hiram Revels is sworn in as that state’s US senator.Hiram Rhodes Revels was a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, a Republican politician, and college administrator. Born free in North Carolina, he later lived and worked in Ohio, where he voted before the Civil War. He became the first African American to serve in the U.S. Congress when he was elected to the United States Senate to represent Mississippi in 1870 and 1871 during the Reconstruction era.
Lived: Sep 27, 1827 – Jan 16, 1901 (age 73) Education: Knox College (1856 – 1857) Children: Susan R. Cayton · UFN Revels Parents: Elijah Revels Previous offices: United States Senator MS (1870 – 1871) · United States Senator (1870 – 1871) Parties: Democratic Party · Republican Party
1866: He taught theology at Shaw College (now Rust College), a historically black college founded in 1866 in Holly Springs.
1869: In 1869 he was elected to represent Adams County in the Mississippi State Senate.
1870: On February 25, 1870, Revels, on a party-line vote of 48 to 8, with only Republicans voting in favor and only Democrats voting against, became the first African American to be seated in the United States Senate.
1871: Revels accepted in 1871, after his term as U.S. Senator expired, appointment as the first president of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Alcorn State University), a historically black college located in Claiborne County, Mississippi.
1882: After serving in the Senate, Revels was appointed as the first president of Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Alcorn State University), 1871-1873 and 1876 to 1882.
1901: Hiram Revels died on January 16, 1901, while attending a church conference in Aberdeen, Mississippi.
wiki/Hiram_Rhodes_Revels(1947) After 422 years, Prussia no longer existsEffectively dissolved at the end of World War II, Prussia is officially liquidated. Once a world-shaking kingdom holding vast tracts of land, Prussia’s power had declined as European monarchy lost favor, revolutions roiled, and two world wars had seen nations dissolve and reform in dizzying chaos.Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. With the end of the Nazi regime, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were …
Founded: 1525 Dissolved: 1947 Population: 41.92 million (1939) Capitals: Königsberg · Berlin Official language: German
wiki/Prussia(1964) Clay TKO’s Liston for heavyweight boxing title22-year-old Cassius Clay sets the boxing world reeling as he defeats his fierce opponent, reigning champ Sonny Liston. Clay will also win their rematch a year later under his new name, Muhammad Ali.The two fights between Muhammad Ali and Sonny Liston for boxing’s World Heavyweight Championship were among the most anticipated, watched and controversial fights in the sport’s history. Sports Illustrated magazine named their first meeting, the Liston–Clay fight, as the fourth greatest sports moment of the twentieth century.
Start date: Feb 25, 1964 End date: May 25, 1965
wiki/Muhammad_Ali_vs._Sonny_Liston(1986) Corazon Aquino assumes presidencyA series of popular demonstrations culminates with Corazon Aquino becoming the Philippines’ first female president, as the island nation’s former dictatorial leader, Ferdinand Marcos, is helicoptered off a Manila rooftop and into exile.The People Power Revolution was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that began in 1983 and culminated on February 22–25, 1986. There was a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.
(1912) The Last Emperor of China abdicates his throneEnding a system of imperial rule that began in 221 BCE, Emperor Puyi of the Qing Dynasty, just six years old, steps down following the Xinhai Revolution. He will later be named emperor of the puppet state of Manchukuo by the Empire of Japan, but in 1949, Puyi will be jailed as a war criminal.Puyi, of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, commonly known as Henry Pu Yi, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty. When a child, he ruled as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 until his forced abdication on 12 February 1912, after the successful Xinhai Revolution. From 1 to 12 July 1917, he was briefly restored to the throne as emperor by the warlord Zhang Xun. In 1932, after the occupation of Manchuria the state of Manchukuo was established by Japan, and he was chosen to become ‘Chief Executive’ of the new state using the era-name of Datong. In 1934, he was declared the Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo and ruled until the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. After the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, Puyi was imprisoned as a war criminal for 10 years, wrote his memoirs and became a titular member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the National People’s Congress.
Lived: Feb 07, 1906 – Oct 17, 1967 (age 61) Spouse: Li Shuxian (m. 1962 – 1967) · Li Yuqin (m. 1943 – 1957) · Empress Wanrong (m. 1922 – 1946) · Tan Yuling (m. 1937 – 1942) · Wenxiu (m. 1922 – 1931) Movies: The Last Emperor Children: Ohthere · Ottar Egilsson, King of Sweden · Ingibjørg Angantyrsdatter of Sweden · Fusto Egilsson Parents: Zaifeng, Prince Chun (Father) · Youlan (Mother) Siblings: Pujie (Brother) · Jin Youzhi (Brother) · Jin Yunying (Sister) · Puqi (Brother) · Pu Yunyu (Sister) · Jin Zhijian (Sister) · Jin Yunxian (Sister) · Yunhe (Sister) · Jin Ruijie (Sister) · Yunying (Sister)
1911: Puyi’s father, Prince Chun, served as a regent until 6 December 1911 when Empress Dowager Longyu took over following the Xinhai Revolution.
1922: Wanrong (1906–1946), married Puyi in 1922, was his Empress.
1922: Wenxiu (1909–1953), married Puyi in 1922, was his Consort Shu (淑妃).
1931: Puyi and Wenxiu divorced in 1931.
1934: In 1934, he was crowned the emperor of Manchukuo under the reign title Kangde (Wade-Giles: Kang-te; 康德).
1967: He died in Beijing of complications arising from kidney cancer and heart disease on 17 October 1967 at the age of 61.
wiki/Puyi(1947) Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’ rocks the fashion worldFrench fashion designer Christian Dior unveils a fresh take on post-war women’s attire, and his waist-nipping, hip-enhancing suits and dresses will bring feminine silhouettes back into vogue.Christian Dior SE, commonly known as Dior, is a French luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH – the world’s largest luxury group. Dior itself holds 42.36% shares of and 59.01% voting rights within LVMH. Founded in 1946 by the eponymous designer Christian Dior, today the company designs and retails ready-to-wear, leather goods, fashion accessories, footwear, jewelry, timepieces, fragrance, make-up, and skincare products while also maintaining its tradition as a creator of recognized haute-couture (under the Christian Dior Couture division). While the Christian Dior label remains largely for women’s offerings, the company also operates the Dior Homme division for men and the baby Dior label for children’s wear. Products are sold throughout its portfolio of retail stores worldwide, as well as through its online store. wiki/Christian_Dior_S.A.(1994) Munch’s ‘The Scream’ stolen from Norway museumNorway’s most valuable painting is brazenly snatched from the National Gallery after four thieves pull off a 50-second heist. Police will recover the painting three months later.The Scream is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch between 1893 and 1910. The German title Munch gave these works is Der Schrei der Natur. The works show a figure with an agonized expression against a landscape with a tumultuous orange sky. Arthur Lubow has described The Scream as “an icon of modern art, a Mona Lisa for our time.”
Date completed: 1893 Artist: Edvard Munch Period: Expressionism Location: Munch Museum · National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design Genre: Abstract art Media: Tempera · Pastel · Oil paint
wiki/The_Scream(2002) Slobodan Milošević goes on trial for Bosnian genocide Former president of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milošević, appears before a United Nations tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands, after being arrested for war crimes committed during the ethnic conflict known as the Yugoslav Wars. He will die in jail before a verdict is reached.Slobodan Milošević was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who was the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. He also led the Socialist Party of Serbia from its foundation in 1990. He rose to power as Serbian President after he and his supporters claimed the need to reform the 1974 Constitution of Yugoslavia due to both the marginalization of Serbia and its political incapacity to deter Albanian separatist unrest in the province of Kosovo.
Lived: Aug 20, 1941 – Mar 11, 2006 (age 64) Height: 6′ 1″ (1.86 m) Spouse: Mirjana Marković (m. 1965 – 2006) Previous offices: President of Yugoslavia (1997 – 2000) · President of Serbia and Montenegro (1997 – 2000) · President of Serbia (1991 – 1997) · President of Serbia (1989 – 1997) Children: Marko Milošević (Son) · Marija Milošević (Daughter) Speeches: Gazimestan speech
(1890) Nellie Bly finishes 72-day trans-global tripJournalist and adventurer Nellie Bly arrives in New Jersey after completing a journey inspired by the novel ‘Around The World In 80 Days.’ She has traveled mostly solo and circumnavigated the globe in record time.Around the World in Seventy-Two Days is a book by journalist Elizabeth Jane Cochrane, writing under her pseudonym, Nellie Bly. The chronicle details her 72-day trip around the world, which was inspired by the book, Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne. She carried out the journey for Joseph Pulitzer’s tabloid newspaper, the New York World.
Author: Nellie Bly First published: 1890 Genre: Non-fiction
wiki/Around_the_World_in_Seventy-Two_Days(1924) The first Winter Olympic Games open in FranceAlmost 300 athletes arrive in Chamonix, France to compete in 14 events covering six sports, including crowd-favorites ski jumping, bobsledding, and skiing. Norway will dominate the medal count.The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Originally called Semaine Internationale des Sports d’Hiver and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions were held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, and Haute-Savoie, France between January 25 and February 5, 1924. The Games were organized by the French Olympic Committee, and were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee as the I Olympic Winter Games.
Number of athletes: 258 Number of countries: 16 Start date: Jan 24, 1924 End date: Feb 05, 1924
wiki/1924_Winter_Olympics(1947) Patent filed for world’s first video gameThomas Goldsmith, Jr. files a patent for a Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device, an interactive missile simulator game to be played on a screen. Prototypes will be made and the patent awarded the following year, but no commercial models will be released.The cathode-ray tube amusement device is the earliest known interactive electronic game. The device simulates an artillery shell arcing towards targets on a cathode ray tube screen, which is controlled by the player by adjusting knobs to change the trajectory of a CRT beam spot on the display in order to reach plastic targets overlaid on the screen. Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. and Estle Ray Mann constructed the game from analog electronics and filed for a patent in 1947, which was issued the following year. The gaming device was never manufactured or marketed to the public, so it had no effect on the future video game industry. Under most definitions, the device is not considered a video game, as while it had an electronic display it did not run on a computing device. Therefore, despite its relevance to the early history of video games, it is not generally considered a candidate for the title of first video game. wiki/Cathode-ray_tube_amusement_device(1949) First Emmy Awards ceremony heldThe Hollywood Athletic Club hosts the inaugural Emmy Awards, recognizing technical and artistic achievement in television. A children’s show ventriloquist wins the very first atom-raising statuette.The 1st Emmy Awards, retroactively known as the 1st Primetime Emmy Awards after the debut of the counterpart Daytime Emmy Awards, were presented at the Hollywood Athletic Club in Los Angeles, California on Tuesday, January 25, 1949. Only shows produced in Los Angeles County, California and aired in the Los Angeles media market were eligible to win. The awards were hosted by Walter O’Keefe who substituted for Rudy Vallée when he had to leave town at the last minute. A special award category was introduced and awarded to Louis McManus for designing the actual Emmy Award statuette.