(1946) United Nations meets for the first timeRepresentatives from 51 nations meet at Westminster Central Hall in London to convene the first General Assembly of the United Nations after the global devastation of World War II.The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world.
Website: www.un.org Founded: Oct 24, 1945 · Lake Success, NY Headquarters: New York, NY Founders: United States · Haiti · Argentina · Norway · Dominican Republic · Guatemala · El Salvador · Denmark · Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic · Panama · Cuba · Mexico · Netherlands · Poland · Nicaragua Subsidiaries: World Health Organization · Food and Agriculture Organization · International Monetary Fund · UNICEF · International Telecommunication Union · World Intellectual Property Organization · United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees · World Food Programme · United Nations University · International Maritime Organization · United Nations Environment Programme
Map of the current UN member states by their dates of admission. 1945 (original members) 1946–1959 1960–1989 1990–present non-member observer states wiki/United_Nations4.8.d17
(1946) US President Truman officially ends hostilities in World War IITruman signs the Presidential Proclamation 2714 to officially cease all hostilities in World War II, more than a year after combat ended in Europe and the Pacific. But the state of war against Germany and Japan will continue until 1951 so that Allies can keep troops in these countries.
Presidential Proclamation 2714 was signed by President Harry S. Truman on December 31, 1946, to officially declare the cessation of all hostilities in World War II. Even though the actual combat of the war ended May 8, 1945, in Europe and September 2, 1945, in the Pacific, the state of war was not lifted off of Japan and Germany in order to give a reason for the necessity of occupation troops in these countries. Once the War Crimes Trials were over, the hostilities were seen as over. The signing of Proclamation 2714 is the reason why the U.S. recognizes its World War II veterans as anyone who has served between the dates of December 7, 1941, and December 31, 1946.
The declarations of war against Japan and Germany in 1941 were officially lifted as follows:
September 8, 1951: Forty-nine nations sign the Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco, officially ending World War II and re-establishing Japanese sovereignty.
October 19, 1951: President Truman signs an act formally ending World War II, after having Congress abolish the state of war with Germany (Pub.L. 82–181).
(1946) Judgments at Nuremberg as Nazis are sentencedAfter a war that decimated Europe, and a holocaust that killed upwards of 11 million people, 24 convicted Nazi war criminals hear their sentences read out in a Nuremberg, Germany court following nearly a year of trials. Twelve will be executed, including Gestapo chief Hermann Goering.The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.
(68 CE) Emperor Nero commits suicide Rome’s Julio-Claudian dynasty comes to an abrupt end as Emperor Nero, 30, commits suicide. After noblemen revolt at Nero’s tax policies, and he mistakenly believes the Roman Senate is sending troops to kill him, he takes his own life with the assistance of his personal secretary.Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68 AD, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and like him, became emperor with the consent of the praetorian guard. Nero’s mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius’ death and Nero’s nomination as emperor. She dominated Nero’s early life and decisions until he cast her off; five years into his reign, he had her murdered.
Born: 37 AD · Anzio, Italy Died: 68 AD · Rome, Italy Spouse: Sporus (m. 67 AD – 68 AD) · Statilia Messalina (m. 66 AD – 68 AD) · Poppaea Sabina (m. 62 AD – 66 AD) · Claudia Octavia (m. 53 AD – 62 AD) Siblings: Domitia Lepida the Younger (Sister) Children: Claudia Augusta (Daughter) Parents: Agrippina the Younger (Mother) · Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (Father)
49 AD: In 49 AD, Claudius was married for a fourth time, to Nero’s mother Agrippina, despite her being his niece.
53 AD: Nero married Claudia Octavia in 53; their marriage lasted 9 years till January 01, 0001.
62 AD: Nero married Poppaea Sabina in 62; their marriage lasted 4 years till 66.
65 AD: She was already married when she became Nero’s mistress in 65 AD, with Statilia’s husband being driven to suicide in 66, so Nero could marry Statilia.
66 AD: Nero married Statilia Messalina in 66.
67 AD: Nero married Sporus in 67.
wiki/Nero(1946) An astonishingly long reign beginsAfter King Mahidol dies of gunshot wounds, his brother Bhumibol Adulyadej is the King of Siam, which will be renamed Thailand three years later. Bhumibol, a Massachusetts native, will reign for more than 60 years and amass great wealth, putting him on the list of world’s richest royals.Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Having reigned since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world’s longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history, serving for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha.
Lived: Dec 05, 1927 – Oct 13, 2016 (age 88) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.65 m) Spouse: Sirikit (m. 1950 – 2016) Children: Vajiralongkorn (Son) · Ubolratana Rajakanya Sirivadhana Phannavadi (Daughter) · Sirindhorn (Daughter) · Chulabhorn (Daughter) Education: University of Lausanne · Mater Dei School · École nouvelle de la Suisse romande Previous office: King of Thailand (1946 – 2016)
1946: Bhumibol ascended the throne following the death by gunshot wound of his brother, King Ananda Mahidol, on 9 June 1946, under circumstances that remain unclear.
1950: Bhumibol Adulyadej married Sirikit on April 28, 1950.
1950: After presiding over the long-delayed, ceremonial cremation of his brother Ananda Mahidol, Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on 5 May 1950 in the Baisal Daksin Throne Hall in the Grand Palace in Bangkok.
2006: Finally in February 2006 the Audit Commission reinstated Jaruvan when it became clear from a memo from the Office of the King’s Principal Private Secretary that King Bhumibol supported her appointment.
2009: On 20 April 2009, Thaksin claimed in an interview with the Financial Times that Bhumibol had been briefed by Privy Councillors Prem Tinsulanonda and Surayud Chulanont about their plans to stage the 2006 coup.
2016: After 2006, Bhumibol suffered declining health and spent extended periods at Siriraj Hospital, where he died on 13 October 2016.
wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej(1954) Has the red-scare ringleader ‘no sense of decency’? Wisconsin Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy’s relentless vendetta against supposed communist infiltration in the government and show biz enters a new stage of absurdity at hearings targeting the US Army. McCarthy’s groundless insinuations incite Joseph Welch, an Army lawyer, to utter his famous reproach.Joseph Nye Welch was the chief counsel for the United States Army while it was under investigation for Communist activities by Senator Joseph McCarthy’s Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, an investigation known as the Army–McCarthy hearings. His confrontation with McCarthy during the hearings, in which he famously asked McCarthy “At long last, have you left no sense of decency?” is seen as a turning point in the history of McCarthyism.
Lived: Oct 22, 1890 – Oct 06, 1960 (age 69) Spouse: Agnes Rodgers Brown (m. 1957 – 1960) · Judith Lyndon (m. 1917 – 1956) Education: Harvard Law School · Grinnell College Parents: William Welch (Father) · Martha Thyer (Mother) Children: Joe Welch (Son) · Lyndon Welch (Son) Nominations: Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture (1960) · BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles (1960)
wiki/Joseph_N._Welch(1973) ‘Big Red’ wins the first Triple Crown in 25 yearsA chestnut colt runs the Belmont Stakes in record time and this victory, together with previous wins at the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes, give Secretariat the first US Triple Crown in a quarter century. ESPN will later rank the thoroughbred the 35th best athlete of the 20th-century.Secretariat was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who, in 1973, became the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years. His record-breaking win in the Belmont Stakes, where he left the field 31 lengths behind him, is widely regarded as one of the greatest races of all time. During his racing career, he won five Eclipse Awards, including Horse of the Year honors at ages two and three. He was elected to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1974. In the List of the Top 100 U.S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, Secretariat is second only to Man o’ War, who also was a large chestnut colt given the nickname “Big Red”.
Lived: Mar 30, 1970 · Oct 04, 1989 Height: 5′ 6″ (1.68 m) Weight: 1,199 pound (544 kg) Parents: Bold Ruler · Somethingroyal Competition won: 1973 Belmont Stakes Children: Risen Star · Terlingua · Weekend Surprise · Lady’s Secret
(1770) American patriots gunned down in BostonBritish soldiers clash with American colonists who are protesting British occupation of their city. The patriots’ taunts and snowballs are met by the troop’s musket fire. Five colonists die and three are wounded. The incident will fuel animosity toward British authorities among the colonists.The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers shot and killed people while under attack by a mob. The incident was heavily propagandized by leading Patriots, such as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams, to fuel animosity toward the British authorities. British troops had been stationed in Boston, capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, since 1768 in order to protect and support crown-appointed colonial officials attempting to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation. Amid ongoing tense relations between the population and the soldiers, a mob formed around a British sentry, who was subjected to verbal abuse and harassment. He was eventually supported by eight additional soldiers, who were subjected to verbal threats and repeatedly hit by clubs, stones and snowballs. They fired into the crowd, without orders, instantly killing three people and wounding others. Two more people died later of wounds sustained in the incident.
Date: Mar 05, 1770
wiki/Boston_Massacre(1946) Winston Churchill’s speech warns West of ‘Iron Curtain’ In a speech delivered at Westminster College in Fulton, MO, the former British Prime Minister decries the Soviet Union’s growing militaristic dominance of Europe and raises the specter of an “iron curtain” descending across the continent. The phrase will immediately become shorthand for Cold War divisions.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. A term symbolizing the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. Separate international economic and military alliances were developed on each side of the Iron Curtain.
Member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact, with the Soviet Union as the leading state
Member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and with the United States as the pre-eminent power
Physically, the Iron Curtain took the form of border defenses between the countries of Europe in the middle of the continent. The most notable border was marked by the Berlin Wall and its Checkpoint Charlie, which served as a symbol of the Curtain as a whole.
The events that demolished the Iron Curtain started in discontent in Poland, and continued in Hungary, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. Romania became the only communist state in Europe to overthrow its totalitarian government with violence.
The use of the term iron curtain as a metaphor for strict separation goes back at least as far as the early 19th century. It originally referred to fireproof curtains in theaters. Although its popularity as a Cold War symbol is attributed to its use in a speech Winston Churchill gave in March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri, Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels had already used the term in reference to the Soviet Union.
Churchill delivers Iron Curtain speech
In one of the most famous orations of the Cold War period, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill condemns the Soviet Union’s policies in Europe and declares, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.” Churchill’s speech is considered one of the opening volleys announcing the beginning of the Cold War.
Churchill, who had been defeated for re-election as prime minister in 1945, was invited to Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri where he gave this speech. President Harry S. Truman joined Churchill on the platform and listened intently to his speech. Churchill began by praising the United States, which he declared stood “at the pinnacle of world power.” It soon became clear that a primary purpose of his talk was to argue for an even closer “special relationship” between the United States and Great Britain—the great powers of the “English-speaking world”—in organizing and policing the postwar world. In particular, he warned against the expansionistic policies of the Soviet Union. In addition to the “iron curtain” that had descended across Eastern Europe, Churchill spoke of “communist fifth columns” that were operating throughout western and southern Europe. Drawing parallels with the disastrous appeasement of Hitler prior to World War II, Churchill advised that in dealing with the Soviets there was “nothing which they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for military weakness.”
Truman and many other U.S. officials warmly received the speech. Already they had decided that the Soviet Union was bent on expansion and only a tough stance would deter the Russians. Churchill’s “iron curtain” phrase immediately entered the official vocabulary of the Cold War. U.S. officials were less enthusiastic about Churchill’s call for a “special relationship” between the United States and Great Britain. While they viewed the English as valuable allies in the Cold War, they were also well aware that Britain’s power was on the wane and had no intention of being used as pawns to help support the crumbling British empire. In the Soviet Union, Russian leader Joseph Stalin denounced the speech as “war mongering,” and referred to Churchill’s comments about the “English-speaking world” as imperialist “racism.” The British, Americans, and Russians-allies against Hitler less than a year before the speech—were drawing the battle lines of the Cold War.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Opened for signature in 1968, the treaty entered into force in 1970. As required by the text, after twenty-five years, NPT Parties met in May 1995 and agreed to extend the treaty indefinitely. More countries have adhered to the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the treaty’s significance. As of August 2016, 191 states have adhered to the treaty, though North Korea, which acceded in 1985 but never came into compliance, announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003, following detonation of nuclear devices in violation of core obligations. Four UN member states have never accepted the NPT, three of which are thought to possess nuclear weapons: India, Israel, and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined.
The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (these are also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council). Four other states are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan, and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel is deliberately ambiguous regarding its nuclear weapons status.
The NPT is often seen to be based on a central bargain:
the NPT non-nuclear-weapon states agree never to acquire nuclear weapons and the NPT nuclear-weapon states in exchange agree to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to pursue nuclear disarmament aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear arsenals.
The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences of the Parties to the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Even though the treaty was originally conceived with a limited duration of 25 years, the signing parties decided, by consensus, to unconditionally extend the treaty indefinitely during the Review Conference in New York City on 11 May 1995, culminating successful U.S. government efforts led by Ambassador Thomas Graham Jr.
At the time the NPT was proposed, there were predictions of 25–30 nuclear weapon states within 20 years. Instead, over forty years later, five states are not parties to the NPT, and they include the only four additional states believed to possess nuclear weapons. Several additional measures have been adopted to strengthen the NPT and the broader nuclear nonproliferation regime and make it difficult for states to acquire the capability to produce nuclear weapons, including the export controls of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the enhanced verification measures of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol.
Critics argue that the NPT cannot stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons or the motivation to acquire them. They express disappointment with the limited progress on nuclear disarmament, where the five authorized nuclear weapons states still have 22,000 warheads in their combined stockpile and have shown a reluctance to disarm further. Several high-ranking officials within the United Nations have said that they can do little to stop states using nuclear reactors to produce nuclear weapons.
wiki/Nuclear_Non-Proliferation_Treaty(1975) Homebrew Computer Club meets for the first timeAn amateur computer-users group gathers in Menlo Park, California, to exchange ideas about their hobby of building digital devices. The meeting will be seen as the Big Bang of the personal computing revolution, with members going on to found influential companies. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak designed the Apple I at the club.The Homebrew Computer Club was an early computer hobbyist group in Silicon Valley which met from March 5, 1975 to December 1986, and was depicted in the films Pirates of Silicon Valley and Jobs, as well as the PBS documentary series, Triumph of the Nerds.
Founded: 1975 Founders: Steve Wozniak · Steve Jobs · Lee Felsenstein · Fred Moore