(1775) American Revolutionary War beginsThirteen colonies enter the bloody struggle to break free from the crown, as British troops arrive in Lexington, Massachusetts, intent on seizing the patriots’ weapons and imprisoning its leaders. Shots are exchanged, eight Americans die, and the war for independence is on.The American Revolutionary War, also referred to as the American War of Independence and as the Revolutionary War in the United States, was an armed conflict between Great Britain and those thirteen of its North American colonies which after the onset of the war declared independence as the United States of America.
Start date: Apr 19, 1775 End date: Sep 03, 1783
wiki/American_Revolutionary_War(1897) First running of the Boston MarathonInspired by the revival of the Olympic Games the year before and the invention there of the marathon running race, the Boston Athletic Association puts on its own footrace. Fifteen runners take off from the starting line, and 10 finish the 24.5-mile hilly route in Boston’s first marathon.The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States. It is always held on Patriots’ Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, inspired by the success of the first marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics, the Boston Marathon is the world’s oldest annual marathon and ranks as one of the world’s best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors, and is one of five major events held in the United States through the years of both World Wars.
First occurred: Apr 19, 1897
wiki/Boston_Marathon(1943) Jewish resistance fighters battle in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Hundreds of thousands of Jews have been packed by Nazis inside the Warsaw Ghetto, a 1.3-square-mile sector in Poland’s capital. Thousands have already died of disease and starvation, but today many fight back when Germans attempt to ship off the ghetto’s survivors to concentration camps.The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany’s final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka. The uprising started on 19 April when the Ghetto refused to surrender to the police commander SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop, who then ordered the burning of the Ghetto, block by block, ending on 16 May. A total of 13,000 Jews died, about half of them burnt alive or suffocated. German casualties are not known, but were not more than 300. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II.
Start date: Apr 19, 1943 End date: May 16, 1943
wiki/Warsaw_Ghetto_Uprising(1995) Oklahoma City bombing destroys federal building, kills 168An enormous blast tears through the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, causing massive damage and casualties. One hundred sixty-eight will die, and upwards of 700 are injured after Timothy McVeigh detonates a homemade truck bomb.
The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Downtown, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995. Carried out by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, the bombing destroyed one-third of the building, killed 168 people, and injured more than 680 others. The blast destroyed or damaged 324 other buildings within a 16-block radius, shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings, and destroyed or burned 86 cars, causing an estimated $652 million worth of damage. Extensive rescue efforts were undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations. This was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil until the September 11 attacks six years later, and it still remains as the deadliest domestic terrorism incident in United States history.
Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma Highway Patrolman Charlie Hanger for driving without a license plate and arrested for illegal weapons possession. Forensic evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Nichols to the attack; Nichols was arrested, and within days, both were charged. Michael and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, who was a U.S. militia movement sympathizer and a veteran in the Gulf War, had detonated a Ryder rental truck full of explosives parked in front of the building. His co-conspirator, Nichols, had assisted in the bomb preparation. Motivated by his dislike for the U.S. federal government and angry about its handling of the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992 and the Waco Siege in 1993, McVeigh timed his attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that ended the siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.
The official investigation, known as “OKBOMB”, saw FBI agents conduct 28,000 interviews, amass 3.5 short tons (3.2 tonnes) of evidence, and collect nearly one billion pieces of information. The bombers were tried and convicted in 1997. McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison in 2004. Michael and Lori Fortier testified against McVeigh and Nichols; Michael was sentenced to 12 years in prison for failing to warn the United States government, and Lori received immunity from prosecution in exchange for her testimony.
As a result of the bombing, the U.S. Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, which tightened the standards for habeas corpus in the United States, as well as legislation designed to increase the protection around federal buildings to deter future terrorist attacks. On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building, commemorating the victims of the bombing. Annual remembrance services are held at the same time of day as the explosion occurred.
(73 CE) Roman troops end siege of Jewish rebel stronghold MasadaHaving spent months building a giant ramp to reach Masada, a mountaintop fortress defended by just 967 Jewish rebels, a massive Roman force uses a battering ram to breach the walls. Inside, according to a Jewish chronicler of the events, the Romans find the rebels dead, having committed mass suicide.The siege of Masada was one of the final events in the First Jewish–Roman War, occurring from 73 to 74 CE on a large hilltop in current-day Israel. The siege was chronicled by Flavius Josephus, a Jewish rebel leader captured by the Romans, in whose service he became a historian. According to Josephus the long siege by the troops of the Roman Empire led to the mass suicide of the Sicarii rebels and resident Jewish families of the Masada fortress. Masada has become a controversial event in Jewish history, with some regarding it as a place of reverence, commemorating fallen ancestors and their heroic struggle against oppression, and others regarding it as a warning against extremism and the refusal to compromise.
(1746) The Battle of Culloden is Scottish Jacobites’ last standA pitched battle near Inverness between Scottish Highlanders and British Loyalists results in thousands of casualties for the Scots, and a victory for the Brits that will lead to a cracking down on the Scottish clan system and a depopulating of the Highlands.The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands.
Phone: 0844 493 2159 Date: Apr 16, 1746
wiki/Battle_of_Culloden(1943) Scientist Albert Hofmann takes history’s first LSD trip During research into compounds synthesized in part from a grain fungus, Swiss scientist Dr. Albert Hofmann accidentally touches and absorbs a small amount of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and experiences a 2-hour-long hallucinogenic journey.Albert Hofmann was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide. Hofmann was also the first person to isolate, synthesize, and name the principal psychedelic mushroom compounds psilocybin and psilocin. He authored more than 100 scientific articles and numerous books, including LSD: Mein Sorgenkind. In 2007, he shared first place, alongside Tim Berners-Lee, in a list of the 100 greatest living geniuses, published by The Telegraph newspaper.
Born: Jan 11, 1906 · Baden, Switzerland Died: Apr 29, 2008 · Burg im Leimental, Switzerland Inventions: Lysergic acid diethylamide Education: University of Zurich Parents: Adolf Hofmann
1938: While researching lysergic acid derivatives, Hofmann first synthesized LSD on 16 November 1938.
1958: He first synthesized 4-AcO-DET in 1958 in the Sandoz lab.
1969: The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) honored him with the title D.Sc. (honoris causa) in 1969 together with Gustav Guanella, his brother-in-law.
1971: After retiring from Sandoz in 1971, Hofmann was allowed to take his papers and research home.
1971: In 1971 the Swedish Pharmaceutical Association (Sveriges Farmacevtförbund) granted him the Scheele Award, which commemorates the skills and achievements of the Swedish Pomeranian chemist and pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
2008: Hofmann died of a heart attack on 29 April 2008, surrounded by several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
wiki/Albert_Hofmann(1947) A freighter’s payload explodes and wipes out Texas CityAmmonium nitrate fertilizer catches fire on a vessel in Galveston Bay and explodes, flattening much of the town of Texas City, Texas. The disaster will kill nearly 600 and wound over 3,000, becoming the worst industrial accident in US history.The Texas City disaster was an industrial accident that occurred April 16, 1947, in the Port of Texas City. It was the deadliest industrial accident in U.S. history, and one of the largest non-nuclear explosions. Originating with a mid-morning fire on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp, her cargo of approximately 2,200 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated, with the initial blast and subsequent chain-reaction of further fires and explosions in other ships and nearby oil-storage facilities. It killed at least 581 people, including all but one member of the Texas City fire department. The disaster triggered the first ever class action lawsuit against the United States government, under the then-recently enacted Federal Tort Claims Act, on behalf of 8,485 victims.
(1742) Handel’s oratorio masterpiece, ‘Messiah,’ premieresAn audience of 700 gather in Dublin’s Great Music Hall for a charity concert featuring composer George Frideric Handel’s new choral work, ‘Messiah.’ An immediate sensation in Ireland, its London debut will get a cooler reception.Messiah is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742 and received its London premiere nearly a year later. After an initially modest public reception, the oratorio gained in popularity, eventually becoming one of the best-known and most frequently performed choral works in Western music.
Completed: 1741 Composer: George Frideric Handel
wiki/Messiah_(Handel)(1943) Thomas Jefferson receives a 200th birthday giftPresident Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates a memorial on the Tidal Basin of the Potomac River on Thomas Jefferson’s birthday. Because of wartime metal shortages, the bronze statue of America’s third president won’t be added until 1947.The Jefferson Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D.C., dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, one of the most important of the American Founding Fathers as the main drafter and writer of the Declaration of Independence, member of the Continental Congress, governor of the newly independent Commonwealth of Virginia, American minister to King Louis XVI and the Kingdom of France, first U.S. Secretary of State under the first President George Washington, the second Vice President of the United States under second President John Adams, and also the third President, as well as being the founder of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, Virginia.
Website:www.nps.gov/thje Address: 900 Ohio Dr SW, Washington, DC 20024 Phone: (202) 426-6841 Established: Oct 15, 1966 Annual visitors: 3.10 million (2015) Architects: John Russell Pope · Eggers & Higgins · Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.
wiki/Jefferson_Memorial(1964) Sidney Poitier makes Oscar historyIn a year packed with landmark civil rights activism, another barrier is broken at the 36th Academy Awards as Sidney Poitier becomes the first African American to receive the Oscar for Best Actor, for his role in ‘Lillies of the Field.’Sir Sidney Poitier, KBE, is a Bahamian-American actor, film director, author and diplomat. In 1964, Poitier became the first Bahamian and first African-American to win an Academy Award for Best Actor, for his role in Lilies of the Field. The significance of these achievements was bolstered in 1967, when he starred in three successful films, all of which dealt with issues involving race and race relations: To Sir, with Love; In the Heat of the Night; and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner, making him the top box-office star of that year. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Poitier among the Greatest Male Stars of classic Hollywood cinema, ranking 22nd on the list of 25.
Born: Feb 20, 1927 (age 90) · Miami, FL Height: 6′ 2″ (1.89 m) Net worth: $25 million USD (2017) Spouse: Joanna Shimkus (m. 1976) · Juanita Hardy (m. 1950 – 1965) Awards: Academy Award for Best Actor (1964) · Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award (1982) · Academy Honorary Award (2002) · Kennedy Center Honors (1995) · AFI Life Achievement Award (1992) · Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album Children: Sydney Tamiia Poitier (Daughter) · Anika Poitier (Daughter) · Pamela Poitier (Daughter) · Sherri Poitier (Daughter) · Beverly Poitier-Henderson (Daughter) · Gina Poitier (Daughter)
wiki/Sidney_Poitier(1970) Apollo 13 faces catastrophe 200,000 miles from EarthTwo days after launching from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a warning light, a loud bang, and the message “Houston, we’ve had a problem here,” puts an end to Apollo 13’s mission to the moon. An exploded oxygen tank on the spacecraft makes returning to Earth alive the new goal.Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 13:13 CST from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module upon which the Command Module had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17.
Mission start: Apr 11, 1970 Mission end: Apr 17, 1970 Astronauts: Jim Lovell · Jack Swigert · Fred Haise Space program: Apollo program
(1872) The Metropolitan Museum of Art opens in New York CityFounded two years previously, the Metropolitan officially unveils to the public its total collection: a Roman sarcophagus and 174 paintings. The museum will go on to become the largest in the United States, acquiring a staggering collection of more than 2 million works.The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially “the Met”, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Manhattan’s Museum Mile, is by area one of the world’s largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side; it extends the museum’s modern and contemporary art program.
Website:www.metmuseum.org/visit/met-fifth-avenue Address: 1000 Fifth Avenue At 81st St, New York, NY 10028 Customer service: +1 8006623397 Hours: See opening and closing times on official site listed above Established: Feb 20, 1872 Points of interest: Anna Wintour Costume Center Director: Thomas P. Campbell
wiki/Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art(1943) The first of Rockwell’s ‘Four Freedoms’ is publishedInspired by President Franklin Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union speech, artist Norman Rockwell creates four iconic scenes of mid-20th-century American values. All will appear in The Saturday Evening Post.The Four Freedoms is a series of four 1943 oil paintings by the American artist Norman Rockwell. The paintings—Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear—are each approximately 45.75 inches × 35.5 inches, and are now in the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. The four freedoms refer to President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s January 1941 Four Freedoms State of the Union address in which he identified essential human rights that should be universally protected. The theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and became part of the charter of the United Nations. The paintings were reproduced in The Saturday Evening Post over four consecutive weeks in 1943, alongside essays by prominent thinkers of the day. They became the highlight of a touring exhibition sponsored by The Post and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The exhibition and accompanying sales drives of war bonds raised over $132 million.
Date started: 1943 Artist: Norman Rockwell Artworks in series: Freedom from Want · Freedom of Speech · Freedom from Fear · Freedom of Worship
wiki/Four_Freedoms_(Norman_Rockwell)(1962) First American orbits the earthThe Friendship 7 spacecraft and its pilot, Major John Glenn, make three orbits around the Earth and travel 65,763 nautical miles in just under five hours. Glenn’s flight, called the Mercury-Atlas 6, comes just months after Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin’s successful orbit of Earth on April 12, 1961.Mercury-Atlas 6 was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury. Conducted by NASA on February 20, 1962, the mission was piloted by astronaut John Glenn, who performed three orbits of the Earth, making him the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth.
Mission start: Feb 20, 1962 Mission end: Feb 20, 1962 Astronaut: John Glenn Space program: Project Mercury
wiki/Mercury-Atlas_6(1985) Ireland legalizes sale of birth controlDefying the Catholic Church’s wishes on a social issue for the first time, Ireland’s government legislators reverse the ban on importation or sale of contraceptives.Contraception was illegal in Ireland from 1935 until 1980, when it was legalised with strong restrictions, later loosened. The ban reflected Catholic teachings on sexual morality. wiki/Contraception_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland3.3.f17
(1930) Pluto is first spottedClyde Tombaugh, a 23-year-old astronomer at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, finds ‘Planet X’ with the help of a blink microscope. The immensely far-off object will be called Pluto, but will be stripped of its planetary status in 2006 and reclassified as merely a “dwarf planet.”Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune. It was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 and was originally considered to be the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its planethood was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, which is 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered. This led the International Astronomical Union to define the term “planet” formally. That definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a dwarf planet.
Radius: 736 miles (1,185 km) Surface area: 6.43 million sq miles (16.65 million km²) Orbital order: 9 Orbital period: 247.84 years Gravity: 2.16 feet/s² (0.66 m/s²) Star system: Solar System
wiki/Pluto(1943) White Rose resistance members arrested by Nazi GestapoSix members of a non-violent student group from the University of Munich are arrested for their campaign of writing and distributing leaflets critical of Hitler’s regime. They will be found guilty of treason and beheaded.The White Rose was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign which called for active opposition against the Nazi regime. Their activities started in Munich on June 27th, 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on February 18th, 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced unjust trials by the Nazi People’s Court, and many were sentenced to death or imprisonment.
Founders: Sophie Scholl · Hans Scholl
wiki/White_Rose(1954) The first Church of Scientology opens Following the 1950 publication of his book ‘Dianetics,’ L. Ron Hubbard and his followers establish the Church of Scientology in Los Angeles, the first in what will become more than 5,000 Scientology churches worldwide.The Church of Scientology is a multinational network and hierarchy of numerous ostensibly independent but interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, a new religious movement. The Church of Scientology International is officially the Church of Scientology’s parent organization, and is responsible for guiding local Scientology churches. At a local level, every church is a separate corporate entity set up as a licensed franchise and has its own board of directors and executives. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by L. Ron Hubbard. Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California. The location at Gilman Hotsprings is kept secret from most Scientologists. Scientology Missions International is under CSI and overseers Scientology missions, which are local Scientology organizations smaller than churches.
Founded: 1954 Headquarters: Gilman Hot Springs, California, CA Founder: L. Ron Hubbard
wiki/Church_of_Scientology(1978) The Ironman Triathlon holds its first competitionOahu, Hawaii, hosts a grueling triad of events, described on the competition’s rules sheet as “Swim 2.4 miles! Bike 112 miles! Run 26.2 miles! Brag for the rest of your life!” The race sees 15 men start and 12 finish. Navy specialist Gordon Haller wins the first Ironman title.
An Ironman Triathlon is one of a series of long-distance triathlon races organized by the World Triathlon Corporation (WTC), consisting of a 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim, a 112-mile (180.25 km) bicycle ride and a marathon 26.22-mile (42.20 km) run, raced in that order and without a break. It is widely considered one of the most difficult one-day sporting events in the world.
Most Ironman events have a strict time limit of 17 hours to complete the race. The race typically starts at 7:00 a.m.; the mandatory swim cut off for the 2.4-mile (3.86 km) swim is 9:20 a.m. (2 hours 20 minutes), the mandatory bike cut off time is 5:30 p.m. (8 hours 10 minutes), and the mandatory marathon cut off is midnight (6 hours 30 minutes). Any participant who manages to complete the triathlon within these timings is designated an Ironman.
The name “Ironman Triathlon” is also associated with the original Ironman triathlon which is now the Ironman World Championship. Held in Kailua-Kona, the world championship has been held annually in Hawaii since 1978 (with an additional race in 1982) and is preceded by a series of qualifying Ironman events. The Ironman World Championship has become known for its grueling length, harsh race conditions, and Emmy Award-winning television coverage.
Other races exist that are of the same distance as an Ironman triathlon but are not produced, owned, or licensed by the World Triathlon Corporation. Such races include The Challenge Family series’ Challenge Roth or the Norseman Triathlon.