(1755) Dr. Johnson’s dictionary is publishedNine years of solitary scholarly effort are about to change the world as Samuel Johnson’s ‘A Dictionary of the English Language’ is published in London. It will stand as the definitive dictionary for 173 years.Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson’s Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
Author: Samuel Johnson First published: Apr 15, 1755 Original language: English
(1927) America’s worst river flood beginsSwollen by the previous year’s torrential rains, the Mississippi River begins flowing over levees as more record-breaking showers fall. The ensuing flood will wash into 10 states, eventually covering 14 percent of Arkansas.The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in the history of the United States, with 27,000 square miles inundated up to a depth of 30 feet. To try to prevent future floods, the federal government built the world’s longest system of levees and floodways. wiki/Great_Mississippi_Flood_of_1927(1942) Malta is awarded the George Cross for bravery Britain’s King George VI awards an entire island’s populace a medal for heroism. Malta, an island in the southern Mediterranean, and part of the British Empire, has been relentlessly bombarded by WWII Axis powers.The George Cross is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry “not in the face of the enemy” to members of the British armed forces and to British civilians. It has always been able to be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians including police, emergency services and merchant seamen although no British civilian has received the award since 1976. Many of the awards have been personally presented by the British monarch to both recipients and in the case of posthumous awards to next of kin. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. wiki/George_Cross(1947) Jackie Robinson integrates baseballMore than 26,000 spectators, at least 14,000 of them African Americans, crowd into New York’s Ebbet Field as Jack Roosevelt Robinson, the first African American to play baseball for a Major League team, starts as the Brooklyn Dodgers’ first baseman against the Boston Braves. Robinson will endure racist resistance throughout his first season in the majors, but the national pastime’s color barrier will be forever broken.Jack Roosevelt “Jackie” Robinson was an American professional baseball second baseman who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. The Dodgers, by signing Robinson, heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
Lived: Jan 31, 1919 – Oct 24, 1972 (age 53) Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Rachel Robinson (m. 1946 – 1972) Education: John Muir High School (1935 – 1936) · Pasadena City College (1937 – 1939) · University of California, Los Angeles (1939 – 1941) · Washington Middle School (1931 – 1935) Related movies: 42 Children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (Son) · David Robinson (Son) · Sharon Robinson (Daughter)
1945: In a famous three-hour exchange on August 28, 1945, Rickey asked Robinson if he could face the racial animus without taking the bait and reacting angrily—a concern given Robinson’s prior arguments with law enforcement officials at PJC and in the military.
1946: On February 10, 1946, Robinson and Isum were married by their old friend, the Rev. Karl Downs.
1947: Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947.
1947: Larry Doby (who broke the color barrier in the American League on July 5, 1947, just 11 weeks after Robinson) and Satchel Paige played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers had three other black players besides Robinson.
1948: Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues.
1972: On October 24, 1972, nine days after his appearance at the World Series, Robinson died of a heart attack at his home on 95 Cascade Road in North Stamford, Connecticut; he was 53 years old.
(1413) Henry V assumes the throne of EnglandWith the death of his father, the 26-year-old Henry V assumes England’s throne. Later crowned on April 9, 1413, he will go on to lead a stirring victory at Agincourt, almost conquer France, and be immortalized more than a century later by Shakespeare.Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. After military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, and against the powerful aristocratic Percys of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Henry came into political conflict with his father, whose health was increasingly precarious from 1405 onward. After his father’s death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years’ War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne, and he was subsequently married to Charles’s daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following Henry V’s sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI.
Lived: Aug 09, 1386 – Aug 31, 1422 (age 36) Spouse: Catherine of Valois (m. 1420) Children: Henry VI of England (Son) Parents: Mary de Bohun (Mother) · Henry IV of England (Father) Buried: Westminster Abbey Siblings: John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford (Brother) · Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (Brother) · Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence (Brother)
1399: He was created Prince of Wales at his father’s coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year.
1410: From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had practical control of the government.
1415: The exception was the Southampton Plot in favour of Mortimer, involving Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham and Richard, Earl of Cambridge (grandfather of the future King Edward IV of England), in July 1415.
1416: While Henry was occupied with peace negotiations in 1416, a French and Genoese fleet surrounded the harbour at the English-garrisoned Harfleur.
1417: With those two potential enemies gone, and after two years of patient preparation following the Battle of Agincourt, Henry renewed the war on a larger scale in 1417.
1420: In 1420 Henry V married Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and younger sister of the widow of Richard II, Isabella of Valois (who died several years after her husband).
wiki/Henry_V_of_England(1616) Sir Walter Raleigh released from Tower of LondonExplorer of exotic lands, Queen Elizabeth’s confidant, and the Tower of London’s prisoner for the last 13 years, Sir Walter Raleigh is today freed. Ill fortune finds him again two years later and he will be executed.Sir Walter Raleigh was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England.
Lived: Jan 22, 1552 – Oct 29, 1618 (age 66) Spouse: Elizabeth Raleigh (m. 1591 – 1618) Related movies: Elizabeth: The Golden Age Siblings: Humphrey Gilbert (Brother) · Carew Raleigh (Brother) · Adrian Gilbert (Brother) · John Gilbert (Brother) Education: Oriel College, Oxford · University of Oxford Buried: St Margaret’s, Westminster
1587: In 1587, Raleigh attempted a second expedition, again establishing a settlement on Roanoke Island.
1591: In 1591, Raleigh was secretly married to Elizabeth “Bess” Throckmorton (or Throgmorton).
1592: She gave birth to a son, believed to be named Damerei, who was given to a wet nurse at Durham House, but he died in October 1592 of plague.
1595: Raleigh himself never visited North America, although he led expeditions in 1595 and 1617 to the Orinoco River basin in South America in search of the golden city of El Dorado.
1616: In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado.
1617: In 1617, Raleigh was pardoned by the King and granted permission to conduct a second expedition to Venezuela in search of El Dorado.
wiki/Walter_Raleigh(1942) General MacArthur promises, “I shall return”Having retreated from the war-torn, Japanese-dominated Philippines to the relative safety of Australia, General Douglas MacArthur makes a speech, vowing “I shall return.” He will do just that two years later, to lead the Philippines Campaign of 1944 and ’45.Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur, Jr., the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.
Lived: Jan 26, 1880 – Apr 05, 1964 (age 84) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Jean MacArthur (m. 1937 – 1964) · Louise Cromwell Brooks (m. 1922 – 1929) Education: United States Military Academy · TMI — The Episcopal School of Texas Movies and TV shows: Truman · A Nation Is Born · 18 Million Orphans Children: Arthur MacArthur IV (Son)
1922: Douglas MacArthur married Louise Cromwell Brooks on February 14, 1922; their marriage lasted 7 years till 1929.
1941: On 26 July 1941, Roosevelt federalized the Philippine Army, recalled MacArthur to active duty in the U.S. Army as a major general, and named him commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE).
1942: In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area.
1942: On 18 April 1942, MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA).
1943: Lieutenant General Walter Krueger’s Sixth Army headquarters arrived in SWPA in early 1943 but MacArthur had only three American divisions, and they were tired and depleted from the fighting at Battle of Buna–Gona and Battle of Guadalcanal.
1964: Douglas MacArthur died at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on 5 April 1964, of biliary cirrhosis.
wiki/Douglas_MacArthur(2003) The Iraq War beginsCoalition forces from the US, UK, Australia, and Poland begin moving from the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border into Basra Province, and the invasion of Iraq is underway. The ensuing conflict will come to be known as the Iraq War. The US will officially withdraw from Iraq in 2011, only to be drawn back in three years later to lead a coalition charged with battling a persistent insurgency and tempering ongoing civil conflict.The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict. It became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue.
(1868) First US presidential impeachment trial opensPresident Andrew Johnson’s lax attitude towards Reconstruction has raised the ire of Republicans who feel he should be tougher on the South. The trial in the Senate considers whether Johnson has violated the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson will avoid being thrown out of office by a single vote.
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson occurred in 1868, when the United States House of Representatives resolved to impeach President Andrew Johnson, adopting eleven articles of impeachment detailing his “high crimes and misdemeanors”, in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution. The House’s primary charge against Johnson was with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress the previous year. Specifically, he had removed Edwin McMasters Stanton, the Secretary of War (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect), from office and attempted to replace him with Brevet Major General Lorenzo Thomas. Contrary to popular belief, Johnson was not impeached for temporarily replacing Stanton with General Ulysses Grant earlier while Congress was not in session.
The House formally agreed to the articles of impeachment on March 2, 1868, and forwarded them to the Senate. The trial in the Senate began three days later, with Chief Justice of the United States Salmon P. Chase presiding. The first vote on one of the eleven impeachment articles concluded on May 16 with a failure to convict Johnson. A ten-day recess was called before attempting to convict him on additional articles, but that effort failed on May 26. The 35-to-19 votes on the three articles actually voted on were all one short of the required two-thirds needed for conviction.
This was the first impeachment of an incumbent President since creation of the office in 1789. The culmination of a lengthy political battle between Johnson and the Republican majority in Congress over how best to deal with the defeated Southern states following the conclusion of the American Civil War, the impeachment and the subsequent trial were among the most dramatic events in the political life of the nation during the Reconstruction Era. Together, they have gained a historical reputation as an act of political expedience, rather than necessity, based on Johnson’s defiance of an unconstitutional piece of legislation, and with little regard for the will of a general public which, despite the unpopularity of Johnson, opposed the impeachment. There would not be another serious attempt to impeach a President for 106 years when, during the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon resigned from office, rather than face impeachment and trial. The only other impeachment trial of a President would occur 131 years later with the impeachment of Bill Clinton.
wiki/Impeachment_of_Andrew_Johnson(1942) US Army K-9 Corps let slip the dogs of warGerman shepherds, doberman pinschers, and Siberian huskies are three of the many breeds that begin training with the Quartermaster Corps. These courageous canines will serve with distinction in World War II.Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient times. From war dogs trained in combat to their use as scouts, sentries and trackers, their uses have been varied and some continue to exist in modern military usage. wiki/Dogs_in_warfare(1964) Kitty Genovese is murdered in New York CityBar manager Kitty Genovese is stabbed to death outside her apartment in Queens, and later reports will question whether neighbors heard and did nothing to help. The controversy will spur research into the ‘bystander effect.’Catherine Susan “Kitty” Genovese was an American woman who was stabbed to death outside her apartment building in Kew Gardens, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens, on March 13, 1964. wiki/Murder_of_Kitty_Genovese(1996) Dunblane Primary School shootingTragedy strikes the small village of Dunblane, Scotland, when a lone gunman enters the primary school’s gym and begins shooting. Sixteen young students are killed along with their teacher and 13 are injured.The Dunblane school massacre was the deadliest mass shooting in the UK’s history, when gunman Thomas Hamilton killed 16 children and one teacher at Dunblane Primary School near Stirling, Scotland, on 13 March 1996, before killing himself.
(1847) The Donner Party is rescuedSurviving members of the ill-fated Donner Party, a group of pioneers snowbound in a Sierra Nevada mountain pass for almost four months, are finally located by a rescue party. Harrowing tales follow, including accounts of cannibalism.
The Donner Party was a group of American pioneers led by George Donner and James F. Reed who set out for California in a wagon train in May 1846. They were delayed by a series of mishaps and mistakes, and spent the winter of 1846–47 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada. Some of the pioneers resorted to cannibalism to survive.
The journey west usually took between four and six months, but the Donner Party was slowed by following a new route called Hastings Cutoff, which crossed Utah’s Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake Desert. The rugged terrain and difficulties encountered while traveling along the Humboldt River in present-day Nevada resulted in the loss of many cattle and wagons and splits within the group.
By the beginning of November 1846, the settlers had reached the Sierra Nevada where they became trapped by an early, heavy snowfall near Truckee (now Donner) Lake, high in the mountains. Their food supplies ran extremely low and, in mid-December, some of the group set out on foot to obtain help. Rescuers from California attempted to reach the settlers, but the first relief party did not arrive until the middle of February 1847, almost four months after the wagon train became trapped. Of the 87 members of the party, 48 survived to reach California, many of them having eaten the dead for survival.
Historians have described the episode as one of the most bizarre and spectacular tragedies in Californian history and western-US migration.
wiki/Donner_Party(1942) FDR orders internment of Japanese AmericansResponding to paranoia after the Pearl Harbor attack, President Roosevelt signs an order that will lead to some 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, including American citizens, to be forced into internment camps. The US will offer financial redress and official apologies in the 1980s and ’90s.The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in camps in the interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry who lived on the Pacific coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. These actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.
Date: Feb 19, 1942
wiki/Internment_of_Japanese_Americans(1945) 30,000 US Marines land on Iwo JimaThree Marine divisions make an amphibious landing on the beaches of a desolate, volcanic island 650 miles south of Tokyo. The ensuing battle with entrenched Japanese forces will be one of WWII’s bloodiest.The Battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle in which the United States Marine Corps landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. The American invasion, designated Operation Detachment, had the goal of capturing the entire island, including the three Japanese-controlled airfields, to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands. This five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II.
Start date: Feb 19, 1945 End date: Mar 26, 1945
wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima(1963) Betty Friedan’s ‘The Feminine Mystique’ publishedFollowing a survey of her fellow Smith College alumni on the state of their lives, Betty Friedan releases her groundbreaking work on gender inequality. It will help launch what’s considered the second wave of feminism in the United States.The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States. In 1957, Friedan was asked to conduct a survey of her former Smith College classmates for their 15th anniversary reunion; the results, in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives, prompted her to begin research for The Feminine Mystique, conducting interviews with other suburban housewives, as well as researching psychology, media, and advertising. She originally intended to publish an article on the topic, not a book, but no magazine would publish her article.
Author: Betty Friedan First published: 1963 Genres: Sociology · Non-fiction
(1265) Nobles and commoners hold England’s first parliamentBurgesses, or town representatives, sit for the first time among England’s barons and knights at the Palace of Westminster. The locale will later be known as the Houses of Parliament in London.The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, it is also known as the ‘heart of British politics’. The Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London.
Address: Houses Of Parliament, London SW1A 0AA Phone: 020 7219 4114 Opened: 1016 Architects: Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin · Charles Barry · Henry Yevele · Hugh Herland
wiki/Palace_of_Westminster(1841) Hong Kong Island signed over to BritainA South China deep-water harbor, and island of about 3,000 residents, is ceded to the United Kingdom after its victory in the First Opium War. China will regain sovereignty in 1997.British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule from 1841 to 1997. It was established as a Crown colony and later designated a British Dependent Territory in 1981. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Great Britain by the Qing dynasty of China after the First Anglo-Chinese War. The Kowloon Peninsula was added to the colony after the Second Anglo-Chinese War. Finally, in 1898, the New Territories were added under a 99-year lease. Although Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded to Britain in perpetuity, the New Territories – which comprised over 90 per cent of Hong Kong’s land – had such a vital role in the economy that the British government agreed to transfer sovereignty of the entirety of Hong Kong to China upon the expiration of the lease in 1997.
Founded: 1841 Dissolved: 1997 Population: 6.30 million (1995)
wiki/British_Hong_Kong(1942) Wannsee Conference outlines extermination of JewsTop Nazi officials meet near Berlin and plan the implementation of their “final solution to the Jewish question,” which calls for concentration camp imprisonment, forced labor, and mass extermination.The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and SS leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. The purpose of the conference, called by director of the Reich Main Security Office SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, was to ensure the cooperation of administrative leaders of various government departments in the implementation of the final solution to the Jewish question, whereby most of the Jews of German-occupied Europe would be deported to Poland and murdered. Conference attendees included representatives from several government ministries, including state secretaries from the Foreign Office, the justice, interior, and state ministries, and representatives from the Schutzstaffel. In the course of the meeting, Heydrich outlined how European Jews would be rounded up from west to east and sent to extermination camps in the General Government, where they would be killed.
Date: Jan 20, 1942
wiki/Wannsee_Conference(1981) Iran releases 52 American hostages held for 444 daysTwenty minutes after Ronald Reagan is inaugurated president of the US, taking over the office from Jimmy Carter, Iran frees 52 Americans held hostage for more than 14 months at the US Embassy in Teheran.The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981 after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. It stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history.