(1939) Adolf Hitler narrowly makes it out aliveOn the 16th anniversary of his failed coup attempt known as the Beer Hall Putsch, the Nazi leader is scheduled to speak when a bomb detonates in the hall. But Hitler, and others in the Nazi leadership, had left several minutes before the explosion.Johann Georg Elser was a German worker who planned and carried out an elaborate assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders on 8 November 1939 at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich. A time bomb that Elser constructed and placed near the speaking platform failed to kill Hitler, who left earlier than expected, but killed eight people and injured over sixty-two others. Elser was held as a prisoner for over five years until he was executed at the Dachau concentration camp.
wiki/Johann_Georg_Elser(1960) Americans elect youngest president everDemocratic Senator John F. Kennedy beats Republican Vice President Richard Nixon by a slim margin to become the youngest president ever as well as the first Catholic to hold the office. Many attribute Kennedy’s win to his smooth demeanor in televised debates.The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. The Republican Party nominated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, while the Democratic Party nominated John F. Kennedy, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts. The incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible for re-election after being elected the maximum two times allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment; he was the first President denied the choice to run for a third term by that amendment. This was the first presidential election in which residents in Alaska and Hawaii were able to participate, as both had become states in 1959.
Election year: Nov 08, 1960
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Kennedy (Democratic), shades of red are for Nixon (Republican), and shades of green are for Unpledged Electors (Democratic/States’ Rights).
(1939) History’s most destructive war dawns with a massive invasionIn WWII’s opening salvo, Hitler’s armed forces descend on Poland with blitzkrieg force and, getting assistance from the Soviet Union, will decimate the country’s archaic military, controlling the nation within a month. Per their Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the USSR will divide up the conquered territory.The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War, and in Germany as the Poland Campaign or Fall Weiss, was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement that terminated the Russian and Japanese hostilities in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.
Start date: Sep 01, 1939 End date: Oct 06, 1939 Planned and actual divisions of Poland, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, with later adjustments
(1536) Anne Boleyn is arrested and imprisoned Three years after King Henry VIII broke away from Rome’s Catholic dictates and annulled his first marriage to marry Anne Boleyn, he now has his eye on another potential bride. He has Queen Anne arrested on charges of adultery, witchcraft, and treason, and taken to the Tower of London.Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII, and Marquess of Pembroke in her own right. Henry’s marriage to her, and her subsequent execution by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation.
Lived: 1501 – May 19, 1536 Spouse: Henry VIII of England (m. 1533 – 1536) Children: Elizabeth I of England (Daughter) Buried: Church of St Peter ad Vincula Siblings: Mary Boleyn (Sister) · George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford (Brother) Parents: Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire (Father) · Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire (Mother)
1514: Anne stayed with Margaret from spring 1513 until her father arranged for her to attend Henry VIII’s sister Mary, who was about to marry Louis XII of France in October 1514.
1520: She married William Carey, a minor noble, in February 1520, at Greenwich, with Henry VIII in attendance; soon after, Mary Boleyn became the English King’s mistress.
1529: George Cavendish, Wolsey’s chamberlain, records that the servants who waited on the king and Anne at dinner in 1529 in Grafton heard her say that the dishonour that Wolsey had brought upon the realm would have cost any other Englishman his head.
1529: Convinced that Wolsey’s loyalties lay with the Pope, not England, Anne, as well as Wolsey’s many enemies, ensured his dismissal from public office in 1529.
1533: Anne Boleyn married Henry VIII of England on January 25, 1533; their marriage lasted 3 years till May 17, 1536.
1536: Author Mike Ashley speculated that Anne had two stillborn children after Elizabeth’s birth and before the male child she miscarried in 1536.
wiki/Anne_Boleyn(1939) Yankee’s ‘Iron Horse,’ Lou Gehrig, ends game streakFirst baseman Lou Gehrig benches himself following a record-smashing 2,130 consecutive games played with his baseball team, the New York Yankees. Gehrig will soon be diagnosed with a fatal case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or what will come to be known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.Henry Louis “Lou” or “Buster” Gehrig was an American baseball first baseman who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees, from 1923 through 1939. Gehrig was renowned for his prowess as a hitter and for his durability, a trait that earned him his nickname “The Iron Horse”. He was an All-Star seven consecutive times, a Triple Crown winner once, an American League Most Valuable Player twice, and a member of six World Series champion team. He had a career.340 batting average, .632 slugging average, and a.447 on base average. He hit 493 home runs and had 1,995 runs batted in. In 1939, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired by a team.
Lived: Jun 19, 1903 – Jun 02, 1941 (age 37) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Eleanor Gehrig (m. 1933 – 1941) Movies: Rawhide Buried: Kensico Cemetery Parents: Heinrich Gehrig (Father) · Christina Fack (Mother)
1923: A native of New York City and attendee of Columbia University, Gehrig signed with the Yankees in 1923.
1925: In 1925, he batted .295, with 20 home runs and 68 runs batted in (RBIs).
1926: The 23-year-old Yankee first baseman’s breakout season came in 1926, when he batted .313 with 47 doubles, an American League-leading 20 triples, 16 home runs, and 112 RBI.
1933: In September 1933, Gehrig married Eleanor Twitchell (1904 or 1905–1984), the daughter of Chicago Parks Commissioner Frank Twitchell.
1939: After six days of extensive testing at the Mayo Clinic, doctors confirmed the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on June 19, 1939, which was Gehrig’s 36th birthday.
1941: On June 2, 1941, at 10:10 p.m., Gehrig died at his home at 5204 Delafield Avenue in the Riverdale neighborhood of the Bronx, New York.
wiki/Lou_Gehrig(1945) The Fall of Berlin heralds the beginning of the end of WWII Soviet Red Army forces raise their flag over the former Nazi high command center, the Reichstag building, as the Battle of Berlin comes to an end. In the months to come, the German capital will be divided into Allied zones, with the USSR controlling East Berlin.The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II. Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici.
Start date: Apr 16, 1945 End date: May 02, 1945
wiki/Battle_of_Berlin(1952) The jet airliner takes its first commercial flightAfter years of testing and development, British airline BOAC welcomes passengers to the jet age as the De Havilland Comet 1 takes off from London for Johannesburg, South Africa. Although the route will make five stops, and take 21 hours and 20 minutes, it’s about 50 percent faster than conventional aircraft.The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world’s first commercial jetliner. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at its Hatfield Aerodrome, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, the Comet 1 prototype first flew on 27 July 1949. It featured an aerodynamically clean design with four de Havilland Ghost turbojet engines buried in the wings, a pressurised fuselage, and large square windows. For the era, it offered a relatively quiet, comfortable passenger cabin and showed signs of being a commercial success at its 1952 debut.
Passengers: 81 Maiden flight: Jul 27, 1949 Length: 112 feet (34.14 m) Wingspan: 115 feet (35.05 m) Introduced: Jan 22, 1952 Maximum speed: 500 mph (804.67 km/h)
(1902) Madame and Monsieur Curie isolate radioactive radiumThe married scientific research team of Marie and Pierre Curie chemically isolate one-tenth gram of pure radium chloride, an element not naturally occurring in isolation. Their work with radium and radioactivity will lead to the first Nobel Prize awarded to a woman.Marie Skłodowska Curie, born Maria Salomea Skłodowska, was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
Lived: Nov 07, 1867 – Jul 04, 1934 (age 66) Spouse: Pierre Curie (m. 1895 – 1906) Awards: Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911) · Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) · Elliott Cresson Medal (1909) · Davy Medal (1903) · Matteucci Medal (1904) · Benjamin Franklin Medal (1921) · John Scott Medal Discovered: Radium · Polonium Children: Irène Joliot-Curie (Daughter) · Ève Curie (Daughter)
1867: Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw, in the Russian partition of Poland, on 7 November 1867, the fifth and youngest child of well-known teachers Bronisława, née Boguska, and Władysław Skłodowski.
1891: In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work.
1895: Maria Sklodowska-Curie married Pierre Curie on July 26, 1895; their marriage lasted 11 years till April 19, 1906.
1898: She named the first chemical element that she discovered—polonium, which she isolated in 1898—after her native country.
1925: In 1925, she visited Poland, to participate in the ceremony that laid foundations for the Radium Institute in Warsaw.
1934: A few months later, on 4 July 1934, she died at the Sancellemoz sanatorium in Passy, Haute-Savoie, from aplastic anemia believed to have been contracted from her long-term exposure to radiation.
wiki/Marie_CuriePierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”.
Lived: May 15, 1859 – Apr 19, 1906 (age 46) Spouse: Maria Sklodowska-Curie (m. 1895 – 1906) Discovered: Radium · Polonium Awards: Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) · Davy Medal (1903) · Matteucci Medal (1904) Children: Ève Curie (Daughter) · Irène Joliot-Curie (Daughter)
1880: In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques (1856–1941) demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity.
1895: Pierre Curie married Maria Sklodowska-Curie on July 26, 1895.
1903: In 1903 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”.
1903: Pierre Curie was awarded Davy Medal in 1903.
1904: Radium written by Pierre Curie was first published in 1904.
1906: Pierre Curie died in a street accident in Paris on 19 April 1906.
wiki/Pierre_Curie(1939) Billie Holiday records landmark civil rights songOne of the first songs to explicitly call out the murderous brutality suffered by African Americans in the Jim Crow South, the painful and poetic ‘Strange Fruit’ is recorded by Billie Holiday. A relatively small jazz label, Commodore, records it after Holiday’s label, Columbia Records, refuses to.“Strange Fruit” is a song performed most famously by Billie Holiday, who first sang and recorded it in 1939. Written by teacher Abel Meeropol as a poem and published in 1937, it protested American racism, particularly the lynching of African Americans. Such lynchings had reached a peak in the South at the turn of the century, but continued there and in other regions of the United States. According to the Tuskegee Institute, 1,953 Americans were murdered by lynching, about three fourths of them black. The lyrics are an extended metaphor linking a tree’s fruit with lynching victims. Meeropol set it to music and, with his wife and the singer Laura Duncan, performed it as a protest song in New York City venues in the late 1930s, including Madison Square Garden.
Album: The Great American Songbook Artist: Billie Holiday Release year: 1939 Duration: 3:17 Genre: Pop music, Easy Listening
wiki/Strange_Fruit(1986) Michael Jordan scores 63 points in playoff gameThough the Boston Celtics win the game, 135-131 in double overtime, Jordan scores nearly half the points for the Chicago Bulls. It’s a performance for the ages from the second-year Bulls star and a sign of things to come for Air Jordan and the Bulls.Michael Jeffrey Jordan, also known by his initials, MJ, is an American retired professional basketball player, businessman, and principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets. Jordan played 15 seasons in the National Basketball Association for the Chicago Bulls and Washington Wizards. His biography on the NBA website states: “By acclamation, Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time.” Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation and was considered instrumental in popularizing the NBA around the world in the 1980s and 1990s.
Born: Feb 17, 1963 (age 54) · Brooklyn, NY Height: 6′ 6″ (1.98 m) Net worth: $1.20 billion USD (2017) Spouse: Yvette Prieto (m. 2013) · Juanita Jordan (m. 1989 – 2006) Children: Jeffrey Jordan (Son) · Marcus Jordan (Son) · Jasmine Mickael Jordan (Daughter) · Victoria Jordan (Daughter) · Ysabel Jordan (Daughter) Education: Emsley A Laney High · University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1981 – 1984)
1982: He made the game-winning jump shot in the 1982 NCAA Championship game against Georgetown, which was led by future NBA rival Patrick Ewing.
1988: In the 1988–89 season, Jordan again led the league in scoring, averaging 32.5 ppg on 53.8% shooting from the field, along with 8 rpg and 8 assists per game (apg).
1989: Jordan married Juanita Vanoy in September 1989, and they had two sons, Jeffrey Michael and Marcus James, and a daughter, Jasmine.
1992: In the 1992 Summer Olympics, he was a member of the star-studded squad that included Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, and David Robinson and was dubbed the “Dream Team”.
1999: With Phil Jackson’s contract expiring, the pending departures of Scottie Pippen and Dennis Rodman looming, and being in the latter stages of an owner-induced lockout of NBA players, Jordan retired for the second time on January 13, 1999.
2003: Playing in his 14th and final NBA All-Star Game in 2003, Jordan passed Kareem Abdul-Jabbar as the all-time leading scorer in All-Star Game history (a record since broken by Kobe Bryant).
wiki/Michael_Jordan(1999) Columbine High School shooting shocks a nationTwo students enter a Colorado high school armed with semi-automatic handguns, carbine rifles, and explosives, and begin a massacre that leaves 13 people dead and 21 wounded. The incident will be one of the deadliest modern-day mass shootings.The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County in the American state of Colorado. In addition to the shootings, the complex and highly planned attack involved a fire bomb to divert firefighters, propane tanks converted to bombs placed in the cafeteria, 99 explosive devices, and carbombs. The perpetrators, senior students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. They injured 21 additional people, and three more were injured while attempting to escape the school. The pair subsequently committed suicide.
(1698) April fools flock to the Tower of London Several gullible people are sent to the Tower of London to see the “washing of the lions” (a nonexistent practice), as will be reported April 2 by a London newspaper. The prank will endure for centuries, making clear that the tradition of tricking dupes on April 1 is becoming increasingly popular.April Fools’ Day is celebrated every year on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes. The jokes and their victims are called April fools. People playing April Fool jokes expose their prank by shouting April Fool. Some newspapers, magazines, and other published media report fake stories, which are usually explained the next day or below the news section in small letters. Although popular since the 19th century, the day is not a public holiday in any country. wiki/April_Fools’_Day(1918) Britain’s Royal Air Force is formedCombing the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service, the RAF is the world’s largest air force. Formed at the tail end of World War I, the force will find its greatest glory 22 years later during the Battle of Britain.The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom’s aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history, in particular, playing a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain.
Website: www.raf.mod.uk Founded: Apr 01, 1918 Founder: Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard Subsidiary: Royal Air Force Air Cadets
wiki/Royal_Air_Force(1919) Walter Gropius founds the Bauhaus schoolArchitect Walter Gropius opens the Bauhaus school in Weimar, Germany, to teach modernist art and design. Ideas that spring from the school will revolutionize the world’s aesthetic sense, from painting to textiles to architecture.Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught.
Founded: 1919 Ceased operation: 1933 Founder: Walter Gropius
wiki/Bauhaus(1939) Spanish Civil War endsAlmost three years after a coup against Spain’s elected leftist government sparked a bloody battle of ideologies, the country’s civil war is over and the right-leaning Nationalists, headed by General Francisco Franco, have won.The Spanish Civil War, widely known in Spain simply as The Civil War or The War, took place from 1936 to 1939 and was fought between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, left-leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, versus the Nationalists, a falangist, Carlist, and a largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco. Although the war is often portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism, some historians consider it more accurately described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution. Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975.