(1611) English explorer’s storied career ends in mutinyHenry Hudson’s last known voyage begins as he, his teenage son, and seven crewmen are ordered on board a small open boat in what will later be called Hudson Bay. After enduring a brutal winter, Captain Hudson’s crew has mutinied and set the famous English explorer adrift. He and his boat mates will never be seen again.Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. He sailed up the Hudson River, which was later named for him, and thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.
Born: 1565 · England Died: 1611 · Hudson Bay Spouse: Katherine Hudson Children: John Hudson (Son) · Richard Hudson (Son) · Henry Hudson (Son) · David Hudson (Son) · Oliver Hudson (Son) Parents: Henry Hudson (Father) · Katherine Hudson (Mother) · Barbara Alderman (Mother) Founded: Muscovy Company
1607: In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay (present-day China) via a route above the Arctic Circle.
1608: In 1608, English merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies again sent Hudson in the Hopewell to attempt to locate a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia.
1609: In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.
1609: On 6 September 1609 John Colman of his crew was killed by Indians with an arrow to his neck.
1610: In 1610, Hudson obtained backing for another voyage, this time under the English flag.
1611: In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied.
wiki/Henry_Hudson(1937) A new force in boxing wins his first heavyweight titleAn Alabama sharecropper’s son, Joe Louis, knocks out Jim Braddock in the 8th round, becoming the world heavyweight boxing champion. The first African American to hold the title since Jack Johnson, Louis will remain champ for 140 months, and will later be named history’s greatest heavyweight boxer.Joseph Louis Barrow, best known as Joe Louis and nicknamed the “Brown Bomber”, was an American professional boxer who competed from 1934 to 1951. He reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1937 to 1949, and is considered to be one of the greatest heavyweights of all time. Louis’ championship reign lasted 140 consecutive months, during which he participated in 26 championship fights. The 27th fight, against Ezzard Charles in 1950, was a challenge for Charles’ heavyweight title and so is not included in Louis’ reign. Louis was victorious in 26 title defenses, a world record second only to Julio César Chávez with 27. In 2005, Louis was ranked as the best heavyweight of all time by the International Boxing Research Organization, and was ranked number one on The Ring magazine’s list of the “100 greatest punchers of all time.”
Lived: May 13, 1914 – Apr 12, 1981 (age 66) Height: 6′ 2″ (1.87 m) Spouse: Martha Jefferson (m. 1959 – 1981) · Rose Morgan (m. 1955 – 1958) · Marva Trotter (m. 1946 – 1949) · Marva Trotter (m. 1935 – 1945) Children: Joseph Louis Barrow Jr. (Son) · Joe Louis Barrow Jr. (Son) · Jacqueline Barrow (Daughter) Boxer weight division: Heavyweight Martial art: Boxing
1935: Joe Louis married Marva Trotter on September 24, 1935; their marriage lasted 10 years till March 27, 1945.
1937: Louis’s manager Mike Jacobs attempted to arrange a rematch in 1937, but negotiations broke down when Schmeling demanded 30% of the gate.
1939: world light heavyweight champion John Henry Lewis who, attempting to move up a weight class, was knocked out in the first round by Louis on January 25, 1939.
1939: “Two Ton” Tony Galento, who was able to knock Louis to the canvas with a left hook in the third round of their bout on June 28, 1939, before letting his guard down and being knocked out in the fourth.
1947: After trouble finding another suitable opponent, on December 5, 1947, Louis met Jersey Joe Walcott, a 33-year-old veteran with a 44–11–2 record.
1981: Louis died of cardiac arrest in Desert Springs Hospital near Las Vegas on April 12, 1981, just hours after his last public appearance viewing the Larry Holmes–Trevor Berbick Heavyweight Championship.
wiki/Joe_Louis(1945) Battle in the Pacific finally grinds to a haltOne of the deadliest Pacific battles of World War II ends as US forces secure the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa, a few hundred miles from the Japanese mainland. Some will say that the ferocious Japanese defense is a major factor in the US decision to use atomic bombs to try to end the war without invading Japan.The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a series of battles fought in the Japanese Ryukyu Islands, centered on the island of Okinawa, and included the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War during World War II, the April 1, 1945 invasion of Okinawa itself. The 82-day-long battle lasted from April 1 until June 22, 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were planning to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations for the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands.
Start date: Apr 01, 1945 End date: Jun 22, 1945
wiki/Battle_of_Okinawa(1969) Cleveland’s polluted river catches fire and spurs changeA reporter witnesses an oil slick burning near a steel mill on Cleveland, Ohio’s Cuyahoga River and the resulting feature in Time magazine, despite using images from a previous fire on the river, will be instrumental in furthering the growing environmental movement in the US.The Cuyahoga River is a river in the United States, located in Northeast Ohio, that feeds into Lake Erie. The river is famous for having been so polluted that it “caught fire” in 1969. The event helped to spur the environmental movement in the US.
Source elevation: 1,093 feet (333.15 m) Length: 84.90 miles (136.63 km) Basin area: 810.81 sq miles (2,100 km²) Mouth elevation: 571 feet (174 meter) Cities: Cleveland · Akron Mouth: Cleveland · Lake Erie
(1527) Rome is sacked, ending the Renaissance As many as 20,000 mutinous troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V enter Rome and meet a defensive force of only 5,000 militia and 500 Swiss Guard. The city is taken, the Pope’s power is greatly diminished, and some will mark it as the end of the Italian Renaissance.The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac—the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
Date: May 06, 1527
wiki/Sack_of_Rome_(1527)(1937) The zeppelin Hindenburg destroyed in fireballA transatlantic flight of the German luxury passenger airship Hindenburg ends in disaster as the vessel bursts into flames near its docking tower at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people will die in the tragedy, and it will mark the end of airship travel.The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6, 1937, as the German passenger airship LZ 129 Hindenburg caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States. Of the 97 people on board, there were 35 fatalities. One worker on the ground was also killed, raising the final death toll to 36.
Fatalities: 36 Date: May 06, 1937 Universal Newsreel
wiki/Hindenburg_disaster(1954) Bannister breaks the four-minute mile England’s Roger Bannister does what some track-and-field experts considered impossible – he runs a mile in under 4 minutes. His finishing time for the historic Oxford run is 3 min 59.4 seconds, a record that will stand for just 46 days.Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister, CH, CBE is an English former middle-distance athlete, physician and academic, who ran the first sub-four-minute mile. In the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Bannister set a British record in the 1500 metres and finished fourth. This strengthened his resolve to be the first 4-minute miler. He achieved this feat on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford, with Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher providing the pacing. When the announcer, Norris McWhirter, declared “The time was three…”, the cheers of the crowd drowned out Bannister’s exact time, which was 3 minutes 59.4 seconds. Bannister’s record lasted just 46 days. He had reached this record with minimal training, while practising as a junior doctor.
Born: Mar 23, 1929 (age 88) · London Borough of Harrow, United Kingdom Height: 6′ 2″ (1.89 m) Education: University of Oxford · Imperial College London · Merton College, Oxford · Exeter College, Oxford Nominations: BBC Sports Personality of the Year Award (1954) Awards: Sports Illustrated Sportsperson of the Year (1954)
1947: His training was light, even compared to the standards of the day, but he showed promise in running a mile in 1947 in 4:24.6 on only three weekly half-hour training sessions.
1984: In 1984, he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) by the University of Bath.
1988: In the 1988 television mini-series The Four Minute Mile, about the rivalry between Bannister, John Landy and Wes Santee to be first to break the 4 minute mile mark, Bannister was portrayed by actor Richard Huw.
1993: Bannister went on to become a distinguished neurologist and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, before retiring in 1993.
2002: In a UK poll conducted by Channel 4 in 2002, the British public voted Bannister’s historic sub-4-minute mile as number 13 in the list of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments.
2014: In 2014 he appeared as a guest on BBC Radio 4’s Midweek with Libby Purves, Kevin Warwick and Rachael Stirling.
wiki/Roger_Bannister(2004) ‘Friends’ says goodbye after 10 seasonsRoss, Rachel, Phoebe, Joey, Monica, and Chandler have their last cup of coffee together after a decade of comedic personal and professional struggles. The series finale draws in 52.5 million viewers, making it the most-watched TV episode of the decade.Rachel Green, Ross Geller, Monica Geller, Joey Tribbiani, Chandler Bing and Phoebe Buffay are all friends, living off of one another in the heart of New York City. Over the course of ten years, this average group of buddies goes through massive mayhem, family trouble, past and future romances, fights, laughs, tears and surprises as they learn what it really means to be a friend.
First episode: Sep 22, 1994 Episode duration: 22 minutes Creators: Marta Kauffman · David Crane Theme song: I’ll Be There for You Producers: Marta Kauffman · David Crane · Kevin S. Bright · Michael Curtis · Wil Calhoun · Scott Silveri · Shana Goldberg-Meehan Awards: Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy series
(1937) A ‘wacky quacker’ leaves his mark Daffy Duck makes his first appearance in a Looney Tunes animated short, ‘Porky’s Duck Hunt.’ The plot has Porky Pig and his dog Rover duck hunting, where they run into sneaky Daffy, who thwarts their efforts to bag a bird. In future appearances, Daffy will lose his manic edge and become more of a put-upon everyman, er duck.Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon character produced by Warner Bros. Styled as an anthropomorphic black duck, the character has appeared in cartoon series such as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, where he usually has been depicted as the best friend and occasional arch-rival of Bugs Bunny. Daffy was one of the first of the new “screwball” characters that emerged in the late 1930s to replace traditional everyman characters who were more popular earlier in the decade, such as Mickey Mouse and Popeye. Daffy starred in 130 shorts in the golden age, making him the third-most frequent character in the Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies cartoons, behind Bugs Bunny’s 180 appearances and Porky Pig’s 162 appearances.
Creators: Tex Avery · Bob Clampett Species: Duck
wiki/Daffy_Duck(1961) Ill-fated US ‘Bay of Pigs’ invasion of Cuba is launched A huge Cold War blunder begins as around 1,500 CIA-trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs on the southern coast of Cuba. Hoping to overthrow Fidel Castro’s communist government, the invasion force will instead face total defeat.The Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military, trained and funded by the United States government’s Central Intelligence Agency, Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala and Nicaragua, the invading force was defeated within three days by the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces, under the direct command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro.
Start date: Apr 17, 1961 End date: Apr 19, 1961
wiki/Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion(1964) Iconic Ford Mustang unveiled at World’s FairThe public gets its first look at Ford’s newest auto at the New York World’s Fair. The ‘pony car’ will go on to be Ford’s biggest seller since the Model T, inspiring a new class of sports cars that take to American asphalt in the ’60s and ’70s.
The first-generation Ford Mustang was manufactured by Ford from March 1964 until 1973. The introduction of the Mustang created a new class of automobile known as the pony car. The Mustang’s styling, with its long hood and short deck, proved wildly popular and inspired a host of competition.
It was initially introduced as a hardtop and convertible with the fastback version put on sale in August 1964. At the time of its introduction, the Mustang, sharing its underpinnings with the Falcon, was slotted into a compact car segment.
With each revision, the Mustang saw an increase in overall dimensions and in engine power. The 1971 model saw a drastic redesign to its predecessors. After an initial surge, sales were steadily declining, as Ford began working on a new generation Mustang. With the onset of the 1973 oil crisis, Ford was prepared, having already designed the smaller Mustang II for the 1974 model year. This new car had no common components with preceding models.
wiki/Ford_Mustang_(first_generation)(2002) ‘General Hospital’ airs 10,000th episodeIn 2002, the show celebrates a milestone with a flashback episode highlighting its first 39 years on the air. Demi Moore, Mark Hamill, Ricky Martin, and John Stamos all passed through the fictional town of Port Charles, NY, on their way to stardom.Families, friends, enemies and lovers experience life-changing events in the large upstate New York city of Port Charles, which has a busy hospital, upscale hotel, cozy diner and dangerous waterfront frequented by the criminal underworld.
First episode: Apr 01, 1963 Episode duration: 60 minutes Creator: Frank and Doris Hursley Awards: Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series · Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series · Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series Producer: Frank Valentini Genre: Soap opera
(1858) Bernadette has vision of Virgin MaryBernadette Soubirous, age 14, claims the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a grotto near the French town of Lourdes. The peasant girl will face skepticism, but the grotto will become a shrine and Bernadette will be made a saint.Bernadette Soubirous was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes, France, and is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. Soubirous is best known for the Marian apparitions of a “small young lady” who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby garbage dump of the cave-grotto at Massabielle where apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858. She would later receive recognition when the lady who appeared to her identified herself as the Immaculate Conception.
Born: Jan 07, 1844 · Lourdes, France Died: Apr 16, 1879 · Nevers, France Related movies: The Song of Bernadette Siblings: Jean-Marie Soubirous (Brother) · Jean Soubirous (Brother) · Justin Soubirous (Brother) · Toinette Soubirous (Sister) · Louise Soubirous (Sister) · Pierre Soubirous (Brother) Parents: François Soubirous (Father) · Louise Soubirous (Mother)
1844: Bernadette was born on 7 January 1844 and baptized at the local parish church, St. Pierre’s, on 9 January, her parents’ wedding anniversary.
1858: On 11 February 1858, Bernadette, then aged 14, was out gathering firewood with her sister Marie and a friend near the grotto of Massabielle (Tuta de Massavielha) when she experienced her first vision.
1866: On 29 July 1866, with 42 other candidates, she took the religious habit of a postulant and joined the Sisters of Charity at their motherhouse at Nevers.
1876: She had followed the development of Lourdes as a pilgrimage shrine while she still lived at Lourdes, but was not present for the consecration of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception there in 1876.
1879: She eventually died of her long-term illness at the age of 35 on 16 April 1879, while praying the holy rosary.
wiki/Bernadette_Soubirous(1937) General Motors recognizes autoworker’s unionFollowing a six-week strike by the United Auto Workers, violent clashes with police, and Michigan’s governor calling in the National Guard, General Motors is the first American auto company to sign a union contract.The 1936–1937 Flint sit-down strike against General Motors changed the United Automobile Workers from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Start date: 1936
wiki/Flint_sit-down_strike(1979) Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power in IranAfter defeating the last of the Iranian shah’s forces, rebel groups seize power and install their formerly exiled leader, Khomeini, as the head of the new Islamic republic.Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country’s Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei.
Lived: Sep 24, 1902 – Jun 03, 1989 (age 86) Height: 5′ 9″ (1.76 m) Spouse: Khadijeh Saqafi (m. 1929 – 1989) Previous office: Supreme Leader of Iran (1979 – 1989) Written works: Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist · Tahrir al-Wasilah · Kitab Albai’i · Alrasail Alashara · Almakasib Almuharrama · Anwar Alhidaya fi Alt’aliqa ‘Ala Alkifaya · Misbah Alhidaya Ila Alkhilafa wal Wilaya Children: Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini (Daughter) · Ahmad Khomeini (Son) · Mostafa Khomeini (Son) · Farideh Mostafavi (Daughter) · Sadiqeh Khomeini (Son)
1929: In 1929, Khomeini married Khadijeh Saqafi, the 16-year-old daughter of a cleric in Tehran.
1963: On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was detained in Qom and transferred to Tehran.
1970: In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih).
1979: Shortly after Khomeini’s return from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahá’ís) be treated well.
1985: Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, a former student of Khomeini and a major figure of the Revolution, was chosen by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader and approved as such by the Assembly of Experts in November 1985.
1989: After spending eleven days in Jamaran hospital, Ruhollah Khomeini died on 3 June 1989 after suffering five heart attacks in just ten days, at the age of 86 just before midnight.
wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini(1990) Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prisonSouth Africa’s most prominent anti-apartheid activist, Nelson Mandela, is released after almost three decades of captivity. He will go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize and become the nation’s president.Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997.
Lived: Jul 18, 1918 – Dec 05, 2013 (age 95) Height: 6′ 0″ (1.83 m) Spouse: Graça Machel (m. 1998 – 2013) · Winnie Mandela (m. 1958 – 1996) · Evelyn Mase (m. 1944 – 1958) Parties: African National Congress · South African Communist Party Education: University of Fort Hare (1939 – 1940) · University of the Witwatersrand (1943 – 1949) · University of London · University of South Africa (1942) · University of London International Programmes Previous office: President of South Africa (1994 – 1999)
(1819) Modern Singapore foundedBritish statesman Sir Stamford Raffles founds the post of Singapore on the Malay Peninsula’s southern tip, securing British trading interests in the region. The small settlement will gain independence in 1965 and grow into one of the world’s major economic centers.Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia, and the world’s only island city-state. It lies one degree north of the equator, south of the southernmost tip of continental Asia and peninsular Malaysia, with Indonesia’s Riau Islands to the south. Singapore’s territory consists of a diamond-shaped main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%, and its greening policy has covered the densely populated island with tropical flora, parks and gardens.
Calling code: 65 GDP: $292.74 billion USD (2015) Population: 5.54 million (2015) Area: 269.11 sq miles (697 km²) Travel tip: A lively city where people from many different cultures live together, Singapore makes a fascinating holiday destination. Don’t be put off by the fact that Singapore has a tropical … @tripadvisor
wiki/Singapore(1820) Freed slaves leave the US for AfricaSponsored by the American Colonization Society and the US Congress, a group of freed slaves sets sail for resettlement in Liberia, in West Africa. It’s the first of what will be many efforts to resettle American-born blacks in Africa. Some abolitionists claim the movement strengthens slavery.The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or Black Zionism, originated in the United States in the 19th century. It encouraged those of African descent to return to the African homelands of their ancestors. This movement would eventually inspire other movements ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement, and proved to be popular among African-Americans. wiki/Back-to-Africa_movement(1937) John Steinbeck’s ‘Of Mice and Men’ publishedA poetically gritty story of two migrant farm workers struggling with social injustice and human frailty, ‘Of Mice and Men’ will catapult author John Steinbeck into the top ranks of American novelists.Of Mice and Men is a novella written by author John Steinbeck. Published in 1937, it tells the story of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced migrant ranch workers, who move from place to place in California in search of new job opportunities during the Great Depression in the United States.
Authors: John Steinbeck · Kevin Hinkle First published: 1937 ATOS reading level: 4.50 Characters: Lennie Small · George Milton · Whit · Curley · Curley’s Wife · Carlson · Candy · Slim · Crooks Genre: Novella Adaptations: Of Mice and Men (1992) · Of Mice and Men (1939) · Of Mice and Men · George and Junior
wiki/Of_Mice_and_Men(1952) Britain’s George VI dies and Elizabeth becomes QueenKing George VI dies in his sleep at the age of 56, and his 26-year-old daughter, Elizabeth, succeeds to the throne. She will become the United Kingdom’s longest-reigning head of state.Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. She is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Born: Apr 21, 1926 (age 90) · London, England Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947) Children: Prince Charles (Son) · Anne, Princess Royal (Daughter) · Edward Wessex (Son) · Prince Andrew, Duke of York (Son) Parents: George VI (Father) · Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (Mother) Siblings: Princess Margaret (Sister)
1936: Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive.
1947: Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey.
1977: Trudeau’s supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen’s back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.
2010: The Queen addressed the United Nations for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.
2012: Her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond.
2015: In 2015, she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in world history.