(1916) Margaret Sanger’s first family planning clinic opensAmerica’s first family planning clinic opens in Brooklyn, New York, breaking that state’s laws by dispensing birth control and educating patients on contraception. The clinic’s founder, nurse Margaret Sanger, will be arrested nine days later, and become known as a birth control pioneer.Margaret Higgins Sanger was an American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse. Sanger popularized the term “birth control”, opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, and established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.
Lived: Sep 14, 1879 – Sep 06, 1966 (age 86) Spouse: James Noah (m. 1922 – 1943) · William Sanger (m. 1902 – 1921) Founded: Planned Parenthood · American Birth Control League · International Planned Parenthood Federation Children: Peggy Sanger (Daughter) · Stuart Sanger (Son) · Grant Sanger (Son) Movies: Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed · Birth Control Siblings: Bob Higgins (Brother) · Ethel Bryne (Sister)
1914: In August 1914 Margaret Sanger was indicted for violating postal obscenity laws by sending the The Woman Rebel through the postal system.
1916: On October 16, 1916 Sanger opened a family planning and birth control clinic at 46 Amboy Street in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, the first of its kind in the United States.
1921: After World War I, Sanger shifted away from radical politics, and she founded the American Birth Control League (ABCL) in 1921 to enlarge her base of supporters to include the middle class.
1922: In 1922 she married her second husband, James Noah H. Slee.
1966: In 1966, Planned Parenthood began issuing its Margaret Sanger Awards annually to honor “individuals of distinction in recognition of excellence and leadership in furthering reproductive health and reproductive rights.”
1966: Sanger died of congestive heart failure in 1966 in Tucson, Arizona, aged 86, about a year after the U.S. Supreme Court case Griswold v. Connecticut, which legalized birth control in the United States.
(1829) First Oxford-Cambridge boat race plies the ThamesCambridge student Charles Merivale and his friend, Oxford’s Charles Wordsworth, devise a competition to determine which of the two premier British universities boasts the best rowers. The Boat Race will become immensely popular, attracting 250,000 or more spectators annually.The Boat Race is an annual rowing race between the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, rowed between men’s open-weight eights on the River Thames in London, England. It is also known as the University Boat Race and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. wiki/The_Boat_Race(1935) An addict takes his last drink and a support group is bornDr. Bob Smith has a beer to calm himself before performing surgery, and thanks to the help of his new friend Bill Wilson, it will be his final drink of alcohol. The fellow alcoholics have come together to kick their addiction, and their collaboration will form Alcoholics Anonymous.Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr. Robert Smith. Subsequently, The history of Alcoholics Anonymous has been documented in books, movies, and AA literature. This history begins with the group’s early struggles and continues through its worldwide growth.
wiki/History_of_Alcoholics_Anonymous(1940) Italy enters WWII on the Axis sideFive years after invading Ethiopia and leaving the League of Nations because of it, the Kingdom of Italy, under Benito Mussolini’s rule, declares war on Britain and France. Italy joins Germany and Japan as a WWII Axis power, and will be the first to fall to an Allied offensive.The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, where in its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors. The imperial ambitions of the Fascist regime, which aspired to restore a “Roman Empire” in the Mediterranean (their Mare Nostrum), were partially met with the annexation of Albania and the Province of Ljubljana, and the occupation of British Somaliland and other territories, but ultimately collapsed after defeats in the East and North African campaigns, and the fall of Italy to the Allies at the end of the Italian campaign. In 1943 Benito Mussolini was ousted and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III, provoking a civil war. The northern half of the country was occupied by Germans and made a collaborationist puppet state (with more than 600,000 soldiers), while the south was governed by monarchist and liberal forces, which fought for the Allied cause in the Italian Co-Belligerent Army (at its height numbering more than 50,000 men), helped by circa 350,000 partisans of disparate political ideologies that operated all over occupied Italy. wiki/Military_history_of_Italy_during_World_War_II(2007) ‘The Sopranos’ ends, not with a bangHBO’s crime-family drama wraps up its sixth and final season with the closing scene abruptly cutting to black. The ending will leave many of the show’s 12 million viewers puzzled as to whether lead character Tony Soprano is dead or alive—or wondering if their cable got whacked.An innovative look at the life of fictional Mafia Capo Tony Soprano, this serial is presented largely first person, but additional perspective is conveyed by the intimate conversations Tony has with his psychotherapist. We see Tony at work, at home, and in therapy. Moments of black comedy intersperse this aggressive, adult drama, with adult language, and extreme violence.
First episode: Jan 10, 1999 Theme song: Woke Up This Morning Episode duration: 75 minutes Creator: David Chase Producers: David Chase · Matthew Weiner · Terence Winter · Brad Grey · Robin Green · Mitchell Burgess Awards: Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series · Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series
(1916) Three world powers carve up the Middle EastWith expectations of an Ottoman defeat at the hands of the Triple Entente, the Sykes-Picot Agreement maps out the territories that the United Kingdom, France, and Russia plan to control in the Middle East. The secret plan will be exposed, angering Arab leaders who were promised independent rule.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement /ˈsaɪks pi.ko/, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement defined their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in Southwestern Asia. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The negotiations leading to the agreement occurred between November 1915 and March 1916 and it was signed 16 May 1916. The deal was exposed to the public in Izvestia and Pravda on 23 November 1917 and in the British Guardian on November 26, 1917.
The agreement is still mentioned when considering the region and its present-day conflicts.
The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration pending consultations with Russia and other powers, including Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.
Given Ottoman defeat in 1918 and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the agreement effectively divided the Ottoman Arab provinces outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of British and French control and influence. An international administration was proposed for Palestine apart to the Acre-Haifa zone which was intended to be a British enclave in northern Palestine to enable access to the Mediterranean. The British gained control of the territory in 1920 and ruled it as Mandatory Palestine from 1923 until 1948. They also ruled Mandatory Iraq from 1920 until 1932, while the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon lasted from 1923 to 1946. The terms were negotiated by British diplomat Mark Sykes and a French counterpart, François Georges-Picot. The Tsarist government was a minor party to the Sykes–Picot agreement, and when, following the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks published the agreement on 23 November 1917, “the British were embarrassed, the Arabs dismayed and the Turks delighted.”
The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations. It negated the UK’s promises to Arabs made through Colonel T. E. Lawrence for a national Arab homeland in the area of Greater Syria, in exchange for supporting the British against the Ottoman Empire.
wiki/Sykes–Picot_Agreement(1935) Lawrence dies far from ArabiaHaving survived almost suicidal risk in the Arabian Desert fighting alongside Arabs battling Turks, a capture and torture, and a plane crash in Egypt, ex-British Army officer T.E. Lawrence, 46, finds death among the quiet hedgerows of Dorset, England, after crashing his motorcycle.Thomas Edward Lawrence, CB, DSO was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities.
Lived: Aug 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935 (age 46) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.66 m) Related movies: Lawrence of Arabia Buried: Church of St. Nicholas and St. Magnus · St Nicholas’ Church, Moreton Education: Jesus College, Oxford (1907 – 1910) · University of Oxford · Magdalen College, Oxford · Oxford High School, Oxford (1896 – 1907) · City of Oxford High School for Boys
Parents: Sarah Junner (Mother) · Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet (Father)
1907: In August 1907 Lawrence wrote home: “The Chaignons & the Lamballe people, complimented me on my wonderful French: I have been asked twice since I arrived what part of France I came from”.
1916: In 1916, he was sent to Arabia on an intelligence mission and quickly became involved with the Arab Revolt, serving, along with other British officers, as a liaison to the Arab forces.
1920: Faisal’s rule as king, however, came to an abrupt end in 1920, after the battle of Maysaloun, when the French Forces of General Gouraud entered Damascus under the command of General Mariano Goybet, destroying Lawrence’s dream of an independent Arabia.
1920: With the new photos, Thomas re-launched his show under the new title With Allenby in Palestine and Lawrence in Arabia in early 1920, which proved to be extremely popular.
1935: To pay the inheritance tax, he sold the U.S. copyright of Seven Pillars of Wisdom (subscribers’ text) outright to Doubleday Doran in 1935.
1935: He died six days later on 19 May 1935.
wiki/T._E._Lawrence(1963) Excerpts from a landmark civil rights letter publishedJailed for civil disobedience in Birmingham, Alabama, Martin Luther King, Jr. pens a letter outlining his nonviolent civil rights struggle. Parts of the forceful ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ are published in the New York Post Sunday Magazine and will inspire both debate and devotion to King’s cause.The Letter from Birmingham Jail, also known as the Letter from Birmingham City Jail and The Negro Is Your Brother, is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King Jr. The letter defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism. It says that people have a moral responsibility to break unjust laws and to take direct action rather than waiting potentially forever for justice to come through the courts. Responding to being referred to as an “outsider,” King writes, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere”.
Author: Martin Luther King, Jr. Written: Apr 16, 1963 First published: Jun 12, 1963
wiki/Letter_from_Birmingham_Jail(1992) Amy Fisher shoots Mary Jo ButtafuocoAmy Fisher, age 17, shoots Mary Jo Buttafuoco. Fisher is allegedly having an affair with Mary Jo’s husband, Joey Buttafuoco. Mary Jo is injured but survives the attack. Fisher will spend seven years in prison, and the sensational story will become the subject of multiple TV movies.Joseph A. “Joey” Buttafuoco is an auto body shop owner from Long Island. He is best known for having had an affair with a 17-year-old Amy Fisher, who subsequently shot his wife Mary Jo Buttafuoco in the face. Popular news coverage titled Fisher the “Long Island Lolita.” Buttafuoco later pled guilty to one count of statutory rape and served four months in jail.
Born: Mar 11, 1956 (age 61) · Massapequa, NY Height: 5′ 11″ (1.80 m) Spouse: Mary Jo Buttafuoco Children: Paul Buttafuoco (Son) · Jessica Buttafuoco (Daughter)
wiki/Joey_ButtafuocoAmy Elizabeth Fisher is an American woman who became known as “the Long Island Lolita” by the media in 1992, when, at the age of 17, she shot and severely wounded Mary Jo Buttafuoco, the wife of her illicit lover Joey Buttafuoco. Initially charged with first-degree attempted murder, she eventually pleaded guilty to first-degree aggravated assault and served seven years in prison. Paroled in 1999, Fisher became a journalist and writer, before embarking in 2007 on a short-lived career as a pornographic actress.
Born: Aug 21, 1974 (age 42) · Wantagh, NY Height: 5′ 4″ (1.63 m) Spouse: Lou Bellera (m. 2003 – 2015) Children: Brett Bellera (Son) · Ava Rose Bellera (Daughter) Education: John F Kennedy High School
(1862) World’s first iron-clad naval battle Steam-powered, iron-clad warships in the American Civil War, the Union’s USS Monitor and the Confederate’s CSS Virginia, fire on each other for four hours off Hampton Roads, Virginia. The engagement of iron-fortified battleships ends in a draw.The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. It was fought over two days, March 8–9, 1862, in Hampton Roads, a roadstead in Virginia where the Elizabeth and Nansemond rivers meet the James River just before it enters Chesapeake Bay adjacent to the city of Norfolk. The battle was a part of the effort of the Confederacy to break the Union blockade, which had cut off Virginia’s largest cities, Norfolk and Richmond, from international trade.
Start date: Mar 08, 1862 End date: Mar 09, 1862
wiki/Battle_of_Hampton_Roads(1916) Mexico’s rebel leader Pancho Villa launches raid on US Revolutionary Pancho Villa, seeking arms to fight his guerilla war against Mexico’s President Carranza, leads some 500 horsemen over the US border in an attack on the town of Columbus, New Mexico.The Battle of Columbus, March 9, 1916, began as a raid conducted by Pancho Villa’s Division of the North on the small United States border town of Columbus, New Mexico, located 3 miles north of the border. The raid escalated into a full-scale battle between Villistas and the United States Army. Villa himself led the assault, only to be driven back into Mexico by elements of the 13th Cavalry Regiment stationed at the town. The attack angered Americans and President Woodrow Wilson ordered the Punitive Expedition in which the US Army invaded Mexico in an unsuccessful attempt to capture General Villa.
Date: Mar 09, 1916
wiki/Battle_of_Columbus_(1916)(1945) Operation Meetinghouse firebombs TokyoUS warplanes in World War II begin dropping over 1,600 tons of bombs on Japan’s largest city. The most destructive single firestorm in history begins, and will kill up to 130,000 and leave 1 million homeless.The Bombing of Tokyo, often referred to as a series of firebombing raids, was conducted as part of the air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II. The US first mounted a small-scale raid on Tokyo in April 1942.
wiki/Bombing_of_Tokyo(1977) The Hanafi Siege begins in Washington, DCMore than 150 hostages are taken as 12 armed Hanafi Muslims storm three buildings, starting a siege that will last 39 hours and end, in part, due to Muslim ambassadors negotiating with the hostage-takers.The 1977 Hanafi Siege occurred on March 9–11, 1977 when three buildings in Washington, D.C. were seized by 12 Islamic gunmen. The gunmen were led by Hamaas Abdul Khaalis, who had broken from the Nation of Islam because he blamed them for murder. They took 149 hostages and killed radio journalist, Maurice Williams. After a 39-hour standoff, the gunmen surrendered and all remaining hostages were released from the District Building, B’nai B’rith headquarters, and the Islamic Center of Washington.
(1599) Shakespeare leases marshland on the Thames RiverWilliam Shakespeare joins seven other men in signing a lease on a Southwark lot along the Thames. The playwright now owns a share in what will become the Globe Theatre, where some of his most memorable plays will first be staged, including ‘Julius Caesar,’ ‘Macbeth,’ ‘Othello,’ ‘King Lear,’ and ‘Hamlet.’The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare’s playing company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and grandson Sir Matthew Brend, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. A second Globe Theatre was built on the same site by June 1614 and closed by an Ordinance issued on 6 September 1642.
Address: 21 New Globe Walk, Bankside, London SE1 9 Phone: 020 7620 0202 Opened: 1599 Closed: 1642 Architects: Peter Street · Theo Crosby
wiki/Globe_Theatre(1804) World’s first steam train railway journeyThe steam train makes its maiden run, as Richard Trevithick and his locomotive embark on a rail journey between the Penydarren Ironworks to Abercynon in South Wales, reaching a speed of 5 mph on the 9-mile trip.Richard Trevithick was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England. The son of a mining captain, and born in the mining heartland of Cornwall, Trevithick was immersed in mining and engineering from an early age. He performed poorly in school, but went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was the development of the first high-pressure steam engine. He also built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. On 21 February 1804 the world’s first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick’s unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
Born: Apr 13, 1771 · Tregajorran, United Kingdom Died: Apr 22, 1833 · Dartford, United Kingdom Romance: Jane Harvey Inventions: Steam locomotive Children: Francis Trevithick (Son) Parents: Richard F Francis Trevithick · Ann Trevithick
1801: Trevithick built a full-size steam road locomotive in 1801 on a site near the present day Fore Street at Camborne.
1804: These were sent to John Whitfield at Gateshead, Trevithick’s agent, who in 1804 built what was probably the first locomotive to have flanged wheels.
1804: On 21 February 1804 the world’s first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place as Trevithick’s unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.
1808: In 1808, Trevithick publicised his steam railway locomotive expertise by building a new locomotive called Catch Me Who Can, built for him by John Hazledine and John Urpeth Rastrick at Bridgnorth in Shropshire, and named by Davies Giddy’s daughter.
1818: Uville died in 1818 and Trevithick soon returned to Cerro de Pasco to continue mining.
1829: In 1829 he built a closed cycle steam engine followed by a vertical tubular boiler.
wiki/Richard_Trevithick(1916) Battle of Verdun beginsWorld War I’s battle at Verdun, in France, begins with Germany’s massive heavy artillery array inspiring their confidence in winning the engagement quickly. The battle’s 303 days and 714,000 casualties will prove them wrong.The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was one of the largest and longest battles of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Région Fortifiée de Verdun and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse. Inspired by the experience of the Second Battle of Champagne the year before, the Germans planned to rapidly capture the Meuse Heights, providing them with an excellent defensive position that would also allow them to bombard Verdun with observed artillery fire. The Germans hoped that the French would commit their strategic reserve to recapture the position and suffer catastrophic losses in a battle of attrition, as the Germans would have a tactical advantage.
Start date: Feb 21, 1916 End date: Dec 18, 1916
wiki/Battle_of_Verdun(1972) President Nixon arrives for historic China visitThe Cold War freeze begins a slow thaw as Nixon makes a historic trip to China for two weeks of talks in Beijing. The diplomatic breakthrough will be a high point in Nixon’s career.U.S. President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to the People’s Republic of China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and China. It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, which at that time considered the U.S. one of its foes, and the visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides. wiki/1972_Nixon_visit_to_China3.3.f17