|(1746) Bonnie Prince Charlie escapes Scotland after failed uprising|
|As the second Jacobite claimant to Britain’s throne, Charles Edward Stuart has spent a year in Scotland struggling to do what his father, ‘The Old Pretender,’ could not. This ‘Young Pretender’ has no better luck, and breaks for France as the dream of a Catholic British king dies out. .|
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart, commonly known in Britain during his lifetime as The Young Pretender and The Young Chevalier, and often known in retrospective accounts as Bonnie Prince Charlie, was the second Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland from the death of his father in 1766. This claim was as the eldest son of James Francis Edward Stuart, himself the son of James VII and II. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, in which he led an insurrection to restore his family to the throne of Great Britain, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden that effectively ended the Jacobite cause. Jacobites supported the Stuart claim due to hopes for religious toleration for Roman Catholics and a belief in the divine right of kings. Charles’s flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in some later representations. In 1759 he was involved in a French plan to invade Britain which was abandoned following British naval victories.
|(1873) Bonds and banks fail as a depression looms|
|Wall Street is in free fall in the wake of US railroad bonds defaulting and the biggest banks in the US failing, and the crisis will close the New York Stock Exchange for 10 days. A major worldwide economic collapse follows and will not let up in some countries for two decades. .|
The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries. In Britain, for example, it started two decades of stagnation known as the “Long Depression” that weakened the country’s economic leadership. The Panic was known as the “Great Depression” until the events in the early 1930s set a new precedent.
|(1946) Glamour, commerce, and art converge at Cannes|
|Scheduled to hold an inaugural gala in 1939, Cannes had to delay its film festival’s rollout for seven years while WWII raged. Now that the all-clear has sounded, the Cannes Film Festival begins its annual tradition as the film world descends on the French Riviera resort. .|
The Cannes Festival, named until 2002 as the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès.
|(1973) No love lost in tennis battle of the sexes|
|Having bested Margaret Court months earlier, former Wimbledon champ Bobby Riggs, 55, meets women’s tennis superstar Billie Jean King, 29, in what the media dub “the battle of the sexes.” Riggs’ dream of proving male athletic superiority is smashed when King handily wins the match in front of spectators and millions of TV viewers. .|
The Battle of the Sexes is a title given to three notable tennis matches between a male and a female player. The first match was between Bobby Riggs and Margaret Court, over the best of three sets. The second was a nationally televised match between Riggs and Billie Jean King, over the best of five sets. The Riggs v King match was officially dubbed The Battle of the Sexes. The final match was between Jimmy Connors and Martina Navratilova, over the best of three sets and hybrid rules favoring the female player, which was dubbed The Battle of Champions.
|(1701) Infamous privateer and possible pirate executed|
|Once a pirate hunter of great repute, and now convicted of piracy and treason himself, Scottish sailor Captain William Kidd is hung in London, his body then gibbeted over the River Thames as a gruesome warning to other would-be pirates..|
|(1873) North-West Mounted Police patrol the provinces|
|Riflemen on horseback are needed to maintain order in Canada’s newly acquired North-West Provinces, so the ‘North-West Mounted Rifles’ are founded. US officials will be wary of the militaristic name, so the force is renamed the North-West Mounted Police and, later, the ‘Royal Canadian Mounted Police.’.|
|(1911) President Taft dedicates marble marvel on 5th Avenue|
|Fourteen years and $9 million have gone into building the main branch of the New York Public Library, housed in a Beaux-Arts structure spanning two city blocks, now the largest marble structure in the US. More than a million books are collected inside, with two stone lions standing sentry at the entrance..|
|(1934) Notorious outlaw couple gunned down in Louisiana|
|A stolen Ford Deluxe is met with a hail of bullets as it passes an ambush of lawmen lying in wait on a rural highway in Louisiana’s Bienville Parish. Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow’s car is hit by 130 rounds, and the FBI’s most wanted criminals are brought down after a 2-year manhunt..|
|(1570) Ortelius maps the known world|
|Flemish geographer and cartographer Abraham Ortelius’ bound book of 53 maps, ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum,’ an extensive work of cartography that will be quickly reprinted in multiple languages and prove immensely popular, is issued. It will be the world’s first modern atlas..|
|(1873) Levi and Davis are granted a patent for pants|
|German immigrant Levi Strauss, a mercantile shop owner serving the booming Gold Rush trade in San Francisco, and a former customer, Russian immigrant Jacob Davis, receive a patent on Davis’ invention, a new and improved work pant made from denim jean fabric and reinforced by copper rivets. .|
|(1932) Aviator Amelia Earhart tries for the history books|
|Taking to the skies from a Newfoundland starting point in her single-engine Lockheed Vega 5B, Amelia Earhart hopes to become the first woman to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean. Fourteen hours and 56 minutes later she will achieve her goal, landing in Northern Ireland..|
|(1969) Bloody Battle of ‘Hamburger Hill’ ends in South Vietnam|
|Ten days of fierce fighting win US Airborne forces the scarred and decimated Hill 937 on Ap Bia Mountain. Hundreds were wounded or killed, almost 20,000 artillery rounds were fired, and 500 tons of ordinance dropped to secure what battle-weary GIs call ‘Hamburger Hill.’ .|