(1865) Ku Klux Klan is founded in TennesseeIn the aftermath of the Civil War, several Confederate veterans establish the secret vigilante group to threaten and murder freed blacks and their supporters and to restore white supremacy. The name reportedly is derived from the Greek word for circle, “kyklos.” Soon the KKK will spread to every state in the American South.The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, is three distinct movements in the United States that have advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism, anti-Catholicism and antisemitism. Historically, the KKK used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the “purification” of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations.
Founded: 1915 Founders: John C. Lester · J. Calvin Jones · Richard R. Reed · John B. Kennedy · Frank O. McCord · James R. Crowe
KKK night rally in Chicago, c. 1920 – Altar with K eagle in black robe at a meeting of nearly 30,000 Ku Klux Klan members from Chicago and northern Illinois.
(1865) Slavery is abolished in the United StatesEight months after the end of the Civil War, the 13th amendment is ratified by the required number of states, abolishing slavery in the US. Its passage was secured after intense lobbying by President Abraham Lincoln, whose Emancipation Proclamation had declared slaves free, but their status after the war was still uncertain.The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.
Scars of a whipped Mississippi slave, photo taken (April 2, 1863, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. Original caption: “Overseer Artayou Carrier whipped me. I was two months in bed sore from the whipping. My master come after I was whipped; he discharged the overseer. The very words of poor Peter, taken as he sat for his picture.”
(1865) Last slaves in America are declared freeGeneral Gordon Granger arrives on Galveston Island, Texas, with official news for the state’s slaves: More than two years after the Emancipation Proclamation had been implemented, America’s remaining slaves are freed. The day will be celebrated in Texas, and later in other states, as ‘Juneteenth.’Juneteenth, also known as Juneteenth Independence Day or Freedom Day, is a holiday that commemorates the June 19, 1865 announcement of the abolition of slavery in Texas, and more generally the emancipation of African-American slaves throughout the Confederate South. Celebrated on June 19, the word is a portmanteau of “June” and “nineteenth”. Juneteenth is recognized as a state holiday or special day of observance in most states. wiki/Juneteenth(1867) Austrian-born Emperor of Mexico faces firing squadBorn in Vienna’s Schönbrunn Palace as a descendant of the House of Habsburg, brother to Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I, and installed as the ruler of Mexico by France’s Napoleon III, Maximilian I ends his 3-year reign as Mexico’s emperor in front of Benito Juarez’s firing squad.
Maximilian (Spanish: Maximiliano; born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Francis Joseph I. After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico. France (along with the United Kingdom and Spain, who both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico’s democratic government) had invaded Mexico in the winter of 1861, as part of the War of the French Intervention. Seeking to legitimize French rule in the Americas, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new Mexican monarchy for him. With the support of the French army, and a group of conservative Mexican monarchists hostile to the liberal administration of new Mexican President Benito Juárez, Maximilian traveled to Mexico. Once there, he declared himself Emperor of Mexico on 10 April 1864.
The Empire managed to gain recognition by major European powers including Britain, Austria, and Prussia. The United States however, continued to recognize Juarez as the legal president of Mexico. Maximilian never completely defeated the Mexican Republic; Republican forces led by President Benito Juárez continued to be active during Maximilian’s rule. With the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the United States (which had been too distracted by its own civil war to confront the Europeans’ 1861 invasion of what it considered to be its sphere of influence) began more explicit aid of President Juárez’s forces. Matters worsened for Maximilian after the French armies withdrew from Mexico in 1866. His self-declared empire collapsed, and he was captured and executed by the Mexican government in 1867. His wife, Charlotte of Belgium (Carlota), had left for Europe earlier to try to build support for her husband’s regime; after his execution, she suffered an emotional collapse and was declared insane.
wiki/Maximilian_I_of_Mexico(1910) Daughter of Civil War vet inaugurates Father’s DayAfter hearing a Mother’s Day sermon, Sonora Dodd inaugurates a Father’s Day celebration to honor her father, a Civil War vet and single dad of six children. Dodd’s campaigning will take decades, but the third Sunday in June will catch on throughout the US as a day to honor dads.Father’s Day is a celebration honoring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. The tradition was said to be started from a memorial service held for a large group of men who died in a mining accident in Monongah, West Virginia in 1907. It was first proposed by Sonora Dodd of Spokane, Washington in 1909. It is currently celebrated in the United States annually on the third Sunday in June. wiki/Father’s_Day_(United_States)(1975) Missing member of the House of Lords found guilty of murderFor the first time in more than two centuries, a member of Britain’s House of Lords is found guilty of murder. But Richard John Bingham, the 7th Earl of Lucan, is not present to receive sentencing for the bludgeoning death of his children’s nanny, having disappeared months previously.Richard John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan, commonly known as Lord Lucan, was a British peer suspected of murder who disappeared in 1974. He was born into an Anglo-Irish aristocratic family in Marylebone, the eldest son of George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan, by his marriage to Kaitlin Dawson. An evacuee during the Second World War, Lucan returned to attend Eton College, and then from 1953 to 1955 served with the Coldstream Guards in West Germany. He developed a taste for gambling and, skilled at backgammon and bridge, became an early member of the Clermont Club. Although his losses often exceeded his winnings, he left his job at a London-based merchant bank and became a professional gambler. He was known as Lord Bingham during his father’s earldom from April 1949 until January 1964.
Born: Dec 18, 1934 · Marylebone, England Died: 1981 Children: George Bingham, 8th Earl of Lucan (Son) · Lady Frances Bingham (Daughter) Parents: George Bingham, 6th Earl of Lucan (Father) Education: Eton College
1960: In 1960 he met Stephen Raphael, a rich stockbroker who was a skilled backgammon player.
1964: Two months after the wedding, on 21 January 1964, the 6th Earl of Lucan died of a stroke.
1972: The combined pressures of maintaining their finances, paying for Lucan’s gambling addiction and Veronica’s weakened mental condition took their toll on the marriage; two weeks after a strained family Christmas in 1972, Lucan moved into a small property in Eaton Row.
1972: Lucan told his friends that nobody would work for Veronica (she sacked the children’s long-term nanny, Lillian Jenkins, in December 1972).
1974: The last confirmed sighting of Lucan was at about 1:15 am on 8 November 1974 as he exited the driveway of the Maxwell-Scott property, in his friend’s Ford Corsair.
1974: A warrant for Lucan’s arrest, to answer charges of murdering Sandra Rivett, and attempting to murder his wife, was issued on Tuesday 12 November 1974.
(4977 BCE) Universe allegedly comes into beingGerman astronomer Johannes Kepler pegs the year everything started. Although a pioneer in his field, and responsible for great leaps of learning during the 17th-century’s scientific revolution, his calculations won’t stand the test of time.Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation.
Lived: Dec 27, 1571 – Nov 15, 1630 (age 58) Spouse: Susanna Reuttinger (m. 1613) · Barbara Müller (m. 1597 – 1611) Education: Tübinger Stift (1587 – 1591) Children: Sebald Kepler (Son) · Heinrich Kepler (Son) · Ludwig Kepler (Son) · Friedrich Kepler (Son) · Hildebert Kepler (Son) · Fridmar Kepler (Son) · Cordula Kepler (Daughter) · Susanna Kepler (Daughter) · Margareta Regina Kepler (Daughter) Siblings: Katharina Kepler (Sister) Parents: Katharina Kepler (Mother) · Heinrich Kepler (Father)
1600: On February 4, 1600, Kepler met Tycho Brahe and his assistants Franz Tengnagel and Longomontanus at Benátky nad Jizerou (35 km from Prague), the site where Tycho’s new observatory was being constructed.
1601: Two days after Tycho’s unexpected death on October 24, 1601, Kepler was appointed his successor as imperial mathematician with the responsibility to complete his unfinished work.
1609: By the end of the year, he completed the manuscript for Astronomia nova, though it would not be published until 1609 due to legal disputes over the use of Tycho’s observations, the property of his heirs.
1613: On October 30, 1613, Kepler married the 24-year-old Susanna Reuttinger.
1623: In 1623, Kepler at last completed the Rudolphine Tables, which at the time was considered his major work.
1630: He died on November 15, 1630, and was buried there; his burial site was lost after the Swedish army destroyed the churchyard.
wiki/Johannes_Kepler(1865) Steamboat Sultana explodes on the Mississippi Burdened with six times the passengers considered safe to carry, and routine maintenance overdue, tragedy inevitably finds the steamship Sultana when a boiler blows. The vessel catches fire and sinks, killing 1,800 Union vets newly freed from Andersonville Prison.Sultana was a Mississippi River side-wheel steamboat. On April 27, 1865, the boat exploded in the worst maritime disaster in United States history. She was designed with a capacity of only 376 passengers, but she was carrying 2,155 when three of the boat’s four boilers exploded and she burned to the waterline and sank near Memphis, Tennessee, killing 1,196 passengers. This disaster was overshadowed in the press by other events, most particularly the killing on the previous day of President Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth.
Launched: Jan 03, 1863
wiki/Sultana_(steamboat)(1961) Sierra Leone gains independence A century and a half after Britain took Sierra Leone as its own, the West African nation becomes an independent country under Prime Minister Milton Margai. The transfer of power is peaceful, and the sun sets earlier on the once globe-spanning British Colonial Empire.Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north-east, Liberia to the south-east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests. Sierra Leone has a total area of 71,740 km² and a population of 7,075,641.
Founded: Apr 27, 1961 GDP: $4.21 billion USD (2015) Calling code: 232 Capital: Freetown President: Ernest Bai Koroma Currency: Sierra Leonean leone
wiki/Sierra_Leone(1986) Captain Midnight hacks HBO signalSatellite TV dealer John MacDougall, under the pseudonym ‘Captain Midnight,’ jams the broadcast signal of cable network HBO for a few minutes, replacing its programming with a protest message. The protest? HBO has scrambled its signal, forcing satellite TV customers to pay for HBO. MacDougall will receive a $5,000 fine and a year of probation.On April 27, 1986, American electrical engineer and business owner John R. MacDougall, using the pseudonym Captain Midnight, jammed HBO’s satellite signal to broadcast a message protesting their rates for satellite dish owners, which he considered too expensive.
(1865) President Lincoln is shot Five days after Confederate forces surrender at Appomattox, handing Abraham Lincoln his long-fought victory in the Civil War, John Wilkes Booth enters the Presidential Box at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC, and shoots Lincoln once in the back of the head. The president will die the following day.Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, while attending the play Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C., as the American Civil War was drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, surrendered to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army of the Potomac.
(1912) RMS Titanic hits an icebergSteaming through the icy waters of the North Atlantic, the state-of-the-art luxury British ocean liner RMS Titanic strikes an iceberg just before midnight. The damage proves catastrophic, and the vessel will sink in the early hours of April 15, killing over 1,500.The sinking of the RMS Titanic occurred on the night of 14 April through to the morning of 15 April 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean, four days into the ship’s maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The largest passenger liner in service at the time, Titanic had an estimated 2,224 people on board when she struck an iceberg at around 23:40 on Sunday, 14 April 1912. Her sinking two hours and forty minutes later at 02:20 on Monday, 15 April resulted in the deaths of more than 1,500 people, which made it one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history.
Date: Apr 15, 1912
wiki/Sinking_of_the_RMS_Titanic(1935) American Dust Bowl’s most massive storm strikesHigh winds kick up roughly 300 million tons of topsoil loosened by an eight-year drought and swirl the dust into churning black walls of clouds, blotting out the sun and devastating parts of Texas and Oklahoma.Black Sunday refers to a particularly severe dust storm that occurred on April 14, 1935, as part of the Dust Bowl. It was one of the worst dust storms in American history and it caused immense economic and agricultural damage. It is estimated to have displaced 300 million tons of topsoil from the prairie area in the US.
Date: Apr 14, 1935
wiki/Black_Sunday_(storm)(1952) Ralph Ellison’s landmark novel, ‘Invisible Man,’ publishedEqual parts poetic and scathing, ‘Invisible Man’ explores an unnamed black man’s search for identity in a society largely hostile to the presence of African Americans or unaware of the black experience. The only novel Ellison will publish in his lifetime, ‘Invisible Man’ will win the National Book Award.Invisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison about an African American man whose color renders him invisible, published by Random House in 1952. It addresses many of the social and intellectual issues facing African-Americans early in the twentieth century, including black nationalism, the relationship between black identity and Marxism, and the reformist racial policies of Booker T. Washington, as well as issues of individuality and personal identity.
Author: Ralph Ellison First published: 1952 Number of pages: 581 ATOS reading level: 7.20 Genre: African-American literature Characters: Invisible Man · Brother Jack · Tod Clifton · Ras the Exhorter · Rinehart