(1863) Emancipation Proclamation takes effectPresident Abraham Lincoln’s executive order proclaiming the freedom of all slaves held in rebel states goes into effect, signaling an ideological change in the Union’s reasons for fighting the Civil WarThe Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally free. Ultimately, the rebel surrender liberated and resulted in the proclamation’s application to all of the designated slaves. It did not cover slaves in Union areas that were freed by state action. It was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States.
Start date: Sep 22, 1862 End date: Jan 01, 1863
Initially, the Civil War between the North and the South was fought by the North to prevent the secession of the South and preserve the Union. Ending slavery was not a goal. That changed on September 22, 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln issued his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that slaves in those states or parts of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be free. One hundred days later Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious areas “are, and henceforward shall be, free.” Lincoln’s bold step was a military measure by which he hoped to inspire the slaves in the Confederacy to support the Union cause. Because it was a military measure, the proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, and left slavery untouched in the border states. Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery, it did fundamentally transform the character of the war. Henceforth, every advance of Federal troops expanded the domain of freedom. Moreover, the proclamation announced the acceptance of black men into the Union Army and Navy. By the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union and their own freedom. African Americans; Politics and government; Proclamations; Slavery; Slaves–Emancipation–Southern States; United States–History–Civil War, 1861-1865 wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation4.8.d17
(1863) President Abraham Lincoln pardons his sister-in-lawLincoln pardons his relative, the widow of a Confederate general. When a Union general grouses about her presence at the White House, Lincoln retorts, “My wife and I are in the habit of choosing our own guests. We do not need from our friends either advice or assistance in the matter.”Benjamin Hardin Helm was a Kentucky politician, attorney, Confederate brigadier general, and a brother-in-law of Abraham Lincoln. He was also the son of Kentucky Governor John L. Helm. Helm was born in Bardstown, Kentucky. He attended the Kentucky Military Institute and the West Point Military Academy and then went to study law at the University of Louisville and Harvard University. He served as a state legislator and the state’s attorney in Kentucky. He also served as the assistant inspector-general for the Kentucky state guard. Helm was offered the position of Union Army paymaster by his brother-in-law, President Abraham Lincoln, a position which he declined. Helm felt it was an honor to serve in the Confederate States Army, where he was initially a colonel and later promoted to brigadier general. Helm commanded the 1st Kentucky Brigade more commonly known as The Orphan Brigade. He died on the battlefield during the Battle of Chickamauga. Helm was married to Emilie Todd, the half-sister of Mary Todd Lincoln.
Born: Jun 02, 1831 · Bardstown, KY Died: Sep 21, 1863 · Catoosa County, GA Children: Katherine Helm (Daughter) · Benjamin Hardin Helm, II (Son) · Elodie Lewis Education: United States Military Academy Parents: John L. Helm (Father)
1831: The son of lawyer and politician John L. Helm and Lucinda Barbour Hardin, Benjamin Hardin Helm was born in Bardstown, Kentucky on June 2, 1831.
1846: In the winter of 1846, at age 15, Helm enrolled at the Kentucky Military Institute, where he remained for three months.
1856: In 1856, Helm married Emilie Todd, a half-sister of Mary Todd Lincoln.
1860: In 1860, he was appointed assistant inspector-general of the Kentucky State Guard, which he was active in organizing.
1861: Helm was commissioned a colonel on October 19, 1861, and served under Brigadier General Simon B. Buckner in Bowling Green, Kentucky.
1862: He was promoted to brigadier general on March 14, 1862 and, three weeks later, received a new assignment to raise the 3rd Kentucky Brigade, in the division of Major General John C. Breckinridge.
Brigadier General Benjamin Hardin Helm (1831-1863)
(1863) US Civil War draft incites huge riots Racial tensions and class warfare mix into a deadly brew as a protest by working-class whites against newly enacted Civil War draft laws spiral out of control into a city-spanning riot. Some 120 die and thousands are injured, with New York City’s black population the target of racist violence.The New York draft riots, known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots remain the largest civil and racial insurrection in American history, aside from the Civil War itself.
(585 BCE) A calendar-setting solar eclipse halts a Greek battleArguably the oldest historical event that can be precisely dated, the Eclipse of Thales is named after the Greek philosopher who’s said to have predicted the event. The eclipse is responsible for ending the Battle of Halys, as both sides are sufficiently spooked into a ceasefire.The Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus accurately predicted a solar eclipse, according to The Histories of Herodotus. If Herodotus’s account is accurate, this eclipse is the earliest recorded as being known in advance of its occurrence. Many historians believe that the predicted eclipse was the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. How exactly Thales predicted the eclipse remains uncertain; some historians claim the eclipse was never predicted at all. Others have argued for different dates.
Date: 585 BC
wiki/Eclipse_of_Thales(1863) African-American 54th Regiment sets off for gloryAmid much celebration, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment departs Boston heading for Beaufort, South Carolina. Although sendoffs of Union soldiers are a common sight, the 54th distinguishes itself as one of the first African-American regiments to join the conflict.The 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The unit was the first African-American regiment organized in the northern states during the Civil War. Authorized by the Emancipation Proclamation, the regiment consisted of African-American enlisted men commanded by white officers.
Founded: 1863 Force: Union Army
wiki/54th_Massachusetts_Infantry_Regiment(1934) Rare quintuplet birth leads to sensation and sadnessOntario, Canada’s Dionne family welcomes five baby girls, an extremely rare multiple birth. All will survive to adulthood, but at four months old they’re made wards of the state, becoming a lucrative attraction while living, and being constantly observed, in a tourist park called ‘Quintland.’The Dionne quintuplets are the first quintuplets known to have survived their infancy. The identical sisters were born in Canada, just outside Callander, Ontario, near the village of Corbeil. All five survived to adulthood.
Born: May 28, 1934 · Ontario, Canada Died: Jun 23, 2001 Parents: Elzire Dionne · Oliva Edouard
wiki/Dionne_quintuplets(1961) ‘The Forgotten Prisoners’ shines a light for human rights English lawyer Peter Benenson’s article in The Observer uncovers human rights abuses that fly under the world’s radar, and whose victims are usually powerless individuals speaking out against tyranny. The article will inspire such a response that Benenson will create Amnesty International within weeks.Peter Benenson was a British lawyer and the founder of human rights group Amnesty International. Benenson refused all honours but in his 80s, largely to please his family, he accepted the Pride of Britain Award for Lifetime Achievement in 2001.
Lived: Jul 31, 1921 – Feb 25, 2005 (age 83) Spouse: Susan Booth · Margaret Anderson Founded: Amnesty International Parents: Flora Solomon (Mother) Education: University of Oxford · Eton College · Balliol College
(49 BCE) Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon Saying, “Alea iacta est” (The die is cast), Julius Caesar and his troops cross a shallow river in northeastern Italy, triggering civil war. “Crossing the Rubicon” will later enter the world’s lexicon as an expression meaning to take an irrevocable step that commits one to a specific course.The Rubicon is both the name of a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna, and the name historically given to a river that was famously crossed by Julius Caesar in 49 BCE. While it has not been proven, historians generally agree that the two rivers are indeed one and the same; this was not always the case.
Source elevation: 820 feet (250 m) Length: 50 miles (80 km) Location: Italy Source: Apennine Mountains Mouth: Adriatic Sea Cities: Rimini · Cesena
wiki/Rubicon(1863) World’s first subway opensThe Metropolitan Railway opens in England as the world’s first subway, with steam engines pulling wooden carriages lit by gas lamps. Later officially called the London Underground, its warren of tunnels will be more popularly referred to as, simply, “The Tube.”The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Address: Higgison House, 381 – 383 City Road, London EC1V 1NW Inception: Jan 10, 1863
wiki/London_Underground(1946) United Nations meets for the first timeRepresentatives from 51 nations meet at Westminster Central Hall in London to convene the first General Assembly of the United Nations after the global devastation of World War II.The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United Nations is in Manhattan, New York City, and experiences extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict.
Founded: 1945 · Lake Success, NY Founders: United States · United Kingdom · Soviet Union · Canada · France · India · Australia · Mexico · Iran · Turkey · Norway · Brazil · Syria · Netherlands · Republic of China Headquarters: New York, NY Nominations: Academy Award for Best Documentary wiki/United_Nations
(1964) First Beatles album released in USSporting the subtitle “England’s No. 1 Vocal Group,” ‘Introducing The Beatles’ is released by Vee-Jay Records ten days before Capital Records debuts the massive chart-topper ‘Meet The Beatles!’.Introducing… The Beatles is the first Beatles album released in the United States. Originally scheduled for a July 1963 release, the LP came out on 10 January 1964, on Vee-Jay Records, ten days before Capitol’s Meet the Beatles!. The latter album, however, entered the U.S. album chart one week before the former. Consequently, when Meet The Beatles! peaked at #1 for eleven consecutive weeks, Introducing…The Beatles stalled at #2 where it remained nine consecutive weeks. It was the subject of much legal wrangling, but ultimately, Vee-Jay were permitted to sell the album until late 1964, by which time it had sold more than 1.3 million copies. On 24 July 2014 the album was certified gold and platinum by the RIAA.
Release year: 1964 Genre: Rock and roll Label: Vee-Jay Records Artist: The Beatles