(1812) War erupts between the US and UK just 30 years after revolutionA British blockade of French trade, America’s desire for Canadian territory, American sailors forced to serve in Britain’s navy, and unresolved issues from the Revolutionary War all culminate in US President James Madison signing a declaration of war against Great Britain.The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and the United Kingdom and their respective allies. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars; however, in the United States and Canada, it is seen as a war in its own right.
Start date: Jun 18, 1812 End date: Feb 18, 1815
wiki/War_of_1812(1815) Napoleonic Era comes to a bloody end at WaterlooA once immensely powerful ruler and seemingly unstoppable military leader, France’s Napoleon Bonaparte fights his final battle at Waterloo, in the Netherlands. The coalition of forces arrayed against Napoleon, including the British and Prussian armies, prove insurmountable.The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-led Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstatt.
Date: Jun 18, 1815
wiki/Battle_of_Waterloo(1960) Final US Open golf round cinches victory for PalmerRising star in golf Arnold Palmer wins the prestigious US Open in a record-breaking final round, besting legendary veteran Ben Hogan and talented newcomer Jack Nicklaus. Palmer will go on to be arguably the greatest golfer of his time, and one of the wealthiest athletes in history.The 1960 U.S. Open was the 60th U.S. Open, held June 16–18 at Cherry Hills Country Club in Englewood, Colorado, a suburb south of Denver. Arnold Palmer staged the greatest comeback in U.S. Open history, erasing a seven-stroke deficit during the final round to win his only U.S. Open title. It is remembered as a crossroads for the three primary contenders in the final round: Palmer, Ben Hogan, and amateur Jack Nicklaus, three of the greatest players in the history of golf.
Start date: Jun 16, 1960 End date: Jun 18, 1960
wiki/1960_U.S._Open_(golf)(1983) First American woman travels to spaceSally Ride boards the Space Shuttle Challenger and becomes the first American woman (and the youngest US astronaut) to travel to space. She will later contribute to investigations into the Challenger and Columbia shuttle disasters before passing away from pancreatic cancer in 2012.Sally Kristen Ride was an American physicist and astronaut. Born in Los Angeles, she joined NASA in 1978 and became the first American woman in space in 1983. Ride was the third woman in space overall, after USSR cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Svetlana Savitskaya. Ride remains the youngest American astronaut to have traveled to space, having done so at the age of 32. After flying twice on the Orbiter Challenger, she left NASA in 1987. She worked for two years at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Arms Control, then at the University of California, San Diego as a professor of physics, primarily researching nonlinear optics and Thomson scattering. She served on the committees that investigated the Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters, the only person to participate in both. Ride died of pancreatic cancer on July 23, 2012.
Lived: May 26, 1951 – Jul 23, 2012 (age 61) Height: 5′ 5″ (1.65 m) Partner: Tam O’Shaughnessy (1985 – 2012) Spouse: Steven Hawley (m. 1982 – 1987) Founded: Sally Ride Science Education: Stanford University · Swarthmore College · Gaspar De Portola Middle School · Harvard-Westlake School
1982: In 1982, she married fellow NASA astronaut Steve Hawley.
1983: On June 18, 1983, she became the first American woman in space as a crew member on space shuttle Challenger for STS-7.
1987: In 1987, Ride left her position in Washington, D.C., to work at the Stanford University Center for International Security and Arms Control.
1989: In 1989, she became a professor of physics at the University of California, San Diego, and director of the California Space Institute.
2012: After Sally Ride’s death in 2012, General Donald Kutyna revealed that she had discreetly provided him with key information about O-rings (namely, that they become stiff at low temperatures) that eventually led to identification of the cause of the explosion.
2012: Ride died of pancreatic cancer on July 23, 2012.
(1815) Most powerful volcano eruption in 10,000 yearsHeard for thousands of miles, the Dutch East Indies’ Mount Tambora erupts with cataclysmic force, devastating everything around it with pyroclastic flows and ash falls. The eruption will significantly change the climate, spawning the “year without a summer” and causing global famine.The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora was one of the most powerful eruptions in recorded history and is the most recent known VEI-7 event. The eruption of the volcano, on the island of Sumbawa in the Dutch East Indies, reached a climax on 10 April 1815 and was followed by between six months and three years of increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions. wiki/1815_eruption_of_Mount_Tambora(1866) ASPCA animal welfare group founded in New YorkCockfighting, slaughterhouses, and widespread animal abuse leads Henry Bergh to establish the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a group dedicated to promoting the humane treatment of animals and enacting anti-cruelty laws.Henry Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in April, 1866, three days after the first effective legislation against animal cruelty in the United States was passed into law by the New York State Legislature. Bergh also prompted the formation, in 1874, of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.
Lived: Aug 29, 1813 – Mar 12, 1888 (age 74) Spouse: Catherine Matilda Taylor Founded: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Buried: Green-Wood Cemetery Parents: Christian Bergh Education: Columbia College
1862: In 1862, Bergh was appointed secretary and acting vice-consul to the American legation in St. Petersburg, Russia by then President Abraham Lincoln.
1866: The legislature passed the laws prepared by him, and on April 10, 1866 the ASPCA was legally organized, with Bergh as president.
1874: Bergh also prompted the formation, in 1874, of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (MSPCC).
1874: In 1874, Bergh was approached by a Methodist missionary named Etta Agnell Wheeler, who sought help rescuing a child named Mary Ellen Wilson from her cruel abuser, Mary Connolly.
1875: In response, Bergh himself, along with Elbridge T. Gerry and John D. Wright, formed the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) in 1875.
1888: He died on March 12, 1888, in New York City.
wiki/Henry_Bergh(1925) Quintessential American tragedy debutsF. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel will sell poorly in the years after its publication, but the Jazz Age tale will fare better after Fitzgerald’s death in 1940, and will go on to become a staple for high school students in the US. Fitzgerald’s story of lost romance, materialism, and the American Dream will resonate with readers for decades beyond its disappointing debut.The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional town of West Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922. The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Considered to be Fitzgerald’s magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval, and excess, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.
Author: F. Scott Fitzgerald First published: Apr 10, 1925 Number of pages: 180 Characters: Jay Gatsby · Daisy Buchanan · Myrtle Wilson · George Wilson · Meyer Wolfsheim · Tom Buchanan · Nick Carraway · Jordan Baker · Mr. Gatz Adaptations: The Great Gatsby (2013) · The Great Gatsby (1974) · The Great Gatsby (2000) · The Great Gatsby (1949) · The Great Gatsby (1926) · G (2002) · The Great Gatsby · Gatz Genre: Novel
wiki/The_Great_Gatsby(1998) Good Friday Agreement brings peace to Northern IrelandThree decades of conflict known as ‘The Troubles,’ and two years of peace talks, are resolved on this Good Friday with the signing of a power-sharing agreement between Northern Ireland’s Protestant and Catholic populations.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Irish: Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Irish: Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
Northern Ireland’s present devolved system of government is based on the agreement. The agreement also created a number of institutions between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The agreement is made up of two inter-related documents, both agreed in Belfast on Good Friday, 10 April 1998:
a multi-party agreement by most of Northern Ireland’s political parties;
an international agreement between the British and Irish governments (the British-Irish Agreement).
The agreement set out a complex series of provisions relating to a number of areas including:
The status and system of government of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. (Strand 1)
The relationship between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. (Strand 2)
The relationship between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. (Strand 3)
Issues relating to sovereignty, civil and cultural rights, decommissioning of weapons, justice and policing were central to the agreement.
The agreement was approved by voters across the island of Ireland in two referendums held on 22 May 1998. In Northern Ireland, voters were asked whether they supported the multi-party agreement. In the Republic of Ireland, voters were asked whether they would allow the state to sign the agreement and allow necessary constitutional changes to facilitate it. The people of both jurisdictions needed to approve the agreement in order to give effect to it.
The British-Irish Agreement came into force on 2 December 1999. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) was the only major political group in Northern Ireland to oppose the Good Friday Agreement.