Lived: 1831 – Dec 15, 1890
Height: 5′ 9″
Spouse: Snow-on-Her · Seen-by-her-Nation · Light Hair · Four Robes
Children: Crow Foot (Son) · Many Horses (Daughter)
Parents: Jumping Bull (Father) · Her-Holy-Door (Mother)
Siblings: Spotted Elk (Brother)Highlights
- 1874: Although Sitting Bull did not attack Custer’s expedition in 1874, the US government was increasingly pressured by citizens to open the Black Hills to mining and settlement.
- 1875: In 1875, the Northern Cheyenne, Hunkpapa, Oglala, Sans Arc, and Minneconjou camped together for a Sun Dance, with both the Cheyenne medicine man White Bull or Ice and Sitting Bull in association.
- 1876: About three weeks later, the confederated Lakota tribes with the Northern Cheyenne defeated the 7th Cavalry under Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer on June 25, 1876, annihilating Custer’s battalion and seeming to bear out Sitting Bull’s prophetic vision.
- 1881: On August 26, 1881, he was visited by census taker William T. Selwyn, who counted twelve people in the Hunkpapa leader’s immediate family.
- 1884: In 1884 show promoter Alvaren Allen asked Agent James McLaughlin to allow Sitting Bull to tour parts of Canada and the northern United States.
- 1885: In 1885, Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to go Wild Westing with Buffalo Bill Cody’s Buffalo Bill’s Wild West.
Sitting Bull, 1885
Also on this day,
1791 | The Bill of Rights is ratified and becomes law
When Virginia ratifies the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution, the Bill of Rights passes the threshold of state ratifications needed to make the amendments law, and the young nation now has codified the freedom of speech, press, and religion, among other bedrock rights of the American system.1961 | Nazi SS officer Adolf Eichmann sentenced to die
As one of the main organizers of WWII’s Nazi Holocaust, which killed 6 million Jews as well as many others, the former SS officer is to be hanged for war crimes. After the war, Eichmann escaped a prison camp and fled to Argentina, a safe harbor for ex-Nazis. But on May 11, 1960, Mossad agents abducted him and smuggled him to Israel for trial.1979 | Trivial Pursuit invented as two Canadian friends devise board game
When photo editor Chris Haney and reporter Scott Abbott sit down for a night of Scrabble, they find some tiles missing and so instead sketch out an idea for a game based on inconsequential facts, trivia. When Trivial Pursuit rolls out commercially, it will become one of the most successful board games ever.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the oftentimes bitter 1787–88 battle over ratification of the U.S. Constitution, and crafted to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in several earlier documents, including the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the English Bill of Rights 1689, along with earlier documents such as Magna Carta (1215). In practice, the amendments had little impact on judgements by the courts for the first 150 years after ratification.
On June 8, 1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments to the constitution in the House of Representatives. Among his recommendations Madison proposed opening up the Constitution and inserting specific rights limiting the power of Congress in Article One, Section 9. Seven of these limitations would become part of the ten ratified Bill of Rights amendments. Ultimately, on September 25, 1789, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment to the Constitution, each consisting of one one-sentence paragraph, and submitted them to the states for ratification. Contrary to Madison's original proposal that the articles be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution, they were proposed as supplemental additions (codicils) to it. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, and became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is technically still pending before the states.
Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were finally submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government. The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments. The process is known as incorporation.
There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
The Bill of Rights, twelve articles of amendment to the to the United States Constitution proposed in 1789, ten of which, Articles three through twelve, became part of the United States Constitution in 1791. Note that the First Amendment is actually "Article the third" on the document, Second Amendment is "Article the fourth", and so on. "Article the second" is now the 27th Amendment. "Article the first" has not been ratified.