(1863) Emancipation Proclamation takes effectPresident Abraham Lincoln’s executive order proclaiming the freedom of all slaves held in rebel states goes into effect, signaling an ideological change in the Union’s reasons for fighting the Civil WarThe Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It purported to change the federal legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from “slave” to “free”, although its immediate effect was less. It had the practical effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the slave became legally free. Eventually it reached and liberated all of the designated slaves. It was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States.
(1892) Ellis Island immigrant gateway opensThe processing center on Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay opens its doors to immigrants. By 1954, ancestors of over 100 million Americans alive today will have begun their journey to US citizenship here.Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the United States as the nation’s busiest immigrant inspection station for over sixty years from 1892 until 1954. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990. Long considered part of New York state, a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey. The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public and the object of restoration efforts spearheaded by Save Ellis Island.
(1959) Castro seizes power in CubaRevolutionary leader Fidel Castro and his rebel army take control of the Caribbean island nation, culminating their uprising against President Fulgencio Batista and causing a shift in the global geopolitical landscape.The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on 1 January 1959, replacing his government with a revolutionary socialist state. The 26th of July Movement later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October 1965.
(1983) The Internet is bornARPANET, an early computer network for universities and research labs, changes to TCP/IP protocols, which allows more flexible and powerful connections, and launches a communications revolution.The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. ARPANET was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense.