A Historical Day

(1858) Bernadette has vision of Virgin Mary

1858 Bernadette Soubirous, age 14, claims the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a grotto near the French town of Lourdes. The peasant girl will face skepticism, but the grotto will become a shrine and Bernadette will be made a saint..

(1937) General Motors recognizes autoworker’s union

1937 Following a six-week strike by the United Auto Workers, violent clashes with police, and Michigan’s governor calling in the National Guard, General Motors is the first American auto company to sign a union contract..

(1979) Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power in Iran

1979 After defeating the last of the Iranian shah’s forces, rebel groups seize power and install their formerly exiled leader, Khomeini, as the head of the new Islamic republic..

(1990) Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prison

1990 South Africa’s most prominent anti-apartheid activist, Nelson Mandela, is released after almost three decades of captivity. He will go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize and become the nation’s president..

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Gravitational Waves Detected

Dr. Albert Einstein writes out an equation for the density of the Milky Way on the blackboard at the Carnegie Institute, Mt. Wilson Observatory headquarters in Pasadena, Calif., on Jan. 14, 1931.  Einstein achieved world renown in 1905, at age 26, when he expounded his Special Theory of Relativity which proposed the existence of atomic energy.  Though his concepts ushered in the atomic age, he was a pacifist who warned against the arms race.  Einstein, who radically changed mankind's vision of the universe, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Scientists have for the first time detected gravitational waves, ripples in space and time hypothesized by Albert Einstein a century ago, in a landmark discovery announced today that opens a new window for studying the cosmos.

The researchers said they detected gravitational waves coming from two distant black holes – extraordinarily dense objects whose existence also was foreseen by Einstein – that orbited one another, spiraled inward and smashed together. They said the waves were the product of a collision between two black holes roughly 30 times the mass of the Sun, located 1.3 billion light years from Earth.

The scientific milestone was achieved using a pair of giant laser detectors in the United States, located in Louisiana and Washington state, capping a decades-long quest to find these waves. The two laser instruments, which work in unison, are known as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). They were able to detect remarkably small vibrations from passing gravitational waves. After detecting the gravitational wave signal, the scientists said they converted it into audio waves and were able to listen to the sounds of the two black holes merging.

Einstein in 1916 proposed the existence of gravitational waves as an outgrowth of his ground-breaking general theory of relativity, which depicted gravity as a distortion of space and time triggered by the presence of matter. But until now scientists had found only indirect evidence of their existence.