(1653) New Amsterdam, now New York City, is incorporated
A settlement surrounding Fort Amsterdam on the southern tip of Manhattan Island receives municipal rights from its Dutch owners. The English consider New Amsterdam to be a problematic trading post. .
(1922) James Joyce’s novel ‘Ulysses’ published
On his 40th birthday, Dublin-born author James Joyce sees his modernist novel ‘Ulysses’ released by Paris publisher Sylvia Beach. It will revolutionize fiction writing, but also lead to an obscenity trial..
(1971) General Idi Amin becomes Uganda’s leader in coup
Having overthrown President Milton Obote in a coup the previous week, General Idi Amin consolidates power, naming himself head of the armed forces and president of Uganda. He will initiate brutal political and ethnic slaughter, resulting in 500,000 deaths according to Amnesty International..
(1990) Ban on anti-apartheid groups lifted, Nelson Mandela promised freedom
South African President F.W. de Klerk outlines sweeping reforms in a parliamentary speech, setting the stage for the dismantling of apartheid. The reforms lift bans on anti-apartheid groups and promise the release of political prisoner Nelson Mandela. .