(1863) Emancipation Proclamation takes effect
President Abraham Lincoln’s executive order proclaiming the freedom of all slaves held in rebel states goes into effect, signaling an ideological change in the Union’s reasons for fighting the Civil War.
(1892) Ellis Island immigrant gateway opens
The processing center on Ellis Island in Upper New York Bay opens its doors to immigrants. By 1954, ancestors of over 100 million Americans alive today will have begun their journey to US citizenship here.
(1959) Castro seizes power in Cuba
Revolutionary leader Fidel Castro and his rebel army take control of the Caribbean island nation, culminating their uprising against President Fulgencio Batista and causing a shift in the global geopolitical landscape.
(1983) The Internet is born
ARPANET, an early computer network for universities and research labs, changes to TCP/IP protocols, which allows more flexible and powerful connections, and launches a communications revolution.